Session 3 -_san_ecalcs___ls_ls

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  • The energy requirements for carbohydrates increase in dogs during pregnancy. Because cats are strict carnivores, they don’t have a dietary requirement for carbohydrates and cannot metabolize large amounts of simple carbohydrates. It bulks up food – more bulk/fiber It reduces cost – in the manufacturing process, CHO less expensive than fat or protein.
  • Normalize bowel transit time is IMPORTANT because fiber pulls water into the bowel and softens it for passage. If an animal has diarrhea, the fiber absorbs the excess water. Probiotics help to establish the best balance of microorganisms in the GI tract. They live in the colon and break down long chain insoluble carbohydrates into healthy short-chain fatty acids. They nourish colonic cells.
  • Cats lose taurine in their feces due to normal GI bacterial action, and coupled with the fact that they can’t synthesize it, makes it an important essential amino acid. Tell story of litter of kittens and vegetarian owner at ASPCA. Importance of Taurine.
  • AAFCO doesn’t publish ranges in its profiles – only minimums of nutrients and in the case of certain minerals like calcium and phosphorus – maximums.
  • Alpha linolenic , Linoleic acid and Arachaonic acid are all ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS. DOGS: Linoleic is essential in the dog, and from that dogs can make alpha linolenic. Dogs can also synthesize arachidonic acid CATS: Arachidonic is essential in the cat only – they cannot synthesize it. Omega-6 fatty acids are required for growth and reproduction, and are precursors to certain hormones – like prostaglandin CELL MEMBRANE: remember from your anatomy class that the cell membrane is made up of a phospholipid bi-layer
  • Ben was a patient at the Animal Referral Center in Ft. Pierce, Florida.
  • This is a radiograph taken of Ben’s pelvis prior to surgery. You can see cardinal signs of hip dysplasia here. The left femur head doesn’t fit into the acetabulum, and has worn away some.
  • This is a post-surgery radiograph – Ben had his left femur head removed – a femoral head ostectomy. The point of all this is to illustrate the connection between obesity and skeletal problems.
  • This research was done by Purina. The Purina Life Span Study www.Purinavets.com Password: nutrition
  • Session 3 -_san_ecalcs___ls_ls

    1. 1. Small Animal Nutrition Nutrition of Dogs and Cats
    2. 2. The Iterative Process Two step clinical nutrition process Step 1: Assess the patient, food and feeding method Step 2: Develop feeding plan including food choice and feeding method Animal Food Feeding Method ASSESSMENT Food Feeding Method FEEDING PLAN
    3. 3. Iterative Process Factors in Patient Assessment Signalment: species, breed, age, gender, neuter status, activity level, environment Medical History: medical conditions, vaccines, surgeries, medications Diagnostics: blood chemistry, radiographs Physical Exam: abnormalities, BCS
    4. 4. Body Condition Scoring Subjective method of assessing an animal’s fat stores Fat cover is evaluated over the ribs, down the topline, around the tail base and along the abdomen 1 2 4 5 EMACIATED THIN 3 IDEAL OVERWEIGHT OBESE PALPATION IS KEY!
    5. 5. © Hill’s Pet Nutrition, Inc. Body Condition Scoring
    6. 6. © Hill’s Pet Nutrition, Inc. Body Condition Scoring
    7. 7. Iterative Process: Dietary History What Do You Need to Know About the Animal’s Dietary History?  Brand of Food  Form of Food  Feeding Method & Frequency  Treats?  Table food?…
    8. 8. Review of Nutrients • Water • Carbohydrates • Protein • Fat • Minerals • Vitamins • Antioxidants* Energy Producing Nutrients
    9. 9. Review of Basic Nutrients: Water As fed Nutrients are calculated as a percentage of the product including water Dry matter basis Nutrients are calculated as a percentage of the product without the water Vs. Nutrients in food…
    10. 10. Which Has More Protein? Moist Product • 75% moisture • 10% protein • 8% fat • 9% CHO Dry Product • 10% moisture • 18% protein • 12% fat • 32% CHO
    11. 11. Review of Basic Nutrients: Water For Moist Products the percentage of nutrients on a Dry Matter Basis (DMB) equals approximately 4x the percent on an as fed basis Moist Product – as fed • 75% moisture • 10% protein • 8% fat • 9% CHO This product contains ~40% protein DMB
    12. 12. Review of Basic Nutrients: Water Dry Product – as fed • 10% moisture • 18% protein • 12% fat • 32% CHO For Dry Products the percentage of nutrients on a Dry Matter Basis equals approximately 10% more than the percent on an as fed basis This product contains ~20% protein DMB
    13. 13. • Energy source  Conditionally essential 23% for gestation and lactation in dogs  Cats are different • Provides form to dry and canned food • Increases food volume • Reduces cost Review of Basic Nutrients: Carbohydrates
    14. 14. Benefits of Insoluble Carbohydrates  “Normalize” bowel transit time  Increase satiety  Provide probiotics for intestinal health Review of Basic Nutrients - Carbohydrates Soluble Insoluble “Fiber” Sugars Starches …etc. Beet pulp Cellulose Soybean hulls …etc.
    15. 15. Review of Basic Nutrients - Proteins • Tissue Building • Growth • Hormones • Enzymes • Blood Cells • Antibodies • Energy source Comprised of Amino Acids
    16. 16. Amino Acids of Special Concern Arginine (Essential) Immune system stimulant; key in management of dogs with cancer Taurine (Essential in cats) Critical for retinal and cardiac muscle development in cats; Conditionally essential in Newfoundlands Carnitine (Conditionally essential) Improves fat metabolism, builds lean body tissue, make mitochondria more efficient
    17. 17. AAFCO Association of AmericanAssociation of American Feed Control OfficialsFeed Control Officials Nutrient Profiles forNutrient Profiles for dogs and catsdogs and cats  minimum nutrient valuesminimum nutrient values required at different liferequired at different life stagesstages  some maximumsome maximum valuesvalues
    18. 18. Review of Basic Nutrients - Proteins AAFCO PROTEIN minimums - DMB Adult Dog – 18% Puppy – 22% Adult Cat – 26% Kitten – 30%
    19. 19. Review of Basic Nutrients - Fat AAFCO FAT minimums - DMB Adult Dog – 5% Puppy – 8% Adult Cat – 9% Kitten – 9%
    20. 20. Review of Basic Nutrients – Minerals Minerals of Special Concern in Dogs & Cats MineralMineral Diseases ExacerbatedDiseases Exacerbated Sodium Heart failure Hypertension Kidney disease Calcium Skeletal disease (pups) Bladder stones Phosphorus Kidney failure Skeletal disease Bladder stones Magnesium Struvite bladder stones
    21. 21. What Determines How Much an Animal Eats? Energy Needs + • Palatability • Competition • Reward • Attention • …
    22. 22. Energy Needs • Growth • Reproduction/ lactation • Activity level • Breed • Temperament • Environmental conditions
    23. 23. Calculating Energy Requirements RER – Resting Energy Requirement  Measure of the amount of energy needed based on animal’s metabolic body size Formula: Expressed in kilocalories RER = 30 x BW(kg) +70 STEP 1
    24. 24. DER = Daily Energy Requirement  An animal’s RER multiplied by a factor that accounts for the animal’s life stage or life style DER Factor = Numeric value that accounts for life stage, neuter status, life style, body condition, gestation or lactation Calculating Energy Requirements STEP 2 DER = RER x DER factor
    25. 25. Calculating Energy Needs What You Need to Know About the Animal Before You Calculate:  Age  Neuter Status  Current Weight  Target Weight (if not at ideal weight)
    26. 26. How Much Will We Feed Gracie Whitesox? “Gracie Whitesox” 3yrs; Female(N) Maine Coon; Wt. 11lbs; BCS 3/5
    27. 27. 1. Calculate RER: 30 x (BW in kg) +70 Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs
    28. 28. 1. Calculate RER: 30 x (BW in kg) +70 30 x (11 ÷ 2.2) + 70 Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs
    29. 29. 1. Calculate RER: 30 x (BW in kg) +70 30 x (11 ÷ 2.2) + 70 30 x (5)+70 = 220 kcals Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs
    30. 30. 1. Calculate RER: 30 x (BW in kg) +70 30 x (11 ÷ 2.2) + 70 30 x 5+70 = 220 kcal 2. Calculate DER: Average, neutered feline adult = (Use DER factors provided in notes) Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs
    31. 31. 1. Calculate RER: 30 x (BW in kg) +70 30 x (11 ÷ 2.2) + 70 30 x 5+70 = 220 kcal 2. Calculate DER: (Use DER factors provided in notes) Average, neutered feline adult = 1.2 x RER Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs
    32. 32. 1. Calculate RER: 30 x (BW in kg) +70 30 x (11 ÷ 2.2) + 70 30 x 5+70 = 220 kcal 2. Calculate DER: (Use DER factors provided in notes) Average, neutered feline adult = 1.2 x RER 1.2 x 220 = 264 kcals per day Gracie should have 264 kcals per day Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs
    33. 33. 3. Find the food’s metabolizable energy: ex: Purina® Cat Chow® Indoor Formula = 379 kcal per cup 4. Divide Gracie’s DER by the #kcal per cup/can of food DER = 264 ÷ 379 = ~3/4 cup per dayGracie should eat ~3/4 cup of cat food per day Gracie’s DER is 264 kcal per day How much food should she eat per day? Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs
    34. 34. How Much Should Breeze Eat? 11-years old M(N) Shetland Sheepdog, 21# BCS 3/5
    35. 35. What information about Breeze do you need? • Current weight ( 35 pounds) • Overweight? Underweight ( BCS 3/5) • Diet ( Beneful 365 calories per cup) • Treats? ( no) • Activity level ( so you can choose DER) normal active adult • Special considerations such as diabetes, kidney disease, sensitive stomach ( none) • neutered
    36. 36. 1. Calculate RER: 30 x (BW in kg) +70 2. Convert 35 pounds to kilograms so you can put it in the formula 3. 35 pounds X 1 kilogram/2.2 pounds 4. 35 divided by 2.2 equals 15.9kilograms Calculating Breeze’s Energy Needs
    37. 37. 1. Calculate RER: 30 x (BW in kg) +70 30 x (35 /2.2) + 70 Calculating Breeze’s Energy Needs
    38. 38. 1. Calculate RER: 30 x (BW in kg) +70 30 x (11 ÷ 2.2) + 70 30 x (15.9)+70 = 547 kcals Calculating Breeze’s Energy Needs
    39. 39. 1. Calculate RER: 30 x (BW in kg) +70 30 x (11 ÷ 2.2) + 70 30 x (15.9)+70 = 547 kcal 2. Calculate DER: Average, neutered canine adult = 1.6 DER (Use DER factors provided in notes) Calculating Breeze’s Energy Needs
    40. 40. 1. Calculate RER: 30 x (BW in kg) +70 30 x (11 ÷ 2.2) + 70 30 x 5+70 = 547 kcal 2. Calculate DER: (Use DER factors provided in notes) Average, neutered canine adult = 1.6 x RER Calculating Breeze’s Energy Needs
    41. 41. 1. Calculate RER: 30 x (BW in kg) +70 30 x (11 ÷ 2.2) + 70 30 x (15.9)+70 = 547 kcal 2. Calculate DER: (Use DER factors provided in notes) Average, neutered canine adult = 1.6 x RER 1.6 x 547 = 875 kcals per day Breeze should have 875 kcals per day Calculating Breeze’s Energy Needs
    42. 42. 3. Find the food’s metabolizable energy: ex: Beneful adult= 365 kcal per cup 4. Divide Breeze’s DER by the #kcal per cup/can of food DER = 875 ÷ 365 = ~2.4 cup per dayBreezee should eat ~2.4 cups of food per day Breezes’s DER is 875 kcal per day How much food should he eat per day? Calculating Breeze’s Energy Needs
    43. 43. Life Stage & Lifestyle Nutrition Source: Geneva Acor
    44. 44. Life Stage Feeding The practice of feeding animals foods designed to meet their optimal nutritional needs at a specific age or physiologic state Feeding an animal above or below their optimal nutritional level can negatively affect their health. “Cowboy” 5 mos.
    45. 45. Different Life Stages = Different Nutritional Requirements • Growth, Reproduction & Lactation Small & Medium Breeds vs. Large Breeds • Adult • Senior
    46. 46. Small Animal Clinical Nutrition Nutrient Profiles Published For  Dogs and Cats  Recommended Nutrient Ranges (OPTIMAL LEVELS)  All Life Stages On reserve in Library
    47. 47. Life Stage: Adult
    48. 48. Recommended 3500 Kcal/kg AAFCO Minimum Calories/Energy Fat Calcium PhosphorusProtein 2.5% 1.6% 0.5%0.6%5%18% .4%-.9% .5%-1.0% 10-20%15-30% 3500 - 4500 Kcal/kg Life Stage: Adult – Canine Image Source: Dr. Geneva Acor, Hill’s Pet Nutrition, Inc.
    49. 49. What Defines a Large Breed Dog? ANY DOG WHOSE IDEAL ADULT WEIGHT IS 55# OR MORE
    50. 50. Life Stage: Large Breed Adult Carnitine  Increases & improves fat metabolism  Supports healthy heart Glucosamine & Chondroitin  Helps maintain healthy joints
    51. 51. Life Stage: Adult - Feline Recommended 4000 Kcal/kg AAFCO Minimum Calories/Energy Fat Calcium PhosphorusProtein 0.5%0.04%9%26% 0.5%-0.8% 0.04-0.1% 10-30%30-45% 4000 - 5000 Kcal/kg Source: Hill’s Pet Nutrition, Inc.
    52. 52. Taurine  Essential Amino Acid; Helps maintain normal heart function, retinal structure, and reproduction and development Magnesium  Avoid excesses Life Stage: Adult - Feline
    53. 53. How Much Food Does Bevo Need? “Bevo” 2yrs old; •M(N) 40# BCS 3/5 •Average activity level •Eats Purina ONE™ Beef & Rice Formula 441 kcals/cup RER RER = 30 x (BWkg) +70 DER Factor Pg. 15 DER # cups to be fed/day 616 kcals 1.6 1.6 x 616 kcals = 986 kcals 986 kcals per day 441 kcals/cup = 2¼ cups
    54. 54. Choose a dog or cat that you own or a friend owns • Use the previous slide to fill in the information on the pet and calculate the amount of food the pet should be eating. • If you are having trouble with these calculations, please email me for help.
    55. 55. Life Stage: Growth Carly, 5 months Amanda Adels “Maisey” 8 months Stephanie Caviglia
    56. 56. Life Stage: Puppies & Kittens As Compared with Adult Nutritional Needs PROTEIN PHOSPHORUS CALCIUM FAT Carbohydrates
    57. 57. Life Stage: Large Breed Puppy
    58. 58. Life Stage: Large Breed Puppy As Compared with Small/Medium Breed Puppies PROTEIN PHOSPHORUS CALCIUM FAT CHO
    59. 59. Ben, 8-year old, mixed breed
    60. 60. Pre-surgical radiographPre-surgical radiograph Ben, 8-year old, mixed breed
    61. 61. Post-surgical radiographPost-surgical radiograph Ben, 8-year old, mixed breed
    62. 62. What Purina Learned… The Purina Life Span Study  14 year study (1987 – 2001)  Purpose: “Evaluate the effects of food intake on body condition…and life span.” www.purinavets.com User name: purinavets Password: nutrition Search: Life Span Study JAVMA, Vol. 220, No. 9, May 1, 2002
    63. 63. Life Span Study Parameters • 48 Labrador Retrievers • Paired by sex and weight and assigned at random to control or limit-fed group • Followed for 14 years • Evaluated radiographs for osteoarthritis Obesity & Skeletal Disease
    64. 64. Control Group Limit-fed Group Hip joint lesions 15/22 3/21 Shoulder joint lesions 19/22 12/21 Clinical Findings JAVMA, Vol. 220, No. 9, May 1, 2002
    65. 65. Clinical Findings Feeding dogs to a leaner body condition increases their life span and reduces incidences of osteopathies Excess Fat/ Energy Density
    66. 66.  11 Great Dane pups (5 - 10 weeks old)  Fed free choice for 1 hour twice daily  5 fed food with 1.1% Calcium  6 fed food with 3.3% Calcium Beware Excessive Calcium in Large Breed Dog Diets JAAHA, 21:377 1985JAAHA, 21:377 1985 Excess Calcium
    67. 67. 1.18% Ca 3.3% Ca Excessive Calcium Hazewinkle, Thesis, Utrecht 1985
    68. 68. Life Stage: Reproduction/Lactation Baby & PupsBaby & Pups
    69. 69. Life Stage: Canine Reproduction/Lactation Canine Gestation  First 42 days: Feed as average adult  Last 21 days: Feed 3 x RER Canine Lactation  Varies with number of puppies  Range is from 3 x RER to ≥ 6 x RER  Feed ad libitum  Energy needs peak at 4th
    70. 70. Life Stage: Feline Reproduction/ Lactation Thepetcenter.com Wikipedia.com
    71. 71. Life Stage: Feline Reproduction/Lactation Feline Gestation  Consumption increases linearly during gestation  Increase to 1.6 x RER at breeding Feline Lactation  Greatest nutritional need peaks at 6th week  2 to 6 x RER, ad libitum
    72. 72. FEEDING ANNIE •“Annie” F(I); 4 yrs old Dalmatian •62# BCS 3/5 •Whelped 7 pups 2 wks ago RER RER = 30 x BWkg +70 DER Factor DER # cups to be fed/day 910 kcals 5.5 5.5 x 910 kcals = 5005 kcals 5005 kcals per day 372 kcals/cup = 13½ c. Which Type of Food Will You Feed Annie While She’s Pregnant And Lactating? REGULAR PUPPY FOODSD Puppy Lamb Meal and Rice Formula
    73. 73. Life Stage: Senior “Ginger” 14 yrs, F(N) Scottish Terrier Stephanie’s Cat 18 yrs, M(N) DSH Crystal Branch Stephanie Caviglia
    74. 74. Life Stage: Senior Dogs & Cats As Compared with Adult Life Stage PROTEIN PHOSPHORUS SODIUM FAT CHO
    75. 75. Life Stage: Senior “Minky” 15 years Glucosamine & Chondroitin • Helps maintain healthy joints Controlled Sodium • Helps protect heart health Controlled Phosphorus • Helps protect kidneys in old age
    76. 76. Life Style Feeding Feeding animals foods formulated to support optimal health and meet their nutritional needs based on their life style and activity level. Life Style Terminology  Active  Obesity Prone
    77. 77. Life Style: Active Adult High Energy Density What is the most importantWhat is the most important nutritional factor for annutritional factor for an active lifestyle?active lifestyle?
    78. 78. Life Style: Active Canine As Compared with Adult Life Stage PROTEIN PHOSPHORUS CALCIUM FAT CHO © Flickr
    79. 79. Life Style: Obesity & Obese Prone “Light” or “Lite” or “Low Calorie” AAFCO Guidelines Less than 3100 kcal/kg dry dog food Less than 3250 kcal/kg dry cat food
    80. 80. Life Style: Obesity & Obese Prone As Compared with Adult Life Stage PROTEIN PHOSPHORUS CALCIUM FAT FIBER Source: Funny-cats.com
    81. 81. No visible waistline Fat pools around tailbase “Missy” English Pointer F(N); 92# BCS 5/5 Karen Pogmore
    82. 82. Missy • What body condition score do you give her? • What DER are you going to use?
    83. 83. “Rocky” 7years, M(N) DSH 20# BCS 5/5 (enjoys yoga ) Nicole Polizzi
    84. 84. Rocky • What body condition score are you going to use? • What DER should you use? • REMEMBER cats that stop eating can develop Hepatic Lipidosis ( look it up for discussion) • Be very cautious about changing Rocky’s food to a diet food
    85. 85. Managing Obese & Obese Prone Animals  FOOD  FEEDING METHOD  EXERCISE  OWNER
    86. 86. Beware of Marketing Claims Managing Obese & Obese Prone Animals  FOOD  EXERCISE  FEEDING METHOD  OWNER
    87. 87. Amadeus, 26lbs  FOOD  FEEDING METHOD  EXERCISE  OWNER
    88. 88. Feeding Methods Ad libitum Time limited Portion limited  FOOD  FEEDING METHOD  EXERCISE  OWNER
    89. 89. Exercise is Important Too! What Are Some Ways To Get Your Cat to Exercise?  FOOD  FEEDING METHOD  EXERCISE  OWNER
    90. 90. Rocky’s Energy Needs “Rocky” 7yrs; M(N), DSH 20lbs, BCS 5/5 RULE FOR OVERWEIGHT ANIMALS Calculate RER based on TARGET WEIGHT, NOT Current Weight WHERE WOULD YOU FIND ROCKY’S TARGET WEIGHT?
    91. 91. Rocky’s Energy Needs RER RER = 30 x BW(kg) +70 DER Factor DER # cups to be fed/day 315 kcals 0.8 0.8 x 315 kcals = 252 kcals 252 kcals per day 283 kcals/cup = ~4 /5 cup INTERIM Target Weight: 18 lbs Science Diet® Feline Hairball Control Light Adult – Dry 283 kcals/cup “Rocky” 7yrs; M(N), DSH 20lbs, BCS 5/5

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