Small ruminant nutrition jvma


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  • Colostrum turns on the mechanism for growth and digestion.
  • Small ruminant nutrition jvma

    1. 1. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Introduction to Small Ruminant Nutrition JVMA Small Ruminant Medicine Workshop
    2. 2. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Nutrient Requirements • Will vary according to: – Stage of Production – Environmental Adjustments – Animal size and breed – Body Condition Scoring • Nutrients of Importance includes: – Energy – Protein – Minerals – Vitamins – Fibre
    3. 3. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Nutritional Stages • Lamb and kid • Yearlings • Adult male • Adult female Rumen function is important regardless of the stage of production
    4. 4. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD The Importance of Rumen Function • Rumen is heavily muscled to promote grinding, churning and sorting of feed items • Methane and CO2 makes up the majority of gases produced • Papillae line the rumen and are responsible for the absorption of these gases which are critical to the maintenance of the animal • Movement from high fibre to high concentrate should be done gradually to allow the papillae to adapt – High carbohydrates = high butyric and propionic acid = increased papillae growth
    5. 5. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD The Importance of Rumen Function • Microbial population in the rumen consists of bacteria, protozoa, and fungi • Bacteria are grouped according to shape and size or substrate – products such as cellulose, hemicellulose, starch, sugars, intermediate acids, protein, and lipids – These bacteria produce methane
    6. 6. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD The Importance of Rumen Function • The methane-producing bacteria remove H gas by reducing CO2 with H gas to form methane. – Keeps the H concentration in the rumen low – allows methanogenic bacteria to promote the growth of other bacterial species and provides for a more efficient fermenta-tion. • Removal of H encourages hydrogen-producing species to produce more H and thus alter their metabolism towards higher yielding pathways. – Results in the synthesis of more microbial cells, which increases available protein to the ruminant.
    7. 7. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD The Importance of Rumen Function • Higher numbers of protozoa are generally found in the rumen when high digestibility diets are fed. – Some protozoa numbers are higher when diets contain large amounts of soluble sugars and other types predominate with high starch diets. • The protozoa actively ingest bacteria as a source of protein. – Limiting the amount available to the animal in the small intestine.
    8. 8. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Rumination and Saliva Production • Rumination is a by-product of evolution • animals can ingest large quantities of food in a short time and then chew their “cud” at leisure later • Rumination decreases particle size and increases surface area • It enhances degradation by microbes
    9. 9. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Rumination and Saliva Production • Direct correlation between rumination time and saliva production • Saliva acts as a natural buffer because it contains sodium, bicarbonate, phosphates • Controls pH in rumen, despite the acids produced by fermentation
    10. 10. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Rumination and Saliva Production • Diet control = saliva control • Decreasing chewing time, decreases saliva production • Drastic decrease in saliva results in acidosis, altering the rumen environment and negatively impacting animal production • Long hay and forages high in fibre increases rumination time • High concentrates, finely chopped forages and silage decreases rumination time
    11. 11. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD NEONATAL NUTRITION
    12. 12. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD A Tale of Two Animals
    13. 13. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Road to Success: Colostrum • Colostrum Management should follow the 3Qs and 1C – Quickly – Quantity – Quality – Cleanliness (adapted from R.W. Johnson and J. Drackley)
    14. 14. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Feeding Schedule Lamb and Kids • 10-20% of body weight in colostrum within 12 hours of birth • Critical not just for immunity but for optimal growth Growth & feed intake Disease
    15. 15. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Colostrum and Survival Antibodies from colostrum protect animals until active immunity Calf survival rates by IgG Levels
    16. 16. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Antibody absorption 2 hours of age and 24hours of age
    17. 17. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Impact of Contaminated Treats
    18. 18. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Colostrum and Growth: Failure of Passive Transfer (FPT) • Calves with FPT (< 10mg IgG/mL serum): – Increased time to first calving (Can Vet. J, 1986 50:314) – Decreased ADG to 180 days (J. Dairy Sci. 1998, 71:1283) – Decreased milk and fat yield in first lactation • Each unit of serum IgG > 12mg/mL = + 8.2 kg increase in ME milk (J. Dairy Sci. 1989, 72:552)
    19. 19. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Colostrum sources (lambs and kids) Dam Best source Another female in flock Best substitute Thaw properly, if frozen. A female in another flock (similar disease status)* Next best substitute. Thaw properly, if frozen. Ewe or doe animal Lower in nutrition Milk from Jamaica Hope breeds higher in fat compared to Holstein Colostrum supplement Nutritious, but no antibodies Use to supplement colostrum Colostrum substitute Contains antibodies Homemade colostrum Lack of antibodies Lamb or kid milk replacer Not an adequate substitute for colostrum. Feed after 24 hours. * Dam with single kid or lamb usually has extra colostrum
    20. 20. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Colostrum Replacement for Kids Homemade • 740 ml animals milk (goat milk preferable) • 1 beaten egg • 1 teaspoon cod liver oil (as a laxative) • 1 teaspoon glucose sugar Or • 600 ml milk • 1 tsp castor oil • 1 small egg Commercial
    21. 21. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Milk and Milk Replacer
    22. 22. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Feeding Schedule Lamb and Kids • 10-20 % of body weight in milk daily (a 10kg lamb or kid should receive 1.5 to 1.9 litres of milk divided into 4-6 feedings daily) • Milk replacers: 20% protein, 20% fat, whey proteins
    23. 23. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Milk Replacer Protein Sources Preferred Acceptable as partial substitute Marginal Dried whey protein concentrate Soy protein isolate Soy flour Dried skim milk Protein modified soy flour Modified potato protein Casein Soy protein concentrate Dried whey Animal plasma Dried whey product Egg protein Modified wheat protein
    24. 24. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Milk or Plant Based Protein
    25. 25. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD
    26. 26. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Creep Feeding Lamb and Kids • Must be palatable if going to be successful • Start by 3-4 weeks of age • Must consume 0.25 kg daily until weaning if increased performance is to be attained • Should provide an additional 0.5 kg of weight gain for each 1.8-3.2 kg of feed consumed
    27. 27. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Omasum Abomasum Rumen Reticul.
    28. 28. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Effect of Creep Feeding on Weight Gains of Kids Adapted from Stanton, 2012
    29. 29. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Digestion and Absorption in Ruminants
    30. 30. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD
    31. 31. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Milk Milk & Grain Milk & Hay 6 Week Calves
    32. 32. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Milk Milk & Grain Milk & Hay 8 Week Calves
    33. 33. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Weaners • Early weaning at 3-4 weeks of age • Preferably delay until 8-12 weeks of age • Stressful! • Accustom animals to drinking out of a water trough and eating out of a feeder prior to weaning • Offer free-choice good-quality hay/fodder for the first 2 days of weaning • Concentrate feed offered at 1% of body weight per day
    34. 34. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Finishing • Can finish on high-quality forage • Feedlot or semi-intensive situations • Stepwise feeding program where lambs and kids get more grain/concentrate as they get larger • High grain diet during this period may predispose to urinary stones, enterotoxemia and bloat
    35. 35. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Finishing • Slowly introduce animals to this diet over 2-4 weeks and vaccinate against problematic diseases • High risk of production diseases
    36. 36. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Yearlings • Most females gain 0.25-0.5 lb daily from weaning until breeding. • Keep the body condition score between 2.5 and 3.5. • Most males gain 0.75 lb daily during this period. • Monitor males for production-related diseases!
    37. 37. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Adult Male • Maintain prebreeding BCS of 3-4 as they will lose weight during the breeding season • Feed a concentrated energy-protein supplement 4-6 weeks before breeding season • 1-2 lb of concentrate daily is reasonable • Outside of breeding season, maintain on a maintenance feed
    38. 38. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Adult Female • Maintenance • Pasture or range settings suffice • Breeding • Flushing: increased nutrition (energy) before and during early breeding increases the ovulation rate • Do not overcondition! • Provide lush pastures or supplement with 0.33-1 lb of 10-20% crude protein grain/head/day • Start 2 weeks before male is introduced and continue for 2-3 weeks after • BCS of 2.5-3 are optimal
    39. 39. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Adult Female • Early-middle gestation • Requirements not greatly increased over maintenance • Maintain BCS of 2.5-3 and monitor every 2-3 weeks
    40. 40. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Adult Female • Late gestation • 70% of fetal growth occurs during the last 6 weeks of gestation • Substantial increase in energy needs • Feed between 1/3-1 lb grain daily per head depending on size of animal • Maintain BCS of 2.5-3 • Promote adequate energy intake – Ewes: 2.2 lbs daily during final 4 weeks – Does: 1-2 lbs daily during final 4-6 weeks
    41. 41. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Adult Female • Lactation • Peak milk production 2-3 weeks after birth • Rapid decline 8-10 weeks after birth • Requires adequate levels of proteins prior to lactation • Addition of fat to increase the energy density of the diet (do not exceed 4-5% of the diet)
    42. 42. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Nutritional Phases in the Production Cycle-Goats Summary • Move clockwise starting at top of innermost circle. • Continue through the next cycle or move to next shell after 360°. • Note that there are two possible routes after the kid is weaned. (Tisch, 2006)
    43. 43. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD 43 Metabolic Disorders Arising From Unbalanced Diets Cause Symptoms Treatment Milk fever Sudden decrease in blood calcium levels. Decreased intake and milk yield. Kidding paralyses, death Feeding management prior to kidding to stimulate animal’s ability to mobilise body calcium Grass tetany Low blood magnesium levels Decreased intake and milk yield. Muscular staggers, death Feed magnesium supplements Ketosis or acetonaemia Animal rely on fat reserves for energy during early lactation Decreased intake and milk yield, Characteristic smell of breath Feed well balanced diet during early lactation Lactic acidosis (grain poisoning) & laminitis Rumen pH becomes very low due to high starch intake Decreased intake and milk yield. Include rumen buffers in diet and sufficient roughage Bloat Build up of foam in rumen which stops gas from escaping Left side of cow is swollen. Animal stands up and lies down frequently Put hose down oesophagus, administer oil, stab left flank to release gas Urea toxicity Ammonia poisoning Rumen stops moving, death Feed toxicities Anti-nutritional factors in diet. Sickness and death Identify cause and remove from diet Forages
    44. 44. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Hypocalcemia • Primarily a problem in dairy goats • Ewes susceptible in late gestation and early lactation • Greatest calcium demand for non-dairy animals is 3- 4 weeks prior to birth • High producing dairy goats have problems after birth • Signs • Stiff gait, tremors, tetany, constipation, decreased rumen contractions, etc. • Diagnosis • History and signalment • Serum Ca < 4-5 mg/dl
    45. 45. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Hypocalcemia • Treatment • 50-100 ml of a 23% calcium borogluconate solution IV • 50-100 ml of calcium chloride SQ • Monitor heart rate: stop if slows or the rhythm changes! • Prevention • Diet low in calcium • Low cation-anion ratio
    46. 46. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Hypomagnesemia • Grass tetany • Problem in animals grazing lush pastures during early spring • Reduced absorption of magnesium due to high nitrogen and potassium levels in the forage • Clinical signs • Ewes 2-4 weeks after lambing • More common in ewes with twins • Excitability, convulsions, muscle spasms, increased respiratory rate, dead in pasture
    47. 47. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Hypomagnesemia • Diagnosis • Serum magnesium < 1.5 mg/dl or post-mortem magnesium levels in CSF, urine or anterior eye chamber fluid • Treatment • 20-25% calcium borogluconate and 50 ml of 4-5% magnesium • Prevention • Offer high-magnesium mineral supplements before growth of lush forage and before lambing
    48. 48. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Copper Toxicosis • More common in sheep • Results from chronic accumulation in the liver due to getting excess dietary Cu in relation to molybdenum or sulfate • Sources of excess Cu • Trace mineral mixtures and feeds for cattle and horses • Clinical signs absent during accumulation phase • Acute disease • Off feed, lethargy, depression, diarrhea, weakness, hemolysis, jaundice, port-wine colored urine
    49. 49. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Copper Toxicosis • Diagnosis • Blood Cu levels 10-20 x normal (50-200 µg/dl) • Kidney Cu levels postmortem (> 100 ppm) • Liver Cu levels postmortem (> 350 ppm) • Treatment • Usually unsuccessful • Prevention • Avoid high dietary Cu, high Cu-Mo ratio, Cu-containing foot baths, etc.
    50. 50. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Concentrate Overload • Rumen acidosis • Forage-fed animals suddenly introduced to a high concentrate diet • Fermentation of carbohydrates  decrease in rumen pH  lactic acidosis  death of rumenal protozoa  fluid from circulatory system drawn into the rumen  dehydration and shock • Chronic changes • Liver abscesses • Laminitis • Fungal rumenitis
    51. 51. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Concentrate Overload
    52. 52. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Concentrate Overload • Clinical signs • Anorexia, depression, weakness • Severe dehydration, toxemia • Colic, distended abdomen, diarrhea • Diagnosis • Rumen pH < 5.5 • Few protozoa • Large gram-positive rods
    53. 53. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Concentrate Overload • Treatment • Correct shock, dehydration, acid-base abnormalities • IV fluids with 5% sodium bicarbonate • Anti-inflammatories • Rumen transfaunation • Thiamine supplementation • Systemic antibiotics » Penicillin • Prevention • Introduce concentrate feeds slowly over 2-3 weeks • Rumen buffers • Minimum crude fibre content of 20%
    54. 54. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Protein Overload • Urea-ammonia toxicity • Dull, depressed, muscle tremors, frequent urination and defecation, excess salivation, increased respiration, ataxia, tetanic spasms and death • Treat with vinegar and water via stomach tube • Do not feed excessive levels of protein or non- protein nitrogen
    55. 55. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Bloat • Frothy bloat • Diets promoting formation of stable froth • Ingestion of legume forages or hay, lush cereal grain pastures • Free gas bloat • Diets promoting excessive gas formation – Grain diets in animals unadapted to diet • Failure to eructate – Esophageal obstruction – Various other conditions • EMERGENCY!
    56. 56. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Bloat • Pass stomach tube of free gas bloat • Frothy bloat: administer hand soap or vegetable oil • Prevention • Limit access to above dietary changes • Add ionophores (monensin) to diet
    57. 57. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Urinary Calculi Prevention • No supplemental P • Add Ca to 2.0-2.5 Ca:P ratio • No milking ration • Plenty of clean/warm water • Salt • Ammonium chloride .5%
    58. 58. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Nutritional Recommendations • Free choice fresh, good quality water • Each ewe/doe with at least 1 foot of water trough space • Energy • Structural carbohydrates: bulk of diet • Fat: 4-5% maximum • Protein • Minimum of 7% dietary crude protein needed for normal rumen bacterial growth and function • Minerals • Calcium-phosphorus ratio between 1:1 and 2:1 • NaCl at 0.5% of diet
    59. 59. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Nutritional Recommendations • Make feed changes slowly! • Avoid excessive carbohydrates and protein in diet • Ensure appropriate stocking density for forages • Use BCS as a guideline
    60. 60. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Meat Goat Production Handbook, Langston University, 2007
    61. 61. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD USE OF FORAGES AND OTHER SUPPLEMENTS
    62. 62. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Forages are Crops and should be treated as such • Three types of forages: – Grasses (average CP 10.6%) – Legumes (19.4% CP) – Non – leguminous shrubs and trees (> 12%CP) • Managing leaf:stem ratio is important Feed value of fodder decreases with growth stage at harvest Tisch, 2006)
    63. 63. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Grass - Legume Combinations Possible advantages • Improvement in nutritive value of forage on offer • Possible nitrogen fixation in soils Limitations • Difference in optimal harvest intervals for the two species results in non – persistence of the legumes. Siratro/Pangola grass
    64. 64. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Pastures Utilization and Management • Pastures are utilized in two ways: – Grazing – animals are allowed to do their own harvesting. • During this process they return organic matter to the system. – Cutting or zero-grazing – forage is harvested and brought to the animal. • During this process there is no return of organic matter to the system.
    65. 65. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Grazed Pastures Systems of Utilization • Rotational Grazing – a system in which a single pasture is subdivided into smaller paddocks and animals are moved from paddock to paddock in a systematic pattern. • e.g. An 8 - paddock , 4 - day rotation will give each paddock a 28 day rest period . • In choosing a cycle one must consider the species being grazed since different species have different recovery rates.
    66. 66. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD • Set-Stocking – also known as continuous grazing. – This is a system in which animals remain on the same pasture for an extended period of time. – This system is not recommended for intensive livestock production. Grazed Pastures Systems of Utilization
    67. 67. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Grazed Pastures Systems of Utilization • Occasional Grazing – in this system grazing is limited to restricted areas set aside for specific periods such as during a dry spell(forage banks). • Leguminous trees or shrubs are the species generally utilized in this system. • These trees or shrubs should be cut back 2 or 3 times each year to prevent them becoming too tall or woody.
    68. 68. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Cutting/Zero Grazing Systems • Forages harvested for daily feeding (green chop). • Forages harvested for conservation. • Forages harvested from forage banks during dry periods.
    69. 69. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Zero Grazed Pastures • Allows for an increase in carrying capacity through the use of high producing forages such as king grass. • Allows for the production of high quality feeds for specific groups such as fatteners and lactating animals. • Reduces losses from trampling and selection that is experienced on grazed pastures . Disadvantages • Labour intensive or heavy machinery required • Forage will be harvested and transported and should therefore be located close to the site at which it will be utilized. Advantages
    70. 70. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Forage Conservation • Ensures a continuous supply of forage throughout the year • achieved by harvesting and storing forage material as either silage or hay. • Both processes can be carried out on a large or small scale. • Includes silage, hay and leaf meals.
    71. 71. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Silage • Forage is allowed to ferment in the absence of air and in the presence of suitable soluble carbohydrates. • Acidification of the forage material acts as a preservative. • Stable for years as long as it is not exposed to air with no decrease in nutrient value.
    72. 72. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD
    73. 73. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD
    74. 74. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Best time to use Silage
    75. 75. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Hay • Fodder dried to a moisture content of 15% or less • Can be stored for several months without great deterioration in quality. • Requires large scale production and costly machinery
    76. 76. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Leaf Meal Mulberry This is the dried leaves of legumes or non – leguminous shrubs. Gliricidia
    77. 77. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Multi-Nutrient Blocks • One of the least expensive means of rectifying the deficiency in forage quality • High percentage of rumen by-pass nutrients, most notable urea and molasses (FOA, 2007). • Decreases labour cost and increases forage intake • Excellent supplement during dry period – At Bodles animals fed combination of 1/3 level concentrate + MNB performed as well as those receiving 100% concentrate – Basal diet was pangola hay
    78. 78. Tanika O’Connor-Dennie, PhD Thank you