What is Complete & Balanced   nutrition for dogs? And why should you care?
by  Hilary Watson HW Veterinary Nutrition Inc. Guelph, ON  519-821-8884 www.CompleteandBalanced.com [email_address]
Overview <ul><li>What is “complete” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>What is “balanced” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>Who decid...
Overview <ul><li>What is “complete” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>What is “balanced” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>Who decid...
A diet is said to be  “complete” … <ul><li>if it contains all  essential nutrients  (except water)  at levels adequate  to...
Protein  is an essential nutrient for dogs <ul><li>Protein is composed of  amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>20 amino acids ar...
10  amino acids  are essential for dogs <ul><li>Arginine </li></ul><ul><li>Histidine </li></ul><ul><li>Isoleucine </li></u...
Fat  is an essential nutrient for dogs <ul><li>Fat is composed of triglycerides </li></ul><ul><li>Triglycerides are compos...
11  vitamins  are essential for dogs <ul><li>3 are fat-soluble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
12  minerals  are essential for dogs <ul><li>6 are macro-minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Carbohydrate  is not essential for dogs <ul><li>Although dogs can use carbohydrates from fruits, vegetables and starchy fo...
So… 36 essential nutrients for dogs <ul><li>Protein  </li></ul><ul><li>10 essential amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Fat </li...
A diet is  “complete”  if it contains all 36 essential nutrients at levels that meet the dog’s daily requirements
Overview <ul><li>What is “complete” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>What is “balanced” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>Who decid...
A diet is said to be  “balanced” … <ul><li>if it contains all  essential nutrients  at the correct levels   relative to ea...
Mineral competition wheel
Mineral competition wheel <ul><li>An arrow pointing from one mineral to another mineral indicates that the mineral at the ...
Mineral competition wheel
Mineral competition wheel <ul><li>Although calcium does  not  interfere with the uptake of phosphorus (no arrow pointing f...
Mineral competition wheel
A diet that is not “balanced” will NOT  meet a dog’s nutritional requirements <ul><li>Suppose a diet contains  adequate  l...
This is why… <ul><li>Balanced nutrition  is as important  complete nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>If a diet is not properly b...
The calcium-to-phosphorus ratio is critical <ul><li>For dogs, the calcium-to-phosphorus ratio should always be between 1-2...
Check the calcium-to-phosphorus ratio  of your dog’s current diet <ul><li>Take the food’s calcium content (in g or mg) and...
The calcium-to-phosphorus ratio is particularly important during growth <ul><li>Especially for large breed puppies, a calc...
Many ratios are important <ul><li>Calcium-to-phosphorus ratio is just one important balance </li></ul><ul><li>There are ma...
To  summarize … <ul><li>A diet is “ complete ” if it contains all  36 essential nutrients   at levels adequate  to meet th...
Overview <ul><li>What is “complete” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>What is “balanced” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>Who decid...
Who decides? <ul><li>And who decides what level is  “adequate”  to meet the dog’s requirements? </li></ul>
The National Research Council <ul><li>400 page book with hundreds of research citations  </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive, ...
Pre-publication collaboration <ul><li>NRC pre-publishes a working copy and sends it out to academics and nutrition researc...
Eventually, debate leads to consensus <ul><li>Pet nutritionists, veterinarians, academics and researchers give input leadi...
National Research Council  © 2006 <ul><li>So THIS publication defines the nutrients that are  essential  for dog and what ...
THIS organization regulates  pet food companies in the USA AAFCO is part of the US Dept of Agriculture (AAFCO also regulat...
AAFCO’s mission: <ul><li>“to provide a mechanism for developing and implementing uniform and equitable  laws, regulations,...
AAFCO  regulates  3 main areas <ul><li>Ingredients and ingredient lists </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional adequacy of pet food...
Ingredient lists <ul><li>All ingredients in a pet food must be listed on the label (no hiding “bad” ingredients) </li></ul...
Nutritional Adequacy <ul><li>AAFCO publishes  “Dog Food Nutrient Profiles”  </li></ul><ul><li>I have re-printed these prof...
 
Nutritional Adequacy <ul><li>These profiles are “designed to establish practical  minimum and maximum nutrient levels  for...
Nutritional Adequacy <ul><li>So where NRC publishes the nutrient requirements  of dogs , AAFCO publishes nutrient levels t...
Nutritional Claims on Packaging <ul><li>AAFCO regulates what claims are made on pet food  packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Ever...
3 AAFCO Nutritional Adequacy Claims <ul><li>“ Animal feeding tests  using AAFCO procedures substantiate that (Name of Prod...
AAFCO  Nutritional   Adequacy  Claims <ul><li>Designed to provide  owner assurance  that the pet food they are buying deli...
Overview <ul><li>What is “complete” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>What is “balanced” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>Who decid...
Complete & Balanced – Who Cares? <ul><li>Humans  don’t eat complete and balanced diets </li></ul><ul><li>Animals in the wi...
Longevity and quality of life <ul><li>Oldest human in the world today was born in 1894 – currently is 114 years of age </l...
Average vs maximum lifespan <ul><li>Average   life expectancy  in North America is in the  mid-70s </li></ul><ul><li>We co...
Quality of life <ul><li>Our pre-mature death is often preceded by poor  quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>It is not uncomm...
The World Health Organization estimates <ul><li>that 75-85% of human diseases are preventable with sound lifestyle choices...
We do a LOUSY job of feeding ourselves!  <ul><li>Animals in the wild do not do any better </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, millions ...
Slide Presentation Overview <ul><li>What is “complete” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>What is “balanced” nutrition? </li></u...
You can’t tell by guessing Above are 5 different meats.  They have 5  very  different Ca:P ratios, 5 very different vitami...
You need Food Formulation Software
Overview <ul><li>What is “complete” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>What is “balanced” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>Who decid...
3 questions to  ask your pet food company : <ul><li>Ask if the pet food has an  AAFCO claim  on the packaging?  If not, do...
Complete & Balanced:  101 Healthy Home-made Meals for Dogs  <ul><li>Recipes formulated using formulation software </li></u...
 
<ul><li>Combining the nutritious goodness of  fresh human foods  with the scientific rigor of  complete and balanced nutri...
Questions? [email_address]
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

What Is Complete And Balanced Nutrition For Dogs

14,084 views

Published on

Presentation describing the 36 essential nutrients for dogs and the research and regulatory bodies that define them. Explains why complete and balanced nutrition should be the goal of all dog owners.

0 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
14,084
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3,686
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

What Is Complete And Balanced Nutrition For Dogs

  1. 1. What is Complete & Balanced nutrition for dogs? And why should you care?
  2. 2. by Hilary Watson HW Veterinary Nutrition Inc. Guelph, ON 519-821-8884 www.CompleteandBalanced.com [email_address]
  3. 3. Overview <ul><li>What is “complete” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>What is “balanced” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>Who decides which nutrients are “essential” for dogs? </li></ul><ul><li>Why should complete and balanced nutrition be the goal of every dog owner? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you tell if the food you are feeding is complete and balanced? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Overview <ul><li>What is “complete” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>What is “balanced” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>Who decides which nutrients are “essential” for dogs? </li></ul><ul><li>Why should complete and balanced nutrition be the goal of every dog owner? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you tell if the food you are feeding is complete and balanced? </li></ul>
  5. 5. A diet is said to be “complete” … <ul><li>if it contains all essential nutrients (except water) at levels adequate to meet the dog’s daily requirements . </li></ul><ul><li>There are 36 essential nutrients for dogs </li></ul>
  6. 6. Protein is an essential nutrient for dogs <ul><li>Protein is composed of amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>20 amino acids are the building blocks of proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Think of amino acids as letters and proteins as words – how many words can you make using 26 letters? </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs can make hundreds of different proteins using 20 amino acid building blocks </li></ul>
  7. 7. 10 amino acids are essential for dogs <ul><li>Arginine </li></ul><ul><li>Histidine </li></ul><ul><li>Isoleucine </li></ul><ul><li>Leucine </li></ul><ul><li>Lysine </li></ul><ul><li>Methionine </li></ul><ul><li>Phenylalanine </li></ul><ul><li>Threonine </li></ul><ul><li>Tryptophan </li></ul><ul><li>Valine </li></ul>Two other amino acids are considered “conditionally essential”: cysteine and tyrosine . These two amino acids become essential if the levels of methionine and phenylalanine respectively are insufficient in the diet.
  8. 8. Fat is an essential nutrient for dogs <ul><li>Fat is composed of triglycerides </li></ul><ul><li>Triglycerides are composed of three fatty acids and a glycerol backbone </li></ul><ul><li>Linoleic acid is an essential nutrient for dogs </li></ul><ul><li>Linoleic acid is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid </li></ul>
  9. 9. 11 vitamins are essential for dogs <ul><li>3 are fat-soluble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin E </li></ul></ul><ul><li>8 are water-soluble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thiamin (B1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Riboflavin (B2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Niacin (B3) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pantothenic acid (B5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyridoxine (B6) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Folic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cobalamin (B12) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 12 minerals are essential for dogs <ul><li>6 are macro-minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potassium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chloride </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnesium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6 are micro-minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manganese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zinc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iodine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selenium </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Carbohydrate is not essential for dogs <ul><li>Although dogs can use carbohydrates from fruits, vegetables and starchy foods (such as rice, oatmeal and potatoes) for energy, carbohydrate is NOT an essential nutrient for dogs </li></ul>
  12. 12. So… 36 essential nutrients for dogs <ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><li>10 essential amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Fat </li></ul><ul><li>1 essential fatty acid </li></ul><ul><li>11 essential vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>12 essential minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Total = 36 essential nutrients (plus water) </li></ul>
  13. 13. A diet is “complete” if it contains all 36 essential nutrients at levels that meet the dog’s daily requirements
  14. 14. Overview <ul><li>What is “complete” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>What is “balanced” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>Who decides which nutrients are “essential” for dogs? </li></ul><ul><li>Why should complete and balanced nutrition be the goal of every dog owner? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you tell if the food you are feeding is complete and balanced? </li></ul>
  15. 15. A diet is said to be “balanced” … <ul><li>if it contains all essential nutrients at the correct levels relative to each other such that optimal uptake of all nutrients is ensured. </li></ul><ul><li>A few examples of important balances : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The balance between calcium & phosphorus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The balance between omega-6 & omega-3 fatty acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The balance between calcium & zinc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The balance between iron & copper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The balance between selenium & vitamin E </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Mineral competition wheel
  17. 17. Mineral competition wheel <ul><li>An arrow pointing from one mineral to another mineral indicates that the mineral at the base of the arrow interferes with the uptake of the mineral at the tip of the arrow </li></ul><ul><li>For example, dietary phosphorus (P) interferes with the uptake of dietary calcium (Ca) (there is an arrow pointing from P to Ca) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Mineral competition wheel
  19. 19. Mineral competition wheel <ul><li>Although calcium does not interfere with the uptake of phosphorus (no arrow pointing from Ca to P).. </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium does interfere with the uptake of zinc (Zn) , magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Mineral competition wheel
  21. 21. A diet that is not “balanced” will NOT meet a dog’s nutritional requirements <ul><li>Suppose a diet contains adequate levels of both calcium and zinc to meet the dog’s requirements (ie the food is “complete”) </li></ul><ul><li>But suppose the level of calcium is so high that it blocks the uptake of zinc </li></ul><ul><li>The dog will suffer a zinc deficiency even though there is enough zinc in the diet to meet the dog’s requirements ( the zinc is in the food but it is blocked from entering the dog’s body ) </li></ul>
  22. 22. This is why… <ul><li>Balanced nutrition is as important complete nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>If a diet is not properly balanced, nutritional deficiencies can occur even though the diet appears to contain all essential nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most important balances is between calcium and phosphorus </li></ul>
  23. 23. The calcium-to-phosphorus ratio is critical <ul><li>For dogs, the calcium-to-phosphorus ratio should always be between 1-2 to 1, meaning…. </li></ul><ul><li>For every 1 gram of phosphorus in the diet, there should be between 1 and 2 grams of calcium </li></ul><ul><li>For growing puppies, the ideal ratio is narrower – there should be between 1.2 and 1.5 grams of calcium for every gram of phosphorus </li></ul>
  24. 24. Check the calcium-to-phosphorus ratio of your dog’s current diet <ul><li>Take the food’s calcium content (in g or mg) and divide by its phosphorus content (in the same units, ie g or mg) </li></ul><ul><li>The answer should be between 1 and 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Ideally, the answer is between 1.2 and 1.5 </li></ul><ul><li>If the answer is below 1 or above 2, the diet is not “balanced” </li></ul><ul><li>If it’s not balanced for calcium/phosphorus, it probably isn’t balanced for any other nutrients either </li></ul>
  25. 25. The calcium-to-phosphorus ratio is particularly important during growth <ul><li>Especially for large breed puppies, a calcium-to-phosphorus ratio that is too high (above 1.5-to-1) is as damaging as one that is too low (below 1.2-to-1) </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium-to-phosphorus imbalances can cause osteochondrosis, hip dysplasia, hypertrophic osteodystrophy and other skeletal defects in growing puppies </li></ul>
  26. 26. Many ratios are important <ul><li>Calcium-to-phosphorus ratio is just one important balance </li></ul><ul><li>There are many, many other important ratios: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium-to-zinc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium-to-magnesium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper-to-iron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selenium-to-vitamin E </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Omega-6 fatty acids-to-omega-3 fatty acids </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. To summarize … <ul><li>A diet is “ complete ” if it contains all 36 essential nutrients at levels adequate to meet the dog’s daily requirements . </li></ul><ul><li>A diet is “ balanced ” … if it contains all essential nutrients at the correct levels relative to each other such that optimal uptake of all nutrients is ensured. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Overview <ul><li>What is “complete” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>What is “balanced” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>Who decides which nutrients are “essential” for dogs? </li></ul><ul><li>Why should complete and balanced nutrition be the goal of every dog owner? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you tell if the food you are feeding is complete and balanced? </li></ul>
  29. 29. Who decides? <ul><li>And who decides what level is “adequate” to meet the dog’s requirements? </li></ul>
  30. 30. The National Research Council <ul><li>400 page book with hundreds of research citations </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive, cumulative collection of all nutrition research studies done in dogs and cats anywhere in the world dating back more than 50 years </li></ul>
  31. 31. Pre-publication collaboration <ul><li>NRC pre-publishes a working copy and sends it out to academics and nutrition researchers around the world </li></ul><ul><li>Working copy is challenged and debated </li></ul><ul><li>Different research studies may have conflicting results </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers often disagree </li></ul><ul><li>Debate can last several years </li></ul>
  32. 32. Eventually, debate leads to consensus <ul><li>Pet nutritionists, veterinarians, academics and researchers give input leading to international consensus on the nutritional requirements of dogs </li></ul><ul><li>This consensus is published in NRC’s “Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats” </li></ul><ul><li>The publication is updated periodically as new research becomes available </li></ul>
  33. 33. National Research Council © 2006 <ul><li>So THIS publication defines the nutrients that are essential for dog and what levels are needed to meet the dog’s daily needs </li></ul><ul><li>However, NRC does NOT regulate pet food companies </li></ul>
  34. 34. THIS organization regulates pet food companies in the USA AAFCO is part of the US Dept of Agriculture (AAFCO also regulates livestock feeds)
  35. 35. AAFCO’s mission: <ul><li>“to provide a mechanism for developing and implementing uniform and equitable laws, regulations, standards and enforcement policies for regulating the manufacture, distribution and sale of animal feeds and pet foods ; resulting in safe, effective, and useful products.” </li></ul>
  36. 36. AAFCO regulates 3 main areas <ul><li>Ingredients and ingredient lists </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional adequacy of pet foods </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional claims on packaging </li></ul>
  37. 37. Ingredient lists <ul><li>All ingredients in a pet food must be listed on the label (no hiding “bad” ingredients) </li></ul><ul><li>Ingredients must be listed in descending order of inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Ingredients must be identified according to AAFCO nomenclature (ie poultry meal , chicken meal , poultry by-product meal , and chicken are all different ingredients which are defined by AAFCO) </li></ul>
  38. 38. Nutritional Adequacy <ul><li>AAFCO publishes “Dog Food Nutrient Profiles” </li></ul><ul><li>I have re-printed these profiles (with kind permission from AAFCO) in Appendix 9 of my recipe book “Complete & Balanced: 101 Healthy Home-made Meals for Dogs” </li></ul>
  39. 40. Nutritional Adequacy <ul><li>These profiles are “designed to establish practical minimum and maximum nutrient levels for dog foods formulated from non-purified, complex ingredients.” </li></ul><ul><li>“The values are modified based on known effects of processing and the potential for lower digestibility in some products” </li></ul>
  40. 41. Nutritional Adequacy <ul><li>So where NRC publishes the nutrient requirements of dogs , AAFCO publishes nutrient levels that must exist in dog foods , taking processing and ingredient quality into account </li></ul><ul><li>AAFCO defines minimums for all essential nutrients and maximums for nutrients which may be toxic at high intake </li></ul><ul><li>The AAFCO profiles list nutrient levels on a dry matter and energy ( per 1000 kcal ) basis </li></ul>
  41. 42. Nutritional Claims on Packaging <ul><li>AAFCO regulates what claims are made on pet food packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Every pet food sold in the US must have a nutritional adequacy claim on the packaging </li></ul>
  42. 43. 3 AAFCO Nutritional Adequacy Claims <ul><li>“ Animal feeding tests using AAFCO procedures substantiate that (Name of Product) provides complete and balanced nutrition for (life-stage).” </li></ul><ul><li>“ (Name of Product) is formulated to meet the nutritional levels established by the AAFCO Dog Food Nutrient Profiles for (life-stage).” </li></ul><ul><li>“ This product is intended for intermittent or supplemental feeding only.” (ie it does not qualify for claim 1 or 2) </li></ul>
  43. 44. AAFCO Nutritional Adequacy Claims <ul><li>Designed to provide owner assurance that the pet food they are buying delivers complete and balanced nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>AAFCO regulations are enforced by US State regulators. There are no equivalent regulations in Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Buyer beware! </li></ul>
  44. 45. Overview <ul><li>What is “complete” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>What is “balanced” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>Who decides which nutrients are “essential” for dogs? </li></ul><ul><li>Why should complete and balanced nutrition be the goal of every dog owner? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you tell if the food you are feeding is complete and balanced? </li></ul>
  45. 46. Complete & Balanced – Who Cares? <ul><li>Humans don’t eat complete and balanced diets </li></ul><ul><li>Animals in the wilds don’t eat complete and balanced diets </li></ul><ul><li>Why should I trust NRC or AAFCO? </li></ul><ul><li>Why should I care whether or not my dog is eating a complete and balanced diet? </li></ul>
  46. 47. Longevity and quality of life <ul><li>Oldest human in the world today was born in 1894 – currently is 114 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>Previous oldest person died in January 2009 at 115 years </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum human life expectancy is therefore at least 115 years (likely more) </li></ul>
  47. 48. Average vs maximum lifespan <ul><li>Average life expectancy in North America is in the mid-70s </li></ul><ul><li>We consider 80 old </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, the 80 year old person could live another 35 years </li></ul><ul><li>A person who dies at 80 is missing out on 1/3 of their life potential ! </li></ul>
  48. 49. Quality of life <ul><li>Our pre-mature death is often preceded by poor quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>It is not uncommon for middle-aged humans to suffer from chronic diseases that have a nutrition component: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoarthritis </li></ul></ul>
  49. 50. The World Health Organization estimates <ul><li>that 75-85% of human diseases are preventable with sound lifestyle choices, including healthy nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional deficiencies and imbalances are VERY common in humans </li></ul><ul><li>Humans could likely increase their average life expectancy by a decade or more if humans ate “complete and balanced” diets </li></ul>
  50. 51. We do a LOUSY job of feeding ourselves! <ul><li>Animals in the wild do not do any better </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, millions of years of evolution dictate physiology and nutritional needs </li></ul><ul><li>But a century of research has led to innovations that extend our longevity and improve our quality of life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better health due to advances in medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better health due to advanced understanding of nutritional requirements and nutrient balances </li></ul></ul>
  51. 52. Slide Presentation Overview <ul><li>What is “complete” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>What is “balanced” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>Who decides which nutrients are “essential” for dogs? </li></ul><ul><li>Why should complete and balanced nutrition be the goal of every dog owner? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you tell if the food you are feeding is complete and balanced? </li></ul>
  52. 53. You can’t tell by guessing Above are 5 different meats. They have 5 very different Ca:P ratios, 5 very different vitamin & mineral contents. You can’t balance 36 essential nutrients by guessing.
  53. 54. You need Food Formulation Software
  54. 55. Overview <ul><li>What is “complete” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>What is “balanced” nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>Who decides which nutrients are “essential” for dogs? </li></ul><ul><li>Why should complete and balanced nutrition be the goal of every dog owner? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you tell if the food you are feeding is complete and balanced? </li></ul>
  55. 56. 3 questions to ask your pet food company : <ul><li>Ask if the pet food has an AAFCO claim on the packaging? If not, does it match the AAFCO Nutrient Profiles ? </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for a complete nutrient analysis of the food, listing all 36 essential nutrients (not just the top10) on a dry matter and per 1000 kcal basis </li></ul><ul><li>Ask how often the company does complete nutrient analyses (all 36 nutrients) on their pet foods </li></ul>
  56. 57. Complete & Balanced: 101 Healthy Home-made Meals for Dogs <ul><li>Recipes formulated using formulation software </li></ul><ul><li>43 nutrients listed for each recipe (36 essential nutrients + 7 non-essentials) </li></ul><ul><li>All recipes deliver 100% complete & balanced nutrition </li></ul>
  57. 59. <ul><li>Combining the nutritious goodness of fresh human foods with the scientific rigor of complete and balanced nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Your dog can do no better! </li></ul>Complete & Balanced: 101 Healthy Home-made Meals for Dogs
  58. 60. Questions? [email_address]

×