Animal nutrition


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Animal nutrition

  1. 1. Animal Nutrition<br />By: Brad and Jon<br />
  2. 2. Nutrition<br />Nutrition- the process in which animals consume and utilize food.<br />Feed efficiency= “rate of gain”<br />The feed must have proper nutrients to support life processes of an animal.<br />Diet must provide balanced ration.<br />
  3. 3. Feed effifiency<br />Livestock producers- watch nutrition to decrease the # of days until market.<br />Companion Animal Owners- limit animal feed in order to maintain animal health and contentment.<br />Balanced Ration- the total amount of feed an animal gets in 24 hour period.<br />
  4. 4. 6 Essential Nutrients <br />Needed to insure life <br />Provide lots of energy<br />Without them, problems can occur body mass, lactation, maturity time <br />
  5. 5. water<br />Dissolves nutrients that animals eat, controls body temp., carries nutrients throughout the body.<br />Notable facts: younger animals have 80% water and 40%-80% maturity animals.<br />You give them water and should be fresh and clean <br />
  6. 6. Carbohydrates<br />Provides energy, which powers muscles in the animal. Produces body heat and provide fat if not burned.<br />Made of starches, sugars, cellulose <br />Simple carbs- easily digested in nitrogen free extract.<br />Complex- fibers more difficult to digest 75% carbs<br />Can be obtained from cane molasses, ground corn, wheat middlings and dehydrated alfalfa meal.<br />
  7. 7. Fats<br />Provide body with heat and energy<br />Easily digestable<br />Contains 1-5% in feeds<br />Come from animal and vegetable sources<br />Brewer’s dried grains, corn gluten meal, and distillers dried grains. <br />
  8. 8. Proteins<br />Supply material to build body tissues<br />Essential for fetal development<br />Also essential for tissue growth<br />Made of amino acids<br />Ligaments, muscles, organs, skin and horns are all made partially of protein<br />It can be obtained by soybean oil meal, linseed meal, cottonseed meal and meat and bone meal.<br />
  9. 9. Minerals<br />Minerals aid in growth<br />Also aid in the body processes<br />Inorganic materials<br />Macro minerals are needed in large amounts<br />Micro minerals are needed in small amounts<br />Minerals are usually mixed in with feeds as supplements.<br />
  10. 10. Vitamins<br />Provide material for growth of bones, teeth and tissue.<br />Regulate chemical process<br />Aid in muscular activity<br />Help repair tissue<br />Two groups of vitamins:<br />Trace and Major<br />Are thrown in to feeds as supplements<br />
  11. 11. 5 Different Diets<br />Maintenance<br />Growth<br />Reproduction<br />Lactation<br />Work<br />
  12. 12. Maintenance<br />Maintaining life of the animal <br />Consist of Protein, minerals, vitamins, and water, certain fatty acids.<br />All of these animals need it <br />
  13. 13. Growth<br />Nutrients given for growth after maintenance. Increases size of muscles and organs<br />Consist of high protein and vitamins/minerals<br />Use for weight gaining animals <br />
  14. 14. Reproduction <br />Nutrients given so an animal can reproduce effetely and to breeding animals<br />Diet consist of high in protein and extra minerals/vitamins <br />Use for mother, pigs, ex…….. <br />
  15. 15. Lactation <br />To produce milk as a product<br />Diet consist of vitamins/minerals, protein and fats/calcium/ phosphorus <br />Use for cows, swine, sheep, goats<br />
  16. 16. Work <br />When animals are used to do work<br />Diets consist of extra carbs, fats and extra protein, extra salt <br />Use for horses, mules<br />
  17. 17. Pearson’s Square Steps to Use<br />1. Draw a square<br />2.Label feeds and crude protein percentages on the left corners and feeds on right corner.<br />3.Subtract the smaller number from the larger along the diagonal lines<br />4.Divide the parts of feed by the total parts to % of each feed in the ratio<br />5.Use total lbs need to determine lbs of each feed need.<br />6.Check to make sure protein needs are met.<br />
  18. 18. Chicken Experiment<br />We preformed a feed experiment with chickens.<br />We feed chickens 4 different types of feed to see which one had the highest rate of gain.<br />The feed tags of each feed were analyzed and we made a hypothesis on which feed we believe would have the most rate of gain.<br />The feed with the most protein had the highest rate of gain.<br />