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The Iterative Process <ul><li>Two step clinical nutrition process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1:   Assess the patient, food...
Iterative Process <ul><li>Factors in Patient Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Signalment : species, breed, age, gender,  neute...
Body Condition Scoring <ul><li>Subjective method of assessing an animal’s fat stores </li></ul><ul><li>Fat cover is evalua...
Body Condition Scoring © Hill’s Pet Nutrition, Inc.
Body Condition Scoring © Hill’s Pet Nutrition, Inc.
Iterative Process: Dietary History <ul><li>What Do You Need to Know About the Animal’s Dietary History? </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Review of Nutrients <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Fat </li></u...
Review of Basic Nutrients: Water <ul><li>Dogs & Cats meet most water requirements through food and drink </li></ul><ul><li...
Review of Basic Nutrients: Water  As fed   Nutrients are calculated as a percentage of the product  including  water Dry m...
Which Has More Protein? <ul><li>Moist Product </li></ul><ul><li>75% moisture </li></ul><ul><li>10% protein </li></ul><ul><...
Review of Basic Nutrients: Water <ul><li>Moist Product – as fed </li></ul><ul><li>75% moisture </li></ul><ul><li>10% prote...
Review of Basic Nutrients: Water <ul><li>Dry Product – as fed </li></ul><ul><li>10% moisture </li></ul><ul><li>18% protein...
Review of Basic Nutrients: Carbohydrates <ul><li>Energy source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditionally essential </li></ul></u...
Review of Basic Nutrients - Carbohydrates <ul><li>Benefits of Insoluble Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>“ Normalize” bowel...
Review of Basic Nutrients - Proteins <ul><li>Tissue Building </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul...
Review of Basic Nutrients - Proteins Essential Amino Acids Arginine Phenylalanine Histidine Threonine Isoleucine Tryptopha...
Amino Acids of Special Concern Arginine (Essential) Immune system stimulant; key in management of dogs with cancer Taurine...
Review of Basic Nutrients: Protein Plant Protein Sources Animal Protein Sources More consistent in quality More bioavailab...
AAFCO <ul><li>Association of American Feed Control Officials </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient Profiles for  dogs and cats </li><...
Review of Basic Nutrients - Proteins AAFCO  PROTEIN  minimums - DMB Adult Dog – 18% Puppy – 22% Adult Cat – 26% Kitten – 30%
Review of Basic Nutrients - Fat <ul><li>Energy source </li></ul><ul><li>Critical for the absorption, storage & transport o...
Review of Basic Nutrients - Fat <ul><li> Linoleic acid (n-6) </li></ul><ul><li>Alpha linolenic acid (n-3)  </li></ul><ul>...
Review of Basic Nutrients - Fat AAFCO  FAT  minimums - DMB Adult Dog – 5% Puppy – 8% Adult Cat – 9% Kitten – 9%
Review of Basic Nutrients – Minerals  Minerals of Special Concern in Dogs & Cats Mineral  Diseases Exacerbated Sodium Hear...
What Determines How Much an Animal Eats? <ul><li>Energy Needs </li></ul><ul><li>+   </li></ul><ul><li>Palatability  </li><...
Energy Needs <ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction/ </li></ul><ul><li>lactation </li></ul><ul><li>Activity level <...
Calculating Energy Requirements <ul><li>RER  – Resting Energy Requirement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure of the amount of e...
Calculating Energy Requirements <ul><li>DER  = Daily Energy Requirement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An animal’s RER multiplied b...
Calculating Energy Needs <ul><li>What You Need to Know About the Animal Before You Calculate: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><u...
How Much Will We Feed  Gracie Whitesox? <ul><li>“ Gracie Whitesox” </li></ul><ul><li>3yrs; Female(N) Maine Coon; Wt. 11lbs...
Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs <ul><li>Calculate RER:   30 x (BW in kg) +70   </li></ul>
Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs <ul><li>Calculate RER:   30 x (BW in kg) +70     30 x (11    2.2) + 70   </li></ul>
Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs <ul><li>Calculate RER:   30 x (BW in kg) +70     30 x (11    2.2) + 70     30 x (5)+70 ...
Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs <ul><li>Calculate RER:   30 x (BW in kg) +70     30 x (11    2.2) + 70     30 x 5+70 = ...
Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs <ul><li>Calculate RER:   30 x (BW in kg) +70     30 x (11    2.2) + 70     30 x 5+70 = ...
Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs <ul><li>Calculate RER:   30 x (BW in kg) +70     30 x (11    2.2) + 70     30 x 5+70 = ...
Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs <ul><li>Find the food’s metabolizable energy : </li></ul><ul><li>  ex:  Purina ®  Cat Ch...
How Much Should Breeze Eat? 11-years old M(N) Shetland Sheepdog, 21# BCS 3/5
Source: Geneva Acor
Terminology <ul><li>Life Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Se...
Life Stage Feeding The practice of feeding animals foods designed to meet their optimal nutritional needs at a specific ag...
Nutrition Recommendation <ul><li>“ An animal’s health status must be assessed  individually  in order to determine the  mo...
What types of life stages and would you consider when making a nutritional recommendation?
Different Life Stages =  Different Nutritional Requirements <ul><li>Growth, Reproduction & Lactation Small & Medium Breeds...
Small Animal Clinical Nutrition <ul><li>Nutrient Profiles Published For </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs and Cats </li></ul><ul><li>...
Life Stage:  Adult
Life Stage: Adult – Canine Recommended 3500 Kcal/kg AAFCO Minimum 2.5%  1.6%  0.5%  0.6%  5%  18%  .4%-.9% .5%-1.0% 10-20%...
What Defines a Large Breed Dog? <ul><li>ANY DOG WHOSE   IDEAL ADULT WEIGHT IS 55#   OR MORE </li></ul>
Life Stage:  Large Breed  Adult   <ul><li>Carnitine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases & improves  fat metabolism </li></ul><...
Life Stage:  Adult - Feline Recommended 4000 Kcal/kg AAFCO Minimum 0.5%  0.04% 9%  26%  0.5%-0.8% 0.04-0.1% 10-30% 30-45% ...
Life Stage: Adult - Feline <ul><li>Taurine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential Amino Acid; Helps maintain normal heart functio...
How Much Food Does  Bevo  Need? 616 kcals 1.6 1.6 x 616 kcals =  986 kcals 986 kcals per day 441 kcals/cup =  2¼ cups  RER...
Life Stage:  Growth Carly, 5 months Amanda Adels “ Maisey” 8 months Stephanie Caviglia
Life Stage:  Puppies & Kittens <ul><li>As Compared with  Adult  Nutritional Needs </li></ul>PROTEIN PHOSPHORUS CALCIUM FAT...
Life Stage:  Large Breed Puppy
Life Stage:  Large Breed Puppy <ul><li>As Compared with  Small/Medium Breed  Puppies </li></ul>PROTEIN PHOSPHORUS CALCIUM ...
Ben, 8-year old, mixed breed
Pre-surgical radiograph Ben, 8-year old, mixed breed
Post-surgical radiograph Ben, 8-year old, mixed breed
What Purina Learned… <ul><li>The Purina Life Span Study </li></ul><ul><li>14 year study (1987 – 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Pu...
<ul><li>Life Span Study Parameters </li></ul><ul><li>48 Labrador Retrievers </li></ul><ul><li>Paired by sex and weight and...
Clinical Findings JAVMA, Vol. 220, No. 9, May 1, 2002 Control Group Limit-fed Group Hip joint lesions 15/22 3/21 Shoulder ...
Clinical Findings <ul><li>Feeding dogs to a leaner body condition increases their life span and reduces incidences of oste...
Beware  Excessive Calcium  in Large Breed Dog Diets <ul><li>11 Great Dane pups (5 - 10 weeks old) </li></ul><ul><li>Fed fr...
1.18% Ca 3.3% Ca Excessive Calcium Hazewinkle, Thesis, Utrecht 1985
Life Stage:  Reproduction/Lactation Baby & Pups
Life Stage:  Canine Reproduction/Lactation Canine Gestation <ul><ul><li>First 42 days:     Feed as average adult </li></ul...
Life Stage:  Feline Reproduction/Lactation Thepetcenter.com Wikipedia.com
Life Stage:  Feline Reproduction/Lactation Feline Gestation <ul><ul><li>Consumption increases linearly during gestation </...
FEEDING ANNIE 910 kcals 5.5 5.5 x 910 kcals =  5005 kcals 5005 kcals per day 372 kcals/cup =  13½ c.   Which Type of Food ...
Life Stage:  Senior Stephanie’s Cat 18 yrs, M(N) DSH Crystal Branch Stephanie Caviglia “ Ginger” 14 yrs, F(N) Scottish Ter...
Life Stage:  Senior Dogs & Cats <ul><li>As Compared with  Adult  Life Stage </li></ul>PROTEIN PHOSPHORUS SODIUM FAT CHO
Life Stage:  Senior   “ Minky” 15 years <ul><li>Glucosamine & Chondroitin </li></ul><ul><li>Helps maintain healthy joints ...
Life Style Feeding <ul><li>Feeding animals foods formulated to support optimal health and meet their nutritional needs bas...
Life Style:  Active Adult   What is the most important  nutritional factor for an  active lifestyle? High Energy  Density
Life Style:  Active Canine <ul><li>As Compared with Adult Life Stage </li></ul>PROTEIN PHOSPHORUS CALCIUM FAT CHO    Flickr
Life Style:  Obesity & Obese Prone <ul><li>“ Light”  or  “Lite”  or  “Low Calorie”  </li></ul><ul><li>AAFCO Guidelines </l...
Life Style:  Obesity & Obese Prone <ul><li>As Compared with Adult Life Stage </li></ul>PROTEIN PHOSPHORUS CALCIUM FAT FIBE...
No visible  waistline Fat pools  around tailbase “ Missy” English Pointer F(N); 92# BCS 5/5  Karen Pogmore
“ Rocky” 7years, M(N) DSH 20# BCS 5/5 (enjoys yoga   ) Nicole Polizzi
Managing Obese & Obese Prone Animals <ul><li>FOOD </li></ul><ul><li>FEEDING METHOD </li></ul><ul><li>EXERCISE </li></ul><u...
Managing Obese & Obese Prone Animals <ul><li>Beware of  Marketing Claims </li></ul><ul><li>FOOD </li></ul><ul><li>EXERCISE...
<ul><li>FOOD </li></ul><ul><li>FEEDING METHOD </li></ul><ul><li>EXERCISE </li></ul><ul><li>OWNER </li></ul>Amadeus, 26lbs
Feeding Methods <ul><li>Ad libitum </li></ul><ul><li>Time limited </li></ul><ul><li>Portion limited </li></ul><ul><li>FOOD...
Exercise is Important Too! <ul><li>What Are Some Ways To Get Your  Cat to Exercise? </li></ul><ul><li>FOOD </li></ul><ul><...
Rocky’s Energy Needs “ Rocky” 7yrs; M(N), DSH 20lbs, BCS 5/5 RULE FOR  OVERWEIGHT ANIMALS Calculate RER based on  TARGET W...
Rocky’s Energy Needs 315 kcals 0.8 0.8 x 315 kcals =  252 kcals 252 kcals per day 283 kcals/cup = ~ 4 / 5  cup  INTERIM Ta...
Next Week: Pet Food Labels <ul><li>BRING A LABEL FROM A  CAN, BAG, POUCH, CHUB, or FOIL PACK  OF DOG OR CAT FOOD ONLY </li...
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Session 3 San Ecalcs & Ls Ls

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Session 3 San Ecalcs & Ls Ls

  1. 2. The Iterative Process <ul><li>Two step clinical nutrition process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1: Assess the patient, food and feeding method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2: Develop feeding plan including food choice and feeding method </li></ul></ul>Animal Food Feeding Method ASSESSMENT Food Feeding Method FEEDING PLAN
  2. 3. Iterative Process <ul><li>Factors in Patient Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Signalment : species, breed, age, gender, neuter status, activity level, environment </li></ul><ul><li>Medical History: medical conditions, vaccines, surgeries, medications </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostics: blood chemistry, radiographs </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Exam: abnormalities, BCS </li></ul>
  3. 4. Body Condition Scoring <ul><li>Subjective method of assessing an animal’s fat stores </li></ul><ul><li>Fat cover is evaluated over the ribs, down the topline, around the tail base and along the abdomen </li></ul>1 2 4 5 EMACIATED THIN OVERWEIGHT OBESE PALPATION IS KEY! 3 IDEAL
  4. 5. Body Condition Scoring © Hill’s Pet Nutrition, Inc.
  5. 6. Body Condition Scoring © Hill’s Pet Nutrition, Inc.
  6. 7. Iterative Process: Dietary History <ul><li>What Do You Need to Know About the Animal’s Dietary History? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brand of Food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Form of Food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feeding Method & Frequency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treats? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Table food? … </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Review of Nutrients <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Fat </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>Antioxidants* </li></ul>Energy Producing Nutrients
  8. 9. Review of Basic Nutrients: Water <ul><li>Dogs & Cats meet most water requirements through food and drink </li></ul><ul><li>Amount required varies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life Stage </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Review of Basic Nutrients: Water As fed Nutrients are calculated as a percentage of the product including water Dry matter basis Nutrients are calculated as a percentage of the product without the water Vs. Nutrients in food…
  10. 11. Which Has More Protein? <ul><li>Moist Product </li></ul><ul><li>75% moisture </li></ul><ul><li>10% protein </li></ul><ul><li>8% fat </li></ul><ul><li>9% CHO </li></ul><ul><li>Dry Product </li></ul><ul><li>10% moisture </li></ul><ul><li>18% protein </li></ul><ul><li>12% fat </li></ul><ul><li>32% CHO </li></ul>
  11. 12. Review of Basic Nutrients: Water <ul><li>Moist Product – as fed </li></ul><ul><li>75% moisture </li></ul><ul><li>10% protein </li></ul><ul><li>8% fat </li></ul><ul><li>9% CHO </li></ul>For Moist Products the percentage of nutrients on a Dry Matter Basis (DMB) equals approximately 4x the percent on an as fed basis This product contains ~40% protein DMB
  12. 13. Review of Basic Nutrients: Water <ul><li>Dry Product – as fed </li></ul><ul><li>10% moisture </li></ul><ul><li>18% protein </li></ul><ul><li>12% fat </li></ul><ul><li>32% CHO </li></ul>For Dry Products the percentage of nutrients on a Dry Matter Basis equals approximately 10% more than the percent on an as fed basis This product contains ~20% protein DMB
  13. 14. Review of Basic Nutrients: Carbohydrates <ul><li>Energy source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditionally essential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>23% for gestation and lactation in dogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cats are different </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provides form to dry and canned food </li></ul><ul><li>Increases food volume </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces cost </li></ul>
  14. 15. Review of Basic Nutrients - Carbohydrates <ul><li>Benefits of Insoluble Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>“ Normalize” bowel transit time </li></ul><ul><li>Increase satiety </li></ul><ul><li>Provide probiotics for intestinal health </li></ul>Soluble Insoluble “Fiber” Sugars Starches … etc. Beet pulp Cellulose Soybean hulls … etc.
  15. 16. Review of Basic Nutrients - Proteins <ul><li>Tissue Building </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Energy source </li></ul>Comprised of Amino Acids
  16. 17. Review of Basic Nutrients - Proteins Essential Amino Acids Arginine Phenylalanine Histidine Threonine Isoleucine Tryptophan Leucine Valine Lysine Taurine* Methionine
  17. 18. Amino Acids of Special Concern Arginine (Essential) Immune system stimulant; key in management of dogs with cancer Taurine (Essential in cats) Critical for retinal and cardiac muscle development in cats; Conditionally essential in Newfoundlands Carnitine (Conditionally essential) Improves fat metabolism, builds lean body tissue, make mitochondria more efficient
  18. 19. Review of Basic Nutrients: Protein Plant Protein Sources Animal Protein Sources More consistent in quality More bioavailable (no cellulose layer to break down) Needs to be combined with other plants to be complete More complete More expensive
  19. 20. AAFCO <ul><li>Association of American Feed Control Officials </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient Profiles for dogs and cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>minimum nutrient values required at different life stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some maximum values </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Review of Basic Nutrients - Proteins AAFCO PROTEIN minimums - DMB Adult Dog – 18% Puppy – 22% Adult Cat – 26% Kitten – 30%
  21. 22. Review of Basic Nutrients - Fat <ul><li>Energy source </li></ul><ul><li>Critical for the absorption, storage & transport of fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) </li></ul><ul><li>Supplies Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common sources: Flaxseed, linseed, menhaden fish, animal fat, evening primrose oil, black currant oil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Contributes to food’s palatability </li></ul>
  22. 23. Review of Basic Nutrients - Fat <ul><li> Linoleic acid (n-6) </li></ul><ul><li>Alpha linolenic acid (n-3) </li></ul><ul><li> Arachidonic acid (n-6) </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain cell membrane integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Help control water loss from skin </li></ul>
  23. 24. Review of Basic Nutrients - Fat AAFCO FAT minimums - DMB Adult Dog – 5% Puppy – 8% Adult Cat – 9% Kitten – 9%
  24. 25. Review of Basic Nutrients – Minerals Minerals of Special Concern in Dogs & Cats Mineral Diseases Exacerbated Sodium Heart failure Hypertension Kidney disease Calcium Skeletal disease (pups) Bladder stones Phosphorus Kidney failure Skeletal disease Bladder stones Magnesium Struvite bladder stones
  25. 26. What Determines How Much an Animal Eats? <ul><li>Energy Needs </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Palatability </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Reward </li></ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
  26. 27. Energy Needs <ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction/ </li></ul><ul><li>lactation </li></ul><ul><li>Activity level </li></ul><ul><li>Breed </li></ul><ul><li>Temperament </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Intact or neutered </li></ul>
  27. 28. Calculating Energy Requirements <ul><li>RER – Resting Energy Requirement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure of the amount of energy needed based on animal’s metabolic body size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formula: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressed in kilocalories </li></ul></ul>STEP 1 RER = 30 x BW(kg) +70
  28. 29. Calculating Energy Requirements <ul><li>DER = Daily Energy Requirement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An animal’s RER multiplied by a factor that accounts for the animal’s life stage or life style </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DER Factor = Numeric value that accounts for life stage, neuter status, life style, body condition, gestation or lactation </li></ul>STEP 2 DER = RER x DER factor
  29. 30. Calculating Energy Needs <ul><li>What You Need to Know About the Animal Before You Calculate: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neuter Status </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current Weight </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Target Weight (if not at ideal weight) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 31. How Much Will We Feed Gracie Whitesox? <ul><li>“ Gracie Whitesox” </li></ul><ul><li>3yrs; Female(N) Maine Coon; Wt. 11lbs; BCS 3/5 </li></ul>
  31. 32. Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs <ul><li>Calculate RER: 30 x (BW in kg) +70 </li></ul>
  32. 33. Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs <ul><li>Calculate RER: 30 x (BW in kg) +70 30 x (11  2.2) + 70 </li></ul>
  33. 34. Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs <ul><li>Calculate RER: 30 x (BW in kg) +70 30 x (11  2.2) + 70 30 x (5)+70 = 220 kcals </li></ul>
  34. 35. Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs <ul><li>Calculate RER: 30 x (BW in kg) +70 30 x (11  2.2) + 70 30 x 5+70 = 220 kcal </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate DER: </li></ul><ul><li>Average, neutered feline adult = </li></ul>(Use DER factors provided in notes)
  35. 36. Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs <ul><li>Calculate RER: 30 x (BW in kg) +70 30 x (11  2.2) + 70 30 x 5+70 = 220 kcal </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate DER: (Use DER factors provided in notes) </li></ul><ul><li>Average, neutered feline adult = 1.2 x RER </li></ul>
  36. 37. Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs <ul><li>Calculate RER: 30 x (BW in kg) +70 30 x (11  2.2) + 70 30 x 5+70 = 220 kcal </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate DER: (Use DER factors provided in notes) </li></ul><ul><li>Average, neutered feline adult = 1.2 x RER 1.2 x 220 = 264 kcals per day </li></ul>Gracie should have 264 kcals per day
  37. 38. Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs <ul><li>Find the food’s metabolizable energy : </li></ul><ul><li> ex: Purina ® Cat Chow ® Indoor Formula = 379 kcal per cup </li></ul><ul><li>Divide Gracie’s DER by the #kcal per cup/can of food </li></ul><ul><li>DER = 264  379 = ~3/4 cup per day </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Gracie should eat ~3/4 cup of cat food per day Gracie’s DER is 264 kcal per day How much food should she eat per day?
  38. 39. How Much Should Breeze Eat? 11-years old M(N) Shetland Sheepdog, 21# BCS 3/5
  39. 40. Source: Geneva Acor
  40. 41. Terminology <ul><li>Life Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduction/ Lactation </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Life Stage Feeding The practice of feeding animals foods designed to meet their optimal nutritional needs at a specific age or physiologic state Feeding an animal above or below their optimal nutritional level can negatively affect their health. “ Cowboy” 5 mos.
  42. 43. Nutrition Recommendation <ul><li>“ An animal’s health status must be assessed individually in order to determine the most beneficial course of action.” </li></ul>
  43. 44. What types of life stages and would you consider when making a nutritional recommendation?
  44. 45. Different Life Stages = Different Nutritional Requirements <ul><li>Growth, Reproduction & Lactation Small & Medium Breeds vs. Large Breeds </li></ul><ul><li>Adult </li></ul><ul><li>Senior </li></ul>
  45. 46. Small Animal Clinical Nutrition <ul><li>Nutrient Profiles Published For </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs and Cats </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended Nutrient Ranges (OPTIMAL LEVELS) </li></ul><ul><li>All Life Stages </li></ul>On reserve in Library
  46. 47. Life Stage: Adult
  47. 48. Life Stage: Adult – Canine Recommended 3500 Kcal/kg AAFCO Minimum 2.5% 1.6% 0.5% 0.6% 5% 18% .4%-.9% .5%-1.0% 10-20% 15-30% 3500 - 4500 Kcal/kg Image Source: Dr. Geneva Acor, Hill’s Pet Nutrition, Inc. Calories/Energy Fat Calcium Phosphorus Protein
  48. 49. What Defines a Large Breed Dog? <ul><li>ANY DOG WHOSE IDEAL ADULT WEIGHT IS 55# OR MORE </li></ul>
  49. 50. Life Stage: Large Breed Adult <ul><li>Carnitine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases & improves fat metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports healthy heart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glucosamine & Chondroitin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps maintain healthy joints </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. Life Stage: Adult - Feline Recommended 4000 Kcal/kg AAFCO Minimum 0.5% 0.04% 9% 26% 0.5%-0.8% 0.04-0.1% 10-30% 30-45% 4000 - 5000 Kcal/kg Source: Hill’s Pet Nutrition, Inc. Calories/Energy Fat Calcium Phosphorus Protein
  51. 52. Life Stage: Adult - Feline <ul><li>Taurine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential Amino Acid; Helps maintain normal heart function, retinal structure, and reproduction and development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Magnesium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid excesses </li></ul></ul>
  52. 53. How Much Food Does Bevo Need? 616 kcals 1.6 1.6 x 616 kcals = 986 kcals 986 kcals per day 441 kcals/cup = 2¼ cups RER RER = 30 x (BWkg) +70 DER Factor Pg. 15 DER # cups to be fed/day <ul><li>“ Bevo” 2yrs old; </li></ul><ul><li>M(N) 40# BCS 3/5 </li></ul><ul><li>Average activity level </li></ul><ul><li>Eats Purina ONE™ Beef & Rice Formula 441 kcals/cup </li></ul>
  53. 54. Life Stage: Growth Carly, 5 months Amanda Adels “ Maisey” 8 months Stephanie Caviglia
  54. 55. Life Stage: Puppies & Kittens <ul><li>As Compared with Adult Nutritional Needs </li></ul>PROTEIN PHOSPHORUS CALCIUM FAT Carbohydrates
  55. 56. Life Stage: Large Breed Puppy
  56. 57. Life Stage: Large Breed Puppy <ul><li>As Compared with Small/Medium Breed Puppies </li></ul>PROTEIN PHOSPHORUS CALCIUM FAT CHO
  57. 58. Ben, 8-year old, mixed breed
  58. 59. Pre-surgical radiograph Ben, 8-year old, mixed breed
  59. 60. Post-surgical radiograph Ben, 8-year old, mixed breed
  60. 61. What Purina Learned… <ul><li>The Purina Life Span Study </li></ul><ul><li>14 year study (1987 – 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: “Evaluate the effects of food intake on body condition…and life span.” </li></ul>www.purinavets.com User name: purinavets Password: nutrition Search: Life Span Study JAVMA, Vol. 220, No. 9, May 1, 2002
  61. 62. <ul><li>Life Span Study Parameters </li></ul><ul><li>48 Labrador Retrievers </li></ul><ul><li>Paired by sex and weight and assigned at random to control or limit-fed group </li></ul><ul><li>Followed for 14 years </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluated radiographs for osteoarthritis </li></ul>Obesity & Skeletal Disease
  62. 63. Clinical Findings JAVMA, Vol. 220, No. 9, May 1, 2002 Control Group Limit-fed Group Hip joint lesions 15/22 3/21 Shoulder joint lesions 19/22 12/21
  63. 64. Clinical Findings <ul><li>Feeding dogs to a leaner body condition increases their life span and reduces incidences of osteopathies </li></ul>Excess Fat/ Energy Density
  64. 65. Beware Excessive Calcium in Large Breed Dog Diets <ul><li>11 Great Dane pups (5 - 10 weeks old) </li></ul><ul><li>Fed free choice for 1 hour twice daily </li></ul><ul><li>5 fed food with 1.1% Calcium </li></ul><ul><li>6 fed food with 3.3% Calcium </li></ul>JAAHA, 21:377 1985 Excess Calcium
  65. 66. 1.18% Ca 3.3% Ca Excessive Calcium Hazewinkle, Thesis, Utrecht 1985
  66. 67. Life Stage: Reproduction/Lactation Baby & Pups
  67. 68. Life Stage: Canine Reproduction/Lactation Canine Gestation <ul><ul><li>First 42 days: Feed as average adult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last 21 days: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed 3 x RER </li></ul></ul>Canine Lactation <ul><ul><li>Varies with number of puppies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range is from 3 x RER to ≥ 6 x RER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed ad libitum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy needs peak at 4 th week of lactation </li></ul></ul>
  68. 69. Life Stage: Feline Reproduction/Lactation Thepetcenter.com Wikipedia.com
  69. 70. Life Stage: Feline Reproduction/Lactation Feline Gestation <ul><ul><li>Consumption increases linearly during gestation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase to 1.6 x RER at breeding </li></ul></ul>Feline Lactation <ul><ul><li>Greatest nutritional need peaks at 6 th week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 to 6 x RER, ad libitum </li></ul></ul>
  70. 71. FEEDING ANNIE 910 kcals 5.5 5.5 x 910 kcals = 5005 kcals 5005 kcals per day 372 kcals/cup = 13½ c. Which Type of Food Will You Feed Annie While She’s Pregnant And Lactating? REGULAR PUPPY FOOD SD Puppy Lamb Meal and Rice Formula <ul><li>“ Annie” F(I); 4 yrs old Dalmatian </li></ul><ul><li>62# BCS 3/5 </li></ul><ul><li>Whelped 7 pups 2 wks ago </li></ul>RER RER = 30 x BWkg +70 DER Factor DER # cups to be fed/day
  71. 72. Life Stage: Senior Stephanie’s Cat 18 yrs, M(N) DSH Crystal Branch Stephanie Caviglia “ Ginger” 14 yrs, F(N) Scottish Terrier
  72. 73. Life Stage: Senior Dogs & Cats <ul><li>As Compared with Adult Life Stage </li></ul>PROTEIN PHOSPHORUS SODIUM FAT CHO
  73. 74. Life Stage: Senior “ Minky” 15 years <ul><li>Glucosamine & Chondroitin </li></ul><ul><li>Helps maintain healthy joints </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled Sodium </li></ul><ul><li>Helps protect heart health </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled Phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Helps protect kidneys in old age </li></ul>
  74. 75. Life Style Feeding <ul><li>Feeding animals foods formulated to support optimal health and meet their nutritional needs based on their life style and activity level. </li></ul><ul><li>Life Style Terminology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity Prone </li></ul></ul>
  75. 76. Life Style: Active Adult What is the most important nutritional factor for an active lifestyle? High Energy Density
  76. 77. Life Style: Active Canine <ul><li>As Compared with Adult Life Stage </li></ul>PROTEIN PHOSPHORUS CALCIUM FAT CHO  Flickr
  77. 78. Life Style: Obesity & Obese Prone <ul><li>“ Light” or “Lite” or “Low Calorie” </li></ul><ul><li>AAFCO Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 3100 kcal/kg dry dog food </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 3250 kcal/kg dry cat food </li></ul>
  78. 79. Life Style: Obesity & Obese Prone <ul><li>As Compared with Adult Life Stage </li></ul>PROTEIN PHOSPHORUS CALCIUM FAT FIBER Source: Funny-cats.com
  79. 80. No visible waistline Fat pools around tailbase “ Missy” English Pointer F(N); 92# BCS 5/5 Karen Pogmore
  80. 81. “ Rocky” 7years, M(N) DSH 20# BCS 5/5 (enjoys yoga  ) Nicole Polizzi
  81. 82. Managing Obese & Obese Prone Animals <ul><li>FOOD </li></ul><ul><li>FEEDING METHOD </li></ul><ul><li>EXERCISE </li></ul><ul><li>OWNER </li></ul>
  82. 83. Managing Obese & Obese Prone Animals <ul><li>Beware of Marketing Claims </li></ul><ul><li>FOOD </li></ul><ul><li>EXERCISE </li></ul><ul><li>FEEDING METHOD </li></ul><ul><li>OWNER </li></ul>
  83. 84. <ul><li>FOOD </li></ul><ul><li>FEEDING METHOD </li></ul><ul><li>EXERCISE </li></ul><ul><li>OWNER </li></ul>Amadeus, 26lbs
  84. 85. Feeding Methods <ul><li>Ad libitum </li></ul><ul><li>Time limited </li></ul><ul><li>Portion limited </li></ul><ul><li>FOOD </li></ul><ul><li>FEEDING METHOD </li></ul><ul><li>EXERCISE </li></ul><ul><li>OWNER </li></ul>
  85. 86. Exercise is Important Too! <ul><li>What Are Some Ways To Get Your Cat to Exercise? </li></ul><ul><li>FOOD </li></ul><ul><li>FEEDING METHOD </li></ul><ul><li>EXERCISE </li></ul><ul><li>OWNER </li></ul>
  86. 87. Rocky’s Energy Needs “ Rocky” 7yrs; M(N), DSH 20lbs, BCS 5/5 RULE FOR OVERWEIGHT ANIMALS Calculate RER based on TARGET WEIGHT , NOT Current Weight WHERE WOULD YOU FIND ROCKY’S TARGET WEIGHT?
  87. 88. Rocky’s Energy Needs 315 kcals 0.8 0.8 x 315 kcals = 252 kcals 252 kcals per day 283 kcals/cup = ~ 4 / 5 cup INTERIM Target Weight: 18 lbs Science Diet® Feline Hairball Control Light Adult – Dry 283 kcals/cup “ Rocky” 7yrs; M(N), DSH 20lbs, BCS 5/5 RER RER = 30 x BW(kg) +70 DER Factor DER # cups to be fed/day
  88. 89. Next Week: Pet Food Labels <ul><li>BRING A LABEL FROM A CAN, BAG, POUCH, CHUB, or FOIL PACK OF DOG OR CAT FOOD ONLY </li></ul>

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