Feedstuffs Swine-Sheep


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Feedstuffs Swine-Sheep

  1. 1. FeedstuffsLarge Animal NutritionSwine, Sheep and Goats
  2. 2. Feedstuffs Feedstuffs- any component of a diet ( ration) that serves some useful functionFunctions:1. Provide source of nutrients and energy2. Combined to produce rations3. Modify characteristics of diet
  3. 3. InternationalFeed ID System System for classifying feedstuffs based on descriptive characteristics Based on the primary nutrient provided by the feedstuff Each feedstuff is assigned an International Feed Number ( IFN)
  4. 4. There are 8 internationalFeedstuff classes 1. Dry Roughages 2. Pasture Range and Grasses 3. Ensiled Roughages 4. High Energy Concentrates 5. Protein Sources 6. Minerals 7. Vitamins 8. Additives
  5. 5. 1. Dry RoughagesCharacteristics:1. Bulky feed that has low weight per unit of volume2. High crude fiber content, low protein and fat digestibility3. Contains greater than 18% crude fiber and less than 70% total digestible nutrients
  6. 6. Dry Roughagae Examples Hay- legume ( alfalfa), grass legume, non legume Straw and chaff Corn cobs Cottonseed hulls Shells and hulls Sugarcane byproducts Paper and wood byproducts
  7. 7. 2. Pasture and Rangegrasses1. Grazed plants2. Soilage or greenchop3. Cannery and food crop residues
  8. 8. 3. Silages and Haylages- fermented, high moisture feed made from the entire plant. Stored in silosExamples:1. corn, sorghum2. Grass, grass-legume, legume
  9. 9. 4. High Energy Concentrate Cereal grains Beet and citrus pulp Molasses Animal, marine and vegetable fats Roots and tuber
  10. 10. 5. Protein SupplementsContains greater than 20% crude protein1. animal, avian, marine sources2. Milk and by-products3. Legume seeds4. Brewery and distillery by-products5. Urea, ammonia
  11. 11. 6. Mineral supplements and 7.Vitamin supplements Must be added by sources that animal is able to absorb Vitamin concentration in plants and animal tissues varies greatly Plants: vitamin concentration affected by harvesting, processing and storing Animals: liver and kidney are good sources of most vitamins
  12. 12. 8. AdditivesNon- nutritive ingredients added to stimulate growth or performance or improve the efficiency of feed1. Added in very small quantities2. Antibiotics, antifungals, antimicrobials3. Buffers, colors, flavors4. Probiotics5. Hormones, enzymes
  13. 13. Estimating Nutritional Value of aFeedGoal: estimate how well nutrients in feedstuffs matches the animal’s needsThree methods for Estimating1. Chemical Analysis2. Digestion and Balance Trials3. Feeding Trials
  14. 14. Chemical Analysis Subdivides the components of the feedstuff into general groups ( protein, water, carbohydrates, lipids, m inerals, vitamins) to estimate the relative amount present Problem: Doesn’t estimate how well the animal utilizes the feed
  15. 15. Digestion and Balance Trials Measures the digestibility of a feed Feed consumption and fecal excretion are measured over period of time Problem: Not a true measure because feces contain sloughed cells and tissue
  16. 16. Feeding Trials Used extensively Usually done before chemical analysis or digestion and balance trials Can evaluate growth, egg production, wool production
  17. 17. Swine Nutrition Porcine Monogastric ominivore Terms1. Sow – adult female2. Boar- adult male3. Piglet- young pig4. Gilt- sexually mature female, no litter yet5. Barrow- castrated male
  18. 18. Swine Nutrition- Water Neonates 80% water, finishing pigs 55% water Requirement is influenced by many factors ( environment, moisture content of feed, urine output, etc.) General guidelines 1-11/2 quarts of water per 1 lb of feed consumed Lactating sows require more for milk production Water quality affects consumption, high total dissolved solids can cause diarrhea, high levels of sulfates should be avoided
  19. 19. Swine Nutrition- Energy Required for buildup of lean and fat tissue Nursing pigs- most energy from fat and sugar in milk Growing pigs- most energy from cereal grains Sows and finishing pigs- some energy is gained from volatile fatty acids from fermentation in large intestine Dietary need is directly related to body weight Amount of feed consumed ad libitum is controlled by energy content of diet
  20. 20. Energy source feedstuffs forSwine Cereal grains ( especially swine) Damaged grains Grain by- products Purified sugars ( sucrose, lactose for piglets) Fat ( tallows, animal and vegetable fats) Processed food waste
  21. 21. Swine Nutrition – Protein andAmino acids Pig carcasses contain 50% muscle. About 8% of the whole body is edible protein Pigs need 10 essential amino acids to maintain tissues Amino acids required are arginine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, met hionine, leucine, phenylalanine, threonin e, tryptophan, valine Lysine is the first limiting amino acid, high requirements, low content in feedstuffes ex. Corn Most diets are based on soybean meal due to its higher lysine content
  22. 22. Protein Source Feedstuffs inSwine Plant proteins: soybeans Animal proteins: by-products of meat packing industry, fish meal, dried milk products Bacteria Synthetic amino acids
  23. 23. Swine Nutrition- MineralsHighest Mineral NeedsCa and P- usually fed as limestone and oyster shellsNaCl- inadequate amounts suppress feed intakeI- soybean and grain diets deficient, supplement requiredFe- injected in piglets to prevent anemia- lasts 3 weeks, milk is iron deficientMg- required in growing pigs, present in feedstuffsZ- supplemented to prevent parakeratosis
  24. 24. Swine Nutrition- Vitamins Vitamin A- supplement 2-3 times need because corn has low Vit A and it breaks down with processing, dehydrated alfalfa is a good source Vitamin D- absent in most feedstuffs, expose pigs to sunlight or add sun cured hays or fish oils to diet Vitamin E – required in all life stages, legume hay, green forage and cereal grains are good sources Vitamin K- present in feeds, synthesized by hind gut fermentation but pig must have access to feces. Supplement added to prevent hemorrhaging in newborns
  25. 25. Vitamin, Mineral and AdditiveSource Feedstuffs in Swine Mineral- trace mineral salt Vitamin- alfalfa meal, fermentation by products, animal protein Additives: antibiotics, anthelmintics etc
  26. 26. Nutritional Diseases in Swine Amino Acid Deficiency: anemia, edema, immunocompromise, impaired growth Parakeratosis: Occurs between the 6- 16th week of life. From low zinc, high calcium diet; bilateral abnormal keratinization of the skin, forming horny scales; starts as brown spots on underside
  27. 27. Swine Feeding Management Pre-breeding: gilt is bred at 7-8 mos. Flushing 1-2 weeks prior to breeding increases ovulation and litter size, high antibiotics added to diet Gestation: normal nutritional needs for first two trimesters. Majority of growth is in last month. Overweight sows are more likely to crush piglets Farrowing: include laxatives to prevent constipation when in farrowing crate; wheat bran or dried beet pulp 10-15% of diet; high antibiotics Lactation: nutrient requirements 3-4 times higher than during gestation, produce 2.5 lbs milk per piglet; if feed restricted can suffer bone fractures and paralysis Nursing pigs: all nutrients from sow’s milk for first 2 weeks. Must supply iron( injectable) Begin eating dry food at 2 weeks
  28. 28. Sheep Nutrition Ovine Ruminant Herbivores Terms:Ewe- female of reproductive ageRam- intact male of reproductive ageLamb- young sheep of either sexWether- neutered adult maleMutton- meat derived from adult sheep
  29. 29. Sheep Nutrition- Water Water is limiting nutrient in many areas Water quality is more important to sheep than any other livestock species ( stagnant, odor, high bacterial or mineral content) Water intake is influenced by feed, vegetation, protein intake, environmental temperature, amount of rain, dew, or
  30. 30. Water Requirements forSheep 1 gallon of water per 4 lbs of dry feed consumed More water when air temp is above 70F Less intake if water temp is <40 or > 50F Lower requirement where there is daily rain, heavy dew or soft, wet snow Lower requirement for those eating silage, succulent or range forage
  31. 31. Sheep Nutrition- Energy Insufficient energy from low intake or poor quality feed Energy deficiency reduces growth, fertility, wool quality, death High energy needs:- Immediately before and after lambing- Flushing ewes and rams for breeding- Finishing lambs
  32. 32. Energy Source Feedstuffs forSheep Good quality pasture, hay, silage Grains: barley, corn, wheat, oats and milo Precautions: when feeding wheat grain- lambs susceptible to acute indigestion
  33. 33. Sheep Nutrition- Protein Usually quantity is more important than quality due to bacterial conversion in rumen Microbial protein synthesis supplies protein needs except when lactating or very young lambs Add extra protein feeds when pastures are mature or when feeding creep rations
  34. 34. Protein source feedstuffs forsheep Green pastures, soybean meal, cottonseed meal, alfalfa hay, urea ( sometimes0 Urea levels: < 1% of total ration No urea in young lambs, creep rations, straw, poor quality hay or lambs on limited feed
  35. 35. Sheep Nutriton- MineralsHighest Mineral NeedsNaCl- usually provided ½-1/3 lb per ewe per monthCa, P – highest need during lactation, provide leafy legumes for Ca, grains for PI- usually provided in saltCo- more in legumes than grassesSe- small difference between deficiency and lethal toxicity, muscular dystrophyZinc- high needs for normal testicular development
  36. 36. Sheep Nutrition- VitaminsVit A- can store excess for 6-12 monthsVit D- fast growing lambs kept inside may show problemsVit E- low selenium leads to Vit E deficiencyVit K- synthesized by rumenVit C- synthesized by tissues
  37. 37. Vitamin and Mineral Feedstuffsin SheepVitamins- green feeds, germs of seeds, sun-cured haysMinerals- leafy legumes, grains, trace mineral and salt mix
  38. 38. Sheep Nutritional DiseasesEnterotoxemia type D- intestinal toxins present in blood; caused by stress and sudden diet changes; vaccinate lambs prior to weaningUrinary calculi- common in rams and wethers in drylot; results from Ca/P ration imbalance and decreased water intake
  39. 39. Sheep Feed ManagementPre-breeding: ewe is flushed for 4-6 weeks, 2 weeks prior to breeding and continuing for 2-3 weeks after bred; flushed on either high quality pastures or ¼ to ½ lb of grain or pellets per day; treat for internal parasites and trim hoovesGestation- 70% of fetal growth happens in the last 6 weeks of gestation
  40. 40. continuedLate pregnancy feed requirement-50% more feed if single lamb-75% more feed if twin lamb-Add grain to high roughage diet, more energyLactation- maximum milk production 2-3 weeks post parturition; feed three times her maintenance requirements; must have increase protein intake to make milkNursing lambs- born with non functioning rumen; colostrum is a must within first 12-18 hours. If no ewe colostrum, can use fresh cow colostrum. Creep feeding used for early weaning and getting lambs to market
  41. 41. Goat Nutrition Caprine Ruminant Herbivore TermsDoe- femaleBuck- intact maleKid- baby goat, either sexWether- castrated male- Inquisitive feeding behavior- Raised for meat, milk, fiber and hides
  42. 42. Goat Feeding Behavior Confinement feeding: will pick through offered feed and eat what they want  This results in 2 important effects:1. Composition of consumed diet differs from formulated diet2. Goats will eat more if they have more to select, so offer less feed to force them to choose more of the dietRange feeding: active forager, browses all plant types including trees, shrubs, grasses, creating a browse line. Will sometimes defoliate one type of plant; goats grazing hilly terrain have higher energy requirements than those on level terrain
  43. 43. Goat Nutrition- Water Requirements- Intake is related to feed intake and feed intake correlates to productivity- Free access to good quality water- More sensitive to water quality, won’t touch fecal/urine contaminated water- Lactation increases needs
  44. 44. Goat Nutrition- Energy Wide variances among breed, productivity, production and size Mostly from carbohydrates and low levels of fat, high fat inhibits rumen fermentation Excess fat is stored in the body around internal organs Consume more dry matter then other livestock species
  45. 45. Energy Source- Feedstuffs forGoats Forages: alfalfa hay, bermuda grass hay grains: corn, sorghum, oats molasses
  46. 46. Goat Nutrition- Protein Most expensive component of diet Needed to support rumen fermentation and supply amino acids Unlike fat, excess is not stored Vary with developmental stage Protein source feedstuffs for goats- Soybean meal, fish meal, cottonseed meal and sunflower meal
  47. 47. Goat Nutrition- Mineral Ca and P are two major minerals- needed for bone development and milk production Mobilize bone stores for high needs Phosphorus need is met due to goats high selectivity in diet Only salt should be provided free choice Lush pasture is deficient in magnesium
  48. 48. Goat Nutrion- Vitamins Only Vit A is likely to be deficient Occurs in confinement fed goats in dry cold weather Occurs in range fed goats when vegetation contains little or no green plant material
  49. 49. Goat Nutritional Diseases Enterotoxemia type D- can occur after high intake of immature succulent forage. Toxin is produced by Clostridium perfringens type D Urinary calculi- can occur when Ca and P rations are unbalanced