Macro and micro nutrients in chicken

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Macronutrients:-
Nutrients are substances needed for growth, metabolism, and for other body functions. Since “macro” means large, macronutrients are nutrients needed in large amounts.
The prefix makro is from the Greek and means big or large
Macronutrients are nutrients that provide calories or energy.
Minerals and Vitamins are called micronutrients since they are needed in SMALL amounts.

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Macro and micro nutrients in chicken

  1. 1. Macro and Micronutrients in Chicken Macronutrients:-  Nutrients are substances needed for growth, metabolism, and for other body functions. Since ―macro‖ means large, macronutrients are nutrients needed in large amounts.  The prefix makro is from the Greek and means big or large  Macronutrients are nutrients that provide calories or energy.
  2. 2. Macronutrients  Water  Carbohydrates  Fats (lipids)  Proteins
  3. 3. Water (H2O)  Overlook when formulating rations—assumed animals have access to good quality water  EXTREMELY IMPORTANT  Cheapest & most abundant nutrient  May lose 100% of body fat, 50% of body protein and live  Lose 10% of body water, dehydration occurs and may result in death
  4. 4. Cont..  65-85% of body weight at birth  45-60% of body weight at maturity  Many tissues contain 70-90% water
  5. 5. Water sources  Drinking water  Feed  Metabolic water produced by oxidation of CHO, fats & proteins
  6. 6. Drinking water Drinking  Pigs = 1.5-3 gal/hd/day  Sheep = 1-3 gal/hd/day  Cattle = 10-14 gal/hd/day  Horses = 10-14 gal/hd/day  Poultry = 2 parts water:1 part feed
  7. 7. Feed Moister contained in poultry feed 11 percent
  8. 8. Metabolic Water Results from the oxidation of organic nutrients in the tissues - 1 g of carbohydrates = .6 g of water - 1 g of protein = .4 g of water - 1 g of fat = 1 g of water - May account for 5-10% of total water intake
  9. 9. Water Loss  Urine  Feces  Lungs (latent heat)/heat of evaporation  Skin  Egg production
  10. 10. Factors Affecting Water Intake  Temperature & humidity  Dietary factors High moisture feeds reduce water intake Fiber, DM intake, salt, and protein increase water intake
  11. 11. Water Absorption  Readily absorbed  Monogastrics/Ruminants: Jejunum, Ileum, Cecum, Large Intestine
  12. 12. CARBOHYDRATES (CHO)  Definition: Hydrates of carbon formed by combining CO2 and H2O  photosynthesis  Primary component found in livestock feeds  70% of DM of forages  80% of DM of grains  Serve as source of energy or bulk (fiber) in the diet
  13. 13. Sources of CHO  Cereal Grains  Most feedstuffs of plant origin are high in CHO content
  14. 14. Types of CHO  Monosaccharides: 1 sugar molecule  Glucose  Primary sugar body uses for fuel  Fructose  Found in honey (75%), fruits, and cane sugar  Sweetest sugar  Present in low concentrations in animal feedstuffs
  15. 15. Monosaccharide (Glucose)
  16. 16. Contn..  Disaccharides: 2 sugar molecules linked by a glycosidic bond  Lactose (galactose + glucose)  Milk sugar  Sucrose (fructose + glucose)  Table sugar  Present in higher concentrations in animal feedstuffs
  17. 17. Disaccharide (Sucrose)
  18. 18. cont…  Oligosaccharides: group of CHO consisting of 2-10 sugar groups  Present in feed ingredients  Fructooligosaccharides (Inulin)  Galactooligosaccharides:
  19. 19. Cont..  Oligosaccharides  Not hydrolytically digested or digested by the action of mammalian enzymes  Fermented by beneficial bacteria present in GIT  ―Functional Feed Ingredient‖: foodstuffs which, apart from their normal nutritional value, are said to help promote or sustain healthiness  PREBIOTIC
  20. 20. Soybean Oligosaccharides
  21. 21. Fructooligosaccharides (Inulin)
  22. 22. Cont..  Polysaccharides: many sugar molecules linked by a glycosidic bond  Starch: storage form in plants  Cellulose: most abundant CHO in nature  Hemicellulose: principle component of plant cell wall
  23. 23. Polysaccharides
  24. 24. Cont..
  25. 25. Function of CHO  Source of energy  Source of heat  Building block for other nutrients
  26. 26. CHO Digestion  Dietary CHO must be converted to be absorbed  Simple sugars (monosaccharides)  How?  Action of amylase enzyme  Salivary amylase (swine, poultry)  Intestinal amylase  Action of other disaccharidases  Produced by mucosal lining of duodenum
  27. 27. CHO Absorption  Once simple sugars are formed, they are absorbed rapidly by small intestine  Then monosaccharides diffuse into the portal vein which transports them to sites of metabolism
  28. 28. LIPIDS  Insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents  Dense energy source:  1 g fat = 9.45 kcal GE  1 g protein = 4.5 kcal GE  1 g CHO = 4.2 kcal GE  Thus, fat produces 2.25 times the energy than CHO
  29. 29. Lipids  Triglyceride: primary storage form of lipids  Saturated fatty acids: contain no double bonds  Unsaturated fatty acids: contain 1 or more double bonds
  30. 30. Sources of Lipids (EFA)  Most feeds contain low levels  > 10%  Unprocessed oil seeds (soybean, cottonseed, sunflower seed) contain up to 20% fat  Traditionally, if additional fat is needed it is added to the diet  Animal fats  Vegetable oils
  31. 31. Structure of lipids
  32. 32. Cont..  Fats = solid at room temp = animal origin  saturated  Oils = liquid at room temp = plant origin  unsaturated
  33. 33. Functions of Lipids  Dietary energy supply  Source of insulation & protection  Source of essential fatty acids (EFA)  Carrier for fat soluble vitamins
  34. 34. EFA  Essential fatty acids (EFA): Those fatty acids that an animal requires, but which it cannot synthesize in adequate amounts to meet the animal’s need  Linoleic  Linolenic -Arachidonic  Physiological needs:  Cell membrane structure  Synthesis of prostaglandins which control blood pressure and smooth muscle contractions  Deficiency:  Scaly, flaky skin (Poor feather growth)  Poor growth
  35. 35. Lipid Digestion  Occurs in the small intestine (duodenum)  Bile produced by liver emulsifies fat  Pancreatic lipase (enzyme) breaks apart fat for absorption
  36. 36. Lipid Absorption  Monoglycerides (MG)—absorbed into SI mucosal cells  Free Fatty Acids (FFA)—absorbed into SI mucosal cells or enter blood circulation directly  Very efficient  Absorption rates range from 70-96%  Generally, oils (unsaturated fats) are absorbed more completely that fats (saturated fats)
  37. 37. PROTEINS  DEFINITION: Protein are long chains of amino acids (AA)- Formed by peptide linkages  Amino group + carbon skeleton  Principal constituent of organs and soft tissues  Highest concentration of any nutrient, except water, in the body of all living organisms and animals  Required for life
  38. 38. Sources of Protein  Most common feedstuffs contain some protein  KEY: to combine feedstuffs into the diet so that AA requirements are met  e.g. Using a corn-soybean meal diet for pigs
  39. 39. Structure Protein (2 AA joined by peptide bond between carboxyl and amino group
  40. 40. Categories of Protein 1. Essential Amino Acids (EAA):  required in the diet  cannot be synthesized at a rate sufficient to meet the nutritional requirements 2. Nonessential AA  animal can produce enough to meet it’s requirements 3. Semi-essential AA  Animal can not always produce enough to meet its requirements
  41. 41. Essential AA  PVT TIM HALL (KNOW!) • Phenylalanine • Valine • Threonine • Tryptophan • Isoleucine • Methionine • Histidine • Arginine • Lysine • Leucine
  42. 42. Critical amino acids  Methionine  Arginine  Lysine  Threonine  Tryptophan  Isoleucine
  43. 43. Limiting amino acids  Lysine  Methionine  Cystine + methionine
  44. 44. Functions of Protein  Basic structural units Collagen, blood, elastin  Body metabolism Enzymes, hormones, immune system, hereditary transmission  Production Meat, milk, skin/hair
  45. 45. Protein Deficiency  Reduced growth & feed efficiency  Infertility  Reduced birth weights  Reduced milk production
  46. 46. Protein Digestion  Proteins must be broken down into AA for absorption in the GIT  Exception! Early in life (> 48 h after birth) proteins from milk (immunoglobulin's) can be absorbed intact across the intestinal epithelium
  47. 47. Monogastric Protein Digestion  Stomach: HCl unfolds (denatures) proteins and activates pepsinogen secreted by stomach to pepsin  Pepsin begins protein digestion to peptides (short-chain proteins)  Small intestine: enzymes (trypsin) break peptides into AA  AA are absorbed in anterior part of the small intestine  Jejunum and ileum  AA are absorbed and transported to tissue via blood
  48. 48. Specifications For Broiler Feeds(BIS Standards 2007) No Nutrient Unit Pre Starter Starter Finisher 1 Moisture Max% 11.0 11.0 11.0 2 Crude protein Min % 23.0 22.0 20.0 3 Ether Extract Min % 3.0 3.5 4.0 4 Crude Fibre Max% 5.0 5.0 5.0 5 Acid Insoluble Ash Max% 2.5 2.5 2.5 6 Salt as NaCl Max % 0.5 0.5 0.5 7 Lysine Min% 1.3 1.2 1.0 8 Methionine Min% 0.5 0.5 0.45 9 Methionine+ cystine Min% 0.9 0.9 0.85 10 Metabolizable energy Min% Kcalkg 3000 3100 3200
  49. 49. Specifications For layer Feeds (BIS Standards 2007) No Nutrient Unit Chick Grower Layer Phase I Phase II 1 Moisture Max% 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 2 Crude protein Min % 20.0 16.0 18.0 16.0 3 Ether Extract Min % 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 4 Crude Fibre Max% 7.0 9.0 9.0 10.0 5 Acid Insoluble Ash Max% 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.5 6 Salt as NaCl Max % 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 7 Lysine Min% 1.0 0.7 0.7 0.65 8 Methionine Min% 0.45 0.35 0.35 0.30 9 Methionine+ cystine Min% 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.55 10 Metabolizable energy Min% Kcalk 2800 2500 2600 2400
  50. 50. Micronutrients in poultry
  51. 51. Micronutrients in poultry  Minerals and vitamins are ca them.  Minerals and Vitamins are called micronutrients since they are needed in SMALL amounts.
  52. 52. Minerals  Inorganic components of the diet  Can not be synthesized or decomposed by chemical reactions  Total mineral content is called ―ash‖  Makes up 3-5% of the body weight
  53. 53. Sources of Minerals  Forages usually considered good sources of minerals  Largely dependant on soil conditions  Grains are fair source of P, but low in other minerals  Mineral premixes  Mineral blocks
  54. 54. What do minerals do in our body?  Influence fluid balance  Regulate blood pressure  Role in muscle contraction  Direct nerve impulse transmission  Used to make hormones  Aids in building strong bones and teeth  Each one has specific roles in body
  55. 55. Categories of Minerals  Macro Minerals: Minerals normally present at greater levels in animal body or needed in large amounts in the diet (found in concentrations > 100 ppm)  Calcium (Ca)  Phosphorus (P)  Sodium (Na)  Chloride (Cl)  Magnesium (Mg)  Potassium (K)  Sulfur (S)
  56. 56. Categories of Minerals  Micro (Trace) Minerals: Minerals normally present at low levels in animal body or needed in small amounts in the diet (found in concentrations < 100 ppm)  Cobalt (Co)  Copper (Cu)  Fluoride (Fl)  Iodine (I)  Iron (Fe)  Manganese (Mn)  Molybdenum (Mo)  Selenium (Se)  Zinc (Zn)
  57. 57. Functions of Mineral  Skeletal formation and maintenance (Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Mn)  Protein synthesis (P, S, Zn)  Oxygen transport (Fe, Cu)  Fluid balance—osmotic pressure (Na, Cl, K)  Acid-base balance regulation (Na, Cl, K)  Activators or components of enzyme systems (Ca, P, K, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn)  Mineral-Vitamin relationships (Ca, P, Co, Se)
  58. 58. Macro Mineral Deficiencies Ca and P  Loss of appetite and weakness  Rickets (young birds ) Layers :  Decreased egg production  Cage layer fatigue  Reduced egg size  Poor shell quality  Blood spot  Yolk mottling Breeders:-  Decreased hatchability  Poor performance of offspring
  59. 59. Sodium (Na) and Chloride(Cl)  Loss of appetite, Growth retardation, poor feed utilization  Decrease in fluid volume  Gonadal inactivity  Reduced egg production & hatchability  Cannibalism  Molting in layers
  60. 60. Potassium  Reduced appetite, depressed growth, muscular weakness and paralysis  Intracellular acidosis  Titanic seizure  Reduced egg production and shell quality
  61. 61. Magnesium  Anorexia and depressed growth  Poor feathering, panting and gasping  Hrperirritabilty,tetany,muscular in coordination  Decreased egg production, egg weight and shell quality
  62. 62. Iron (Fe)  Macrocytic and hypochromic anemia  Low growth rate  Poor feathering  Depigmentation of feathers  Embryonic mortality (9 to 15 days )
  63. 63. Manganese  Perosis (chondrodystrophy)  Thickened and enlarged hock joints  Micromelia in breeders  Ataxia and star gazing posture
  64. 64. Zinc (Zn)  Decrease in weight of lymphoid organs  Retarded growth in young chicks Breeders: Reduced hatchability, Embryonic abnormalities, Reduced feed intake, poor feathering
  65. 65. Copper (Cu)  Anemia  Enlargement ,thickening and rupture of aorta due to defective elastin formation  Fragile long bones and lameness  Shell less and misshapen eggs  Embryonic mortality at 3-4 days
  66. 66. Iodine (I)  Enlargement of thyroid gland  Poor growth, egg production, egg size  Abnormal lacy feathers  Accumulation of fat  Decreased hatchability  Decreased sperm count
  67. 67. Selenium (Se)  Exudative diathesis  Nutritional muscular dystrophy  Pancreatic dystrophy
  68. 68. Tolerance and toxic levels and symptoms and lesions of mineral toxicity in chicken Mineral Tolerable level Toxic level Toxic symptoms Calcium Growers 1.2 % Layers 5 % Def. of Phosphorus Def .of other minerals (Mg,Fe,I,Zn,Mn) Phosphorous 0.8 % (NPP) Def.of Ca, Def .of other minerals (Mg,Fe,I,Zn,Mn) Sodium Layers -0.12 0.9% Reduced growth & egg prod. ,wet litter Chloride Layers -0.12 1.5% Reduced growth Potassium 2.0% Wet litter Magnesium chicks- 0.3% Adults-0.5% 1.0% Poor growth,low egg prod.,poor egg shell quality
  69. 69. Cont.. Mineral Tolerable level Toxic level Toxic symptoms Cobalt 10mg/kg 100mg/kg Reduced growth Copper 300mg/kg 800mg/kg Necrosis of liver,destrction of vit.E, gizzard erosions Iodine 300mg/kg 500mg/kg Goiter, reduced egg prod., egg size and hatchability Iron 1000mg/kg 4500mg/kg Adsorbs vitamins ,formation of insoluble phosphates Manganese 2000mg/kg 4000mg/kg Poor growth Selenium 2mg/kg 10mg/kg Poor growth, low egg prod . Zinc 1000mg/kg 1500mg/kg Muscular dystrophy, reduced bone ash
  70. 70. Specifications For Broiler Feeds(BIS Standards 2007) No Nutrient Unit Pre Starter Starter Finisher 1 Calcium Max% 1.0 1.0 1.0 2 Phosphorous Available P Min % 0.7 0.45 0.7 0.45 0.7 0.45 3 Manganese Min mg 100 100 100 4 Iodine Min mg 1.2 1.2 1.2 5 Iron Min mg 80.0 80.0 80.0 6 Copper Min mg 12.0 12.0 12.0 7 Selenium Min mg 0.15 0.15 0.15 8 Zinc Min mg 80.0 80.0 80.0
  71. 71. Specifications For layer Feeds (BIS Standards 2007) No Nutrient Unit Chick Grower Layer Phase I phase II Calcium Max% 1.0 1.0 3.0 3.5 2 Phosphorous Available P Min % 0.7 0.45 0.65 0.40 0.65 0.40 0.65 0.40 3 Manganese Min mg 70 60 60 60 4 Iodine Min mg 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5 Iron Min mg 70 60 60 60 6 Copper Min mg 12.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 7 Selenium Min mg 0.15 0.15 0.15 8 Zinc Min mg 60 60 60 60
  72. 72. Mineral Absorption  Minerals are converted to their ionic form and absorbed in the small intestine
  73. 73. Vitamins  Organic substances required by the animal in very small amounts  Necessary for metabolic activity but not part of body structure  Content varies greatly in the feed  Requirements depend on species
  74. 74. Types of Vitamins Fat-soluble vitamins  Vit A (carotene): vision  Vit D: Ca, P absorption  Vit E (tocopherol): antioxidant  Vit K (menadione): blood clotting
  75. 75. Vitamin A  Discovered in 1913 by McCollum and Davis  Essential for vision, healthy epithelial tissues, and growth  Sources: milk, cheese, cream, butter, eggs, liver Beta carotene – A molecule normally can yield two molecules of retinol  One ICU of vitamin A =0.3mg of retinol or 0.55 mg of retinol palmitate
  76. 76. Forms of vitamin A Form of vitamin Activity Retinol 3.33 IU Retinol acetate 2.91 IU Retinol palmitate 1.82 IU Beta carotene 1.67 IU
  77. 77. Functions  Vision (Rhodopsin formation)  Bone growth  Reproduction  Epithelial integrity  Immunological response
  78. 78. Absorption, transport and metabolism  Retinyl esters (RE) hydrolyzed into retinol & absorbed in to mucosal cell.  RE (liver) are hydrolyzed by enzymes n free retinol is transported by retinol binding protein (RBP) to tissues  Liver contains as much as 95% of vitamin in body
  79. 79. Deficiency  Reduced growth  Decrease in resistance to diseases  Eye lesions and muscular in co-ordination  Decrease in egg production  Degeneration of mucus membrane
  80. 80. Vitamin D  Named by McCollum in 1925  The ―Sunshine Vitamin,‖ synthesized with the help of sunlight also named as antirachitic vitamin  Aids in mineralization of bones  Sources: milk, butter, juices, cereal, chocolate, veal, beef, egg yolks, and fatty fish  One ICU of vit.D=0.025mg of vitamin D Two forms  Ergocaciferol ( D2) and  Cholecalciferol ( D3),  Cholecalciferol is more potent (30 times)
  81. 81. Functions  Enhancement of intestinal absorption  Elevates plasma Ca and P levels  Helps in regulation of immune cell formation
  82. 82. Absorption, transport and metabolism  Active form of vitamin D3 is formed in the kidney under the influence of PTH during reduced calcium levels  Vitamin D is absorbed in presence of bile & reaches rapidly to liver via circulation
  83. 83. Deficiency  Rickets ,soft beak,claws,leg and other bones  Depigmentation of feathers  Reduced egg production  Thin shelled or shell less eggs  Reduced hatchability  Embryonic mortality in chicks (18-19Days)
  84. 84. Vitamin E  Discovered by Evans and Bishop in 1922  Source: polyunsaturated plant oils (margarine and salad dressing), green leafy vegetables, whole grains, egg yolks, nuts, and fatty meats  One ICU of vit.E = 1mg of dl- tocopherol acetate or 0.909 mg of dl tocopherol Functions  functions as an antioxidant  Enhance disease resistance in chicken  Involved in cell oxidation
  85. 85. Forms of vitamin E Form Activity DL-a-Tocopheryl acetate 1.00 IU D –a-Tocopheryl acetate 1.36 IU D-a-Tocopherol 1.49 IU DL-a-Tocopherol 1.10 IU D-v-Tocopherol 0.07 IU Tocotrienols 1.30 IU
  86. 86. Deficiency  Exudative diathesis  Encephalomalacia/crazy chick disease  Muscular dystrophy  Sterility in males
  87. 87. Vitamin K Discovered by Henrik Dam in 1929 Main role is in synthesis of blood clotting proteins. Sources: liver, green leafy vegetables, milk, and cabbage-type vegetables. The bacteria in our GI tracts can also make vitamin K
  88. 88. Forms of vitamin K Form of vitamin Activity Phylloquinone (K1) 100 % Menaquinone (K2) 100 % Menadione (K3) 60 %
  89. 89. Functions  Required for blood clotting  Prothrombin is converted to thrombin facilitate conversion of soluble fibrinogen in to insoluble fibrin  Synthesis of proconvertin,plasma thromboplastin & Stuart factor
  90. 90. Deficiency  Impaired blood clotting  Severe internal hemorrhages  Gizzard erosion
  91. 91. Water soluble  Thiamine  Riboflavin  Niacin  Pyridoxine  Pantothenic acid  Biotin  Choline  Folic acid  Vitamin B12  Vitamin C
  92. 92. Thiamine (B1)  Discovered by Eijkman in 1897  Essential for release of energy from nutrients during oxidation  Plays important role in nucleic acid synthesis  Essential for membrane integrity and function of nerve cell  Concerned in synthesis of acetyl choline & fatty acids
  93. 93. Sources  Cereal byproducts like rice germ, wheat bran, peanut meal, cane molasses and alfalfa
  94. 94. Deficiency  Polyneuritis  Loss of appetite  Opisthotonous  Cardiac abnormalities  Star gazing and frequent convulsions
  95. 95. Riboflavin (B2)  Discovered by Warburg and Christian in 1932  Essential for generation of energy during the metabolism of CHO and fats  Facilitate biological oxidation –reduction reactions  Sources :-  Yeast ,liver, milk and eggs  Hence this vitamin is extremely critical and required to be supplied in diets of chicken
  96. 96. Deficiency  Curled toe paralysis  Retarded growth, leg paralysis  Reduced egg production  Reduced hatchability
  97. 97. Niacin  Isolated by Warburg and Christain in 1936  Essential for release of energy from nutrients  Important for biosynthesis of nucleic acid  Forms of niacin  1)Nicotinic acid  2)Nicotinamide  Sources:  cereal grains and grain byproducts  Oilseeds  Animal protein sources
  98. 98. Deficiency  Enlargement of tibiotarsal joint, poor feathering,dematitis of feet & head  Reduced feed intake & growth rate in chicks  Black tongue- inflammation of mouth & esophagus  Loss of weight, reduced egg production & hatchability in layers
  99. 99. Pyridoxine (B6 )  Deficiency first discovered by Goldberger and Lillee in 1926  Requirement increases with level of protein,aminoacids and their ratio in diet  Supplemental vitamin B6 may be essential in corn soya diet  Concerned in amino acid biosynthesis and catabolism  Essential for synthesis of biogenic amines  Essential for energy production from metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins
  100. 100. Forms of pyridoxine  Pyridoxal  Pyridoxol  Pyridoxamine
  101. 101. Sources  Widely distributed in most foods viz.muscle,meats,liver green leafy material and whole grains
  102. 102. Deficiency  Characteristic posture with wings slightly spread and head resting on ground  Birds run aimlessly  Reduced appetite, growth and poor feathering  Marked increase in gizzard erosion  Hyper excitability  Reduction in egg production & hatchability
  103. 103. Pantothenic acid  Discovered by Norris and Ringrose in 1930  Sensitive to moist heat-pelleting may cause loss  Plays important role in the form of coenzyme A & acetyl carrier protein  Enhances antibody titers by incorporation of amino acids in blood & albumin  Essential for synthesis of acetyl choline  Biosynthesis of hemoglobin  Forms of Pantothenic acid D-Pantothenate DL-Pantothenate
  104. 104. Sources  Cereal byproducts like rice germ, wheat bran, peanut meal, cane molasses and alfalfa
  105. 105. Deficiency  Reduced growth & poor feed conversion  Poor feathering  Dermatitis at the corner and near the beak  Dermatitis of feet  Reduced hatchability & embryonic mortality during last phase of incubation  Edematous embryos with subcutaneous hemorrhages
  106. 106. Folacin  Deficiency symptoms first recorded by Wills in 1951  Sensitive to light & heat  High protein diets infested with moulds & supplementation of diets with sulpha drugs increases the dietary requirement Forms of Folacin Folic acid Polyglutamyl folacins Function: Plays key role in transfer of single carbon units as tetrahydropholic acid Required for maintaining immune system
  107. 107. Deficiency  Anemia ,poor growth  Depigmentation of colored feathers  Poor hatchability & increased embryonic mortality during last days of incubation  Abnormal development of hyaline cartilage
  108. 108. Biotin (vitamin H)  Discovered by Allison, Hoover and Burk in 1933  Bioavalabity more from vegetable feed ingredients than animal sources available in two forms as D- Biotin and DL-Biotin  Pelleting has little effect on biotin content in the feeds  Involved in conversion of CHO to proteins  Essential for normal blood glucose level  Functions in transcarboxilation ,protein synthesis,deamination and nucleic acid metabolism  Coenzyme in metabolism of linoleic acid
  109. 109. Deficiency  Utilization of biotin reduced if feed contains mould or rancid fats  Poor growth & feed efficiency,ataxia,crooked legs & parrot beak  Dermatitis, disturbed & broken feathers  Reduced hatchability in breeders
  110. 110. Cynocobalamine(B 12)  Identified as unknown factor by Minor & Murphy in 1926  Found in abundance in plant feed ingredients  Cobalt is integral part of the vitamin(4.5%)  Functions  Transamination & biosynthesis of nutrients like choline,methionine & Folacin  Concerned in synthesis of purines,pyrimidines & proteins
  111. 111. Deficiency  Reduced hatchability & embryonic mortality  Anemia, gizzard erosions ,fattiness of heart liver & kidney  Reduction in egg weight  Reduced feed intake, feed efficiency & poor growth of feathers  Nervous disorders
  112. 112. Choline  Discovered by Strecker in 1862  Synthesized in liver, highly hygroscopic  Requirement increases with increase levels of dietary protein or fat  Functions  Structural component of cell  Constituent of phospholipids, plays important role in metabolism  Prevents fatty liver by mobilization of fat as lecithin
  113. 113. Sources  Fish ,cereal products & oil seed meals
  114. 114. Deficiency  Perosis in young chicks  Fatty liver
  115. 115. Vitamin c (Ascorbic acid)  1747 James lind ,Scottish Naval Surgeon Discovered  Two forms Reduced form Ascorbic Acid & dehydroxyascorbic acid  Reduced form oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid  Readily destroyed by oxidation  Functions  Collagen synthesis  Electron transfer in the cell  Important role in metabolism of tyrosine  Stimulate phagocytic activity & antibody formation  Synthesis of carnitine  Essential for steroid synthesis
  116. 116. Toxicity of vitamin A,D3 & E Vitamin Toxic level Symptoms /lesions A 2,000,000 IU/kg Antagonizes absorption of vitamin D3 & E D3 300,000 IU/kg Hypercalcimia,mine ralization of soft tissue E 40,000 IU/Kg Poor growth ,soft tissue mineralization
  117. 117. Specifications For Broiler Feeds(BIS Standards 2007) No Nutrient Unit Pre Starter Starter Finisher 1 Vitamin A Min IU 11000 11000 10000 2 Vitamin D3 Min IU 3000 3000 300 3 Vitamin B1 Min mg 2.5 2.5 2.5 4 Vitamin B2 Min mg 6.0 6.0 6.0 5 Pantothenic acid Min mg 15.0 15.0 15.0 6 Niacin Min mg 40.0 40.0 40.0 7 Biotin Min mg 0.15 0.15 0.15 8 Vitamin B12 Min mg 0.015 0.015 0.015 9 Folic acid Min mg 1.0 1.0 1.0 10 Choline Min mg 500 500 500 11 Vitamin E Min mg 30.0 30.0 30.0 12 Vitamin K Min mg 1.5 1.5 1.5 13 Vitamin B6 Min mg 5.0 5.0 5.0 14 Linoleic acid % 1.1 1.1 1.1
  118. 118. Specifications For layer Feeds (BIS Standards 2007) No Nutrient Unit Chick Grower Layer phase I phase II 1 Vitamin A Min IU 9000 8000 8000 8000 2 Vitamin D3 Min IU 1800 1600 1600 1600 3 Vitamin B1 Min mg 2.0 1.5 1.0 1.0 4 Vitamin B2 Min mg 6.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5 Pantothenic acid Min mg 10.0 9.0 7.0 7.0 6 Niacin Min mg 40.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 7 Biotin Min mg 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 8 Vitamin B12 Min mg 0.010 0.008 0.008 0.008 9 Folic acid Min mg 1.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 10 Choline Min mg 500 200 400 400 11 Vitamin E Min mg 15.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 12 Vitamin K Min mg 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 13 Vitamin B Min mg 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 14 Linoleic acid % 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
  119. 119. Thank you

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