Session 12 cattle_nutrition


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Session 12 cattle_nutrition

  1. 1. Cattle Nutrition Ruminant Herbivores Calf- young animal Heifer- female calf that has not given birth and is less than 30 months old Cow- older than 30 months old, or has given birth Bull- intact male Steer- castrated male up to 4 years old Ox- castrated male, more than 4 years old
  2. 2. Dairy Cattle Main objective- increase dry matter intake to produce higher levels of milk production Key factors: energy, ration digestibility, rumen fill, palatability, body weight( BCS), environment, frequency of feeding and water
  3. 3. Phase feeding program Phase feeding - Changing the nutrient concentration in a series of diets formulated to meet an animal’s nutrient requirements more precisely at a particular stage of growth or production - Based on lactation and gestation cycle
  4. 4. Phase 1  First 10 weeks of lactation  Peak milk production happens in this phase  Negative energy balance develops, so cow uses body stores to make up difference ( can borrow fat, but cannot borrow protein)
  5. 5. What to feed in Phase 1  Increased grain for energy ( corn, wheat, soybeans)  Protein supplementation to meet amino acid requirements ( dried brewers grain, distillers grain, corn gluten meal)  Increased concentrates and fats to increase energy density of feed ( soybeans, sunflower seeds)  Sodium bicarbonate “ buffer” to reduce acidosis and maintain ruminal ph
  6. 6. Phase 2  Begins 10 weeks post calving and can continue to 20th week  Highest dry matter intake happens here  Nutrient intake is finally in balance with nutrient needs
  7. 7. What to feed in Phase 2  Lower protein levels because requirement is met by supplementation in Phase 1  Adequate fiber  Limited grain intake  Frequent feeding ( minimizes digestive upset)
  8. 8. Phase 3  “late lactation period”, cow is pregnant again  Nutrient intake exceeds requirement for production  Main period for restoring body reserves for next lactation
  9. 9. What to feed in Phase 2  Easiest phase to manage because cow is pregnant and milk production is declining  Increased amount of forage instead of concentrates  Lower protein
  10. 10. Phase 4  Most of the “ dry” period  Final regaining of any lost body weight happens here  Goal is to get cow in good condition for parturition, but not excessively fat ( BCS of 3.5 out of 5.O scale)
  11. 11. What to feed in Phase 4  High protein, energy, Ca and P needs  Combination of legume-grass hay and corn silage ( with added vitamins and P0  Long stem grass hay ( length of hay matters)  Limit grain to energy and protein needs
  12. 12. Body Condition Scoring A numeric system to subjectively assess and animal’s degree of fatness Fat Cow Syndrome - High blood lipids and fatty liver from eating excess energy from grain or corn silage - Can lead to calving difficulties, displaced abomassum and ketosis
  13. 13. Phase 5  Last 1-3 weeks of “dry” period, just before calving  Referred to as a “transition period”  Increase grain intake to prepare rumen for high energy diets that will be needed postpartum
  14. 14. What to feed in Phase 5  Gradual increase in grains  Small amounts of all ingredients used in the lactation ration  Maybe decrease Ca in “ milk fever” prone cows
  15. 15. Beef Cattle Nutrition  Most critical factor influencing performance of cattle on forage diet is the amount of Dry Matter Intake  Young, growing grass and pasture crops usually have ample nutrients  old pastures, crop residues and harvesting methods cause reduction in nutrients
  16. 16. Biological Cycle Goal: optimal nutrition at each stage, not maximum nutrition Cycle is made up of 4 periods that span 1 year: 3 trimesters and 1 postpartum period
  17. 17. First Trimester ( 95 days)  Begins the 1st day of conception  Nutrient needs are for maintenance and lactation if the cow has a calf with her  Milk production is declining at this stage
  18. 18. Second Trimester ( 95 days)  Calf is weaned, lactation requirements end  Lowest nutrient requirements at this point  Feed minimally  Easiest and most economical time to increase a thin cows BCS
  19. 19. Third Trimester ( 95 days)  Rapid fetal growth causes rapidly increasing nutrient needs  Watch BCS carefully, cow gains 1 lb per day  Too thin cows experience dystocias, weak calves and decreased milk production
  20. 20. Postpartum Period ( 80 days)  High lactation requirements  Feed intake is 35-50% higher than non-lactating cow  Nutritional stress at this point causes problems during the cow’s next breeding ( usually 80 days post partum)
  21. 21. Energy Requirement  Energy is considered first in balancing diet for beef cattle, it’s the largest portion of the ration  Energy utilization determines cow’s ability to use other nutrients  Good quality forage satisfies adult energy requirements  Poor quality forages need to be supplemented with concentrates
  22. 22. Protein Requirements  50% of all protein and amino acid needs are met by microbial protein synthesis  Protein deficiency is common when cows consume straw and low quality hay  Urea is commonly used as a protein supplement
  23. 23. Beef Cattle, Water requirements  Need abundant supply at once daily  Range cows consume 2 ½ gallons daily in winter and up to 12 gallons per head in summer  When salt is added, water need is increased  Fresh succulent feeds or silage help reduce need
  24. 24. Beef Cattle mineral requirements  Salt- need more when eating succulent forages than when eating drier forage  Calcium- depends of Ca concentration in soil, higher needs in growing and lactating cows  Phosphorus- Low P levels in roughage, so P is often offered free choice in a mineral mix  Cobalt- required for rumen microorganisms to synthesize vitamin B 12
  25. 25. Minerals continued  Copper- Simental and Charlois have a higher requirement than Angus  Iodine- deficiencies in Northwest and Great Lakes area soil; supply via iodized salt
  26. 26. Beef Cattle Vitamin Requirements  C, D, E, K and B complex- no need for supplementation; ruminal microflora synthesizes B complex and K, Vitamin C is synthesized in tissues, Sun dried forages contain lots of Vit D and E  A- roughage and grains are low in Vit A, causing a deficiency. Cattle on pasture can store large amounts of Vit A for 2 months in liver, so deficiency isn’t immediately apparent. Look for signs of rough coat, diarrhea, excessive lacrimation
  27. 27. Grazing Systems and Management 1. Continuous Grazing - Most common type of grazing scheme - Cow grazes 1 area for the entire season up to 1 year - Low maintenance, but production suffers
  28. 28. Grazing systems continued 2. Deferred rotational grazing - 4 pasture system - 1 pasture would not be grazed from spring to mid summer in order to allow desirable plants to flower and reach seed maturity - The following year another pasture would not be grazed - After 4 years, all four pastures will have had time to rest
  29. 29. Grazing systems continued 3. Rest rotation - Uses 3-5 pastures - 1 pasture is not grazed for an entire year, while herd uses other pastures
  30. 30. Grazing Systems continued 4. Short duration grazing - Developed in France - 8-40 pastures grazed intensively for 2-3 days, then not grazed again for several weeks
  31. 31. Nutritional Disorders 1. Pasture bloat - Comes from consuming lush legumes ( alfalfa, red clover) - Relieve bloat by inserting stomach tube into rumen and giving anti-foam material ( ex vegetable oil) - A trocar is used in extreme cases to release pressure ( large “needle” puncture through skin and gas rushes out)
  32. 32. Nutritional disorders continued Grass tetany - Low Mg levels in blood from grazing lush green grass pastures - Common in cows nursing calves under 2 months - Symptoms: excitability, cows act blind - Fix by feeding free choice mineral supplement containing Mg, early in grazing season
  33. 33. Nitrate toxicity Nitrate toxicity - Caused when intake of nitrate is in excess of the rumen’s ability to convert it to ammonia - Causes hemoglobin in blood to change into a form which cannot transport oxygen to the tissues - Cow dies from asphyxiation - Treat with injection of IV methylene blue
  34. 34. Fescue Toxicity Fescue toxicity - Caused by grazing or consuming harvested hay from tall fescue pastures - Cow eats the endophytic fungus that grows between the fescue cells - signs: soreness in hind limbs, “ fescue foot” hooves and tail slough off, hypersalivation and polyuria
  35. 35. Acute Pulmonary Emphysema Acute Pulmonary Emphysema “ Asthma’ - Occurs in western US when cattle are moved from dry rangelands to lush meadow pastures abruptly - Signs seen in 4-5 days after diet change - Symptoms: labored breathing, extended neck, open mouth breathing, grunting - Prevention: ( no treatment) slowly introduce cattle to new pasture and supplement with monensin