Visual Impairments

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Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Architecture course Dynamic Visualization Design 1 group work presentation "Visual Impairments" 2012-11-08.

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    I have recently given my thesis on 'learning disabilities and color blindness in primary school' as a industrial designer I have given the solution in the format of ' playing tools and visual aids for color deficit children' if anyone wants to see my work u can email me at (unkzma@yahoo.com) and also on Facebook through this id
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Visual Impairments

  1. 1. Visual impairments 8.11.2012 Nina Kaijasilta Petri Myllys Maiju Tompuri
  2. 2. Visual Impairments• Visual impairments – a matter of definition – Visually impaired, vision impairment, partially sighted, low vision, legally blind, totally blind, functional loss of vision, eye disorder, retinal degeneration, albinism, cataracts, glaucoma, muscular problems, corneal disorders, diabetic retinopathy, congenital disorders, infection, cortical visual impairment
  3. 3. Visual Impairments • Visually impaired – categorization between1: – Low vision / partially sighted2 – Blind • Based on WHO definition – Visual acuity & visual field defect 1 http://www.nkl.fi/fi/etusivu/tietoa/maarittely 2 http://www.nkl.fi/fi/etusivu/tietoa/sanastoengl
  4. 4. Visual Impairments • 285.389M visually impaired people (2010 estimate)1 – Enough reason to visualization for visually impaired 1 http://www.who.int/blindness/en/
  5. 5. Why to consider?“A well-designed visualization facilitates theunderstanding of the key messages, speedsthe process and reduces strain.Great visualizations take into consideration,how people receive and utilize information.” Näsänen, 2007 Accessible design
  6. 6. Why to consider? “The power of the web is in its universality. Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect.” Tim Berners-Lee, creator of WWW
  7. 7. BLINDNESS
  8. 8. Blindness • The WHO definition from 19721 – Case for revision: • Interesting issue – definition of blindness: • No distinction when it comes to perception of light 1 http://www.who.int/blindness/Change%20the%20Definition%20of%20Blindness.pdf
  9. 9. Blindness • Another angle: – International Council of Ophthalmology recommends1 • Blindness: only total vision loss • Low vision: lesser degrees of vision loss • Visual impairment: loss of visual functions at the organ level 1 Colenbrander 2002, 17
  10. 10. Blindness • Complete blindness is rare1,2 • So what exactly is visualization and to whom can we visualize? 1 http://www.nkl.fi/fi/etusivu/tietoa/maarittely 2 Nelson 2003, 29
  11. 11. LOW VISION
  12. 12. What’s low vision?Low vision in the World Health Organizationclassifications1:•Moderate visual impairment•Severe visual impairment•visual field loss (loss of peripheral vision).1http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs282/en/index.html
  13. 13. Severe visual impairment Moderate visual impairment Mild vision lossSnellen chart: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Snellen_chart.svg&page=1
  14. 14. Low vision Why does it occur? • Uncorrected refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia or astigmatism), 43 % • Cataract, 33% • Glaucoma, 2% World Health Organization1 1http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs282/en/index.html
  15. 15. COLOR BLINDNESS
  16. 16. Color blindness • The colorblind have a narrowed color perception • There is no treatment or cure for color blindnessPic: http://understandinggraphics.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/color-blind-chart.png
  17. 17. Color vision • Red cones – L cones • Green cones – M cones • Blue cones – S cones Normal Vision Color Blindness (Protanopia)Pic: http://www.cis.rit.edu/fairchild/WhyIsColor/Questions/3-
  18. 18. Normal vision Red-Blind/ ProtanopiaGreen-Blind/ Blue-Blind/Tritanopia Deuteranopia Monochromacy/ Red-Weak/ Green-Weak/ Blue-Weak/ Achromatopsia Protanomaly Deuteranomaly TritanomalySimulator: http://www.colblindor.com/coblis-color-blindness-simulator/
  19. 19. Color blindness Prevalence (Caucasian) Type Men Women Cone absent 2.4% 0.03% L-cone absent (Protanopia) 1-1.3% 0.02% M-cone absent (Deuteranopia) 1-1.3% 0.01% S-cone absent (Tritanopia) 0.001% 0.03% Cone defect 6.3% 0.37% L-cone defect (Protanomaly) 1-1.3% 0.02% M-cone defect (Deuteranomaly) 4.5-5.0% 0.35% S-cone defect (Tritanomaly) 0.01-0.02% 0.01% Total 8 - 10% 0.3 – 0.5%Source: http://www.colour-blindness.com/general/prevalence/
  20. 20. Color blindness prevalence
  21. 21. Color blindness Genetics • Color blindness carried by the X chromosone (recessive)
  22. 22. Color blindness Ishihara - Color defiency test 1917Original plates: http://colorvisiontesting.com/ishihara.htm
  23. 23. Color blindness Hue Color Vision 1949 1 Color arrangement test 1947 21 Screenshot: http://www.colblindor.com/farnsworth-munsell-100-hue-color-vision-2 Screenshot: http://www.colblindor.com/color-arrangement-test/test/#prettyPhoto
  24. 24. Color blindness RGB Anomaloscope 1907 1 21 Screenshots: http://www.colblindor.com/rgb-anomaloscope-color-blindness-test/2 Pic: https://www.good-lite.com/Details.cfm?ProdID=570
  25. 25. HOW TO DESIGN?
  26. 26. Visualizing for blind?• What exactly is seeing? – Seeing could be thought as a mental interpretation of some input
  27. 27. Visualization methods forpersons blind or partially sighted
  28. 28. How to design for the blind • Louis Braille (1809 – 1852): braille system 1 1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Braille_alfabet.jpg
  29. 29. How to design for the blind • Contrast – “-- visual acuity depends on the contrast” 1 – ”-- contrast sensitivity thus depends on the size of the object” 1 1 Näsänen 2007, 12
  30. 30. Modified from JoelSchneider’s 3-pageSnellen Chart
  31. 31. How to design for the blind • Tactile textures – Boundaries are easy to find1 • Tactile maps – Abstract concepts can be demonstrated2 1 Anderson 1992, 290 2 Skytt 2012, 10–12.
  32. 32. Pic: http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/w/images/4/44/Tactile_Map_Aachen.jpg
  33. 33. How to design for the blind • Tactile combined with sound – IVEO Viewer1 1 1 Gardner, Bulatov & Kenny 2009
  34. 34. “Fig. 1. IVEO SVG image as seen on screen oron the color printed image. (b) Dots embossedwith a ViewPlus embosser. Black dots have themaximum height of 0.5 mm and gray dots aresmaller. 7 dot heights are possible” (Gardner, Bulatov& Kenny 2009)
  35. 35. How to design for the blind • What about Scalable Vector Graphics in mainstream context?
  36. 36. How to design for the blind • “To be scalable means to increase or decrease uniformly. In terms of graphics, scalable means not being limited to a single, fixed, pixel size.” (http://www.w3.org/TR/SVG11/concepts.html)
  37. 37. Bushell 2012
  38. 38. • Screen readers & special displays – Design & development might target only a specific (seeing) group • Microsoft Windows first not accessible by screen readers11 Vehmas 2005, 130
  39. 39. How to design for low vision Distinguishable letters When a picture is formed into the retina, small details have lower contrast than larger items. 1 Use bigger letters and graphical elements. Letterforms need to be easily distinguishable 1,2 1Näsänen 2007 2Dolan, RGD Ontario 2010
  40. 40. Screenshot: http://www.couchsurfing.org/
  41. 41. Screenshot: http://ripetungi.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/twitter-users.png
  42. 42. How to design for low vision Enough difference in color value Brains compensate for a certain range of blur that eye optics create. This applies only to the difference in brightness, not in color. 1 A good rule of thumb is to ensure at least a 70% difference in color value between e.g. type and a background tone. 2 1Näsänen 2007 2Dolan, RGD Ontario 2010
  43. 43. http://blog.mainstreethost.com/
  44. 44. How to design for low vision Focus on layout We see sharply only in the center of the visual field because the amount of ganglian cells reduces when not in the focus point. 1 information needs to be clearly placed, and the layout can be understood with one glance.1 1Näsänen 2007
  45. 45. Screenshot: http://laitilan.com/
  46. 46. Screenshot: http://www.mtv3.fi/
  47. 47. Screenshot: http://www.fox.com/
  48. 48. How to design for low vision Is extra bling bling needed? Every day we do approximately 100 000 eye fixations. Each fixation takes at least 0,15 seconds.1 Avoid animations and flashy content if they don’t bring extra value to the visualization. However, use of graphic visualizations is recommended.1 1Näsänen 2007
  49. 49. Screenshot: http://producten.hema.nl/
  50. 50. How to design for low vision Make it accessible There is a wide variance in users’ ability to operate a mouse, keyboard or other input device. Some people may use voice- recognition programs with spoken commands. 1 Make all functionality fully accessible from a keyboard and create content that can be presented in different ways.1 1Dolan, RGD Ontario 2010
  51. 51. Pic: http://notabilia.net/
  52. 52. How to design for color blinds • Colors should never be the only method of conveying important information! This is important
  53. 53. How to design for colorblinds • Avoid placing red and green together – Also minor color &contrast differences 2 • Desaturate images to see if they still have impact 11http://blog.templatemonster.com/2012/03/21/designing-colorblind-friendly-website/2 http://www.tfl.gov.uk/assets/downloads/standard-tube-map.pdf
  54. 54. How to design for colorblinds Bad examples: BBC Online Sceenshot: http://wearecolorblind.com/example/bbc-online-football-tables/
  55. 55. How to design for colorblinds • In graphs – Place the legend directly in the chart – Display the type of data for each element in a tooltip Blue Green Purple Red • Name the color in text as well
  56. 56. How to design for colorblinds Bad example: Google Analytics Sceenshot: http://wearecolorblind.com/example/google-analytics/
  57. 57. How to design for colorblinds • Increase contrast, change hue, add shapesBernhard J. & Vaughn Kelso N. 2007
  58. 58. How to design for colorblinds • Use varied icons and shapesBernhard J. & Vaughn Kelso N. 2007
  59. 59. How to design for colorblinds Problematic colors High Medium Low Light Green and Green and Red Blue and Yellow Yellow Green and Brown Blue and Grey Yellow and Violet Blue and Purple Green and Grey Dark blue and Black Green and Blue Green and BlackPic: http://jfly.iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp/color/
  60. 60. How to design for colorblinds Unambiguous Colors • For both to colorblinds and non-colorblinds Simulation Original Protan Deuter Tritan Black Orange Sky Blue Bluish Green Yellow Blue Vermillon Reddish Purple Colors: http://jfly.iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp/color/image/pallete.jpg
  61. 61. Curious about color blindness?• Watch video: ”No such thing as color – what it is like to be colorblind” – http://www.nosuchthingascolor.com/• We are colorblind - Blog by Tom van Beveren, colorblind (deuteranomally) • http://wearecolorblind.com/
  62. 62. Test your designs• Color blindness simulation – http://vischeck.com/ – http://www.colblindor.com/coblis-color- blindness-simulator/• Contrast test – http://www.checkmycolours.com/ – http://www.snook.ca/technical/colour_contrast /colour.html• Grayscale images and visualizations
  63. 63. Conclusions• Many people with visual impairments – Create accessible design• Use guidelines in design – Contrast – Size – Color – Layout – Format
  64. 64. References• Anderson, Frances 1992. Art for all the children: approaches to art therapy for children with disabilities. Springfield, Charles C Thomas.• Bernhard, J.& Vaughn Kelso, N. 2007. Color Design for the Color Vision Impaired. Cartographic Perspectives, 58, p. 61-67.• Bushell, David 2012. Resolution Independence With SVG. Read 30.10.2012. http://coding.smashingmagazine.com/2012/01/16/resolution-independence-with-svg/• Colenbrander, August 2002. Visual Standards: Aspects and Ranges of Vision Loss with Emphasis on Population Surveys. International Council of Ophthalmology. Read 23.10.2012. http://www.icoph.org/downloads/visualstandardsreport.pdf• Color Blindness. Prevalence. Accessed 01.11.2012. http://www.colour-blindness.com/general/prevalence/• Dolan, D., A Practical Handbook on Accessible Graphic Design 2010, RGD Ontario• Flück, D. 2012. Colblindor - Color Blindness viewed through Colorblind Eyes. Accessed 30.10.2012. http://www.colblindor.com/• Gabriel-Petit, P. 2007. Ensuring Accessibility for People With Color-Deficient Vision. Accessed 01.11.2012 http://www.uxmatters.com/mt/archives/2007/02/ensuring-accessibility-for-people-with- color-deficient-vision.php• Gardner, John; Bulatov, Vladimir & Kelly, Robert 2009. Making Journals Accessible to the Visually- Impaired – The Future is Near. Learned Publishing 22(4) 2009 pp. 314-319. Read 30.10.2012. http://www.viewplus.com/about/abstracts/09learnpubgardner.html• ICD Update and Revision Platform: Change the Definition of Blindness. World Health Organization. Read 23.10.2012. http://www.who.int/blindness/Change%20the%20Definition%20of%20Blindness.pdf• Malamed, C. 2012. Designing for Color Blindness. http://understandinggraphics.com/design/designing-for-color-blindness/• Mariotti, S. P., Global Data on Visual Impairments 2010, World Health Organization
  65. 65. References• Nelson, Scott 2003. A Professional Artist and Curator Who Is Blind. Art Beyond Sight – A Resource Guide to Art, Creativity and Visual Impairments, 28–29. Ed. Axel, Elisabeth & Levent, Nina. New York, AEB & AFB.• New estimates of visual impairment and blindness: 2010. World Health Organization. Read 23.10.2012. http://www.who.int/blindness/en/• Näkövammaisuuden määrittely. Näkövammaisten Keskusliitto ry. Read 23.10.2012. http://www.nkl.fi/fi/etusivu/tietoa/maarittely• Sanastoa englanniksi. Näkövammaisten Keskusliitto ry. Read 23.10.2012. http://www.nkl.fi/fi/etusivu/tietoa/sanastoengl• Näsänen, Risto 2007. Visuaalisen käytettävyyden opas 2007. Read 18.10.2012. http://www.ttl.fi/fi/ergonomia/kognitiivinen_ergonomia/visuaalinen_kaytettavyys/Documents/Visuaalise n_kaytettavyyden_opas_2007.pdf• Okabe, M. & Ito, K. 2002. Color Universal Design (CUD) - How to make figures and presentations that are friendly to Colorblind people – Accessed 29.10.2012. http://jfly.iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp/color/• Saarelma, O. 2012. Värisokeus ja poikkeava värinäkö. Lääkärikirja Duodecim. Accessed 28.10.2012. http://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/terveyskirjasto/tk.koti?p_osio=100&p_artikkeli=dlk00347&p_teos=dlk&p_s elaus=7728• Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.1 (Second Edition), W3C Recommendation 2011. Read 30.10.2012. http://www.w3.org/TR/SVG11/concepts.html• Schneider, Joel. 3-page Snellen Chart. Read 25.10.2012. http://www.i-see.org/eyecharts.html/#download• Skytt, Riitta 2012. Koskettavaa luettavaa. Tukilinja 3–4 2012. Read 16.10.2012. http://www.virtualmagnet.eu/magnet/asiakkaat/Tukilinja/tukilinja_030412.html/• Van Beveren, T. 2012. A quick introduction to colorblindness. Accessed 30.10.2012.

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