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Education at a Glance - OECD Indicators 2018


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Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators is the authoritative source for information on the state of education around the world. It provides data on the structure, finances and performance of education systems in the 35 OECD and a number of partner countries. With more than 100 charts and tables, Education at a Glance 2018 imparts key information on the output of educational institutions, the impact of learning across countries, and worldwide access, participation and progression in education. It also investigates the financial resources invested in education, as well as teachers, the learning environment and the organisation of schools.

The 2018 edition presents a new focus on equity in education, investigating how progress through education and the associated learning and labour market outcomes are impacted by dimensions such as gender, the educational attainment of parents, immigrant background, and regional location. The publication introduces a chapter dedicated to Target 4.5 of Sustainable Development Goal 4 on equity in education, providing an assessment of where OECD and partner countries stand in providing equal access to quality education at all levels. Finally, new indicators are introduced on equity in entry to and graduation from tertiary education, and the levels of decision-making in education systems. New data are also available on the statutory and actual salaries of school heads, as well as trend data on expenditure on early childhood education and care and the enrolment of children in all registered early childhood education and care settings.

More data are available on the OECD educational database.

Published in: Education
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Education at a Glance - OECD Indicators 2018

  1. 1. OECD Indicators 2018 Education at a Glance
  2. 2. Compounding inequality The impact of social background on a person’s education and life can be compounded over time
  3. 3. 3 Socio-economic background can influence educational opportunities from the start Figure B2.2 Enrolment rates of children under the age of 3, by mother's educational attainment (2014) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Norway Denmark Iceland Netherlands Luxembourg Belgium Portugal Germany Slovenia Spain Ireland Average UnitedKingdom Finland Estonia Italy Latvia Austria Israel Hungary Greece Poland SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic % Overall Non-tertiary educated mother Tertiary-educated mother
  4. 4. 4 At secondary level, social background affects teenagers’ learning outcomes SDG Fig1 Proportion of 15-year-olds achieving at least proficiency level 2 (PISA) in mathematics by gender, socio-economic status (ESCS), and location parity indices 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Denmark Estonia Ireland Switzerland Finland Japan Canada Norway RussianFederation Slovenia Iceland Netherlands Spain Poland Germany Korea Sweden Israel EU23average Austria Australia UnitedKingdom OECDaverage Italy NewZealand Latvia Belgium UnitedStates France Lithuania CzechRepublic Luxembourg Greece Portugal SlovakRepublic CostaRica Colombia Mexico Turkey Chile Hungary Indonesia Brazil Parityindices Gender Location ESCS
  5. 5. 5 Equity in education has not improved significantly over the past decade SDG Fig 3 Proportion of 15-year-olds achieving at least proficiency level 2 (PISA) in mathematics Trends in socio-economic (ESCS) parity index (2006, 2015) 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 Estonia RussianFederation Japan Canada Denmark Finland Slovenia Norway Korea Iceland Ireland Switzerland Netherlands Poland Germany Latvia Sweden Italy Australia NewZealand Austria Belgium Lithuania Spain Portugal CzechRepublic France UnitedStates Luxembourg SlovakRepublic Israel Greece Hungary Turkey Mexico Chile Colombia Indonesia Brazil ESCSParityIndex 2015 2006
  6. 6. 6 Two out of three adults from disadvantaged families attain a higher level of education than their parents, but most follow a vocational path Figure A1.a 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Spain(75%) Chile(50%) Greece(69%) Netherlands(54%) Ireland(56%) Slovenia(38%) SlovakRepublic(32%) Austria(31%) France(52%) Australia(49%) OECDaverage(43%) Norway(31%) Denmark(34%) NewZealand(40%) Germany(12%) Korea(60%) CzechRepublic(12%) Israel(34%) Canada(29%) Japan(27%) Poland(33%) Finland(46%) Estonia(30%) RussianFederation(30%) Lithuania(41%) % Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary (vocational) Tertiary Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary (general) The percentage in parentheses represents the share of 25-64 year-olds whose parents have below upper secondary education Educational attainment of 25-64 year-olds whose parents had not attained upper secondary education (2012 or 2015)
  7. 7. Inequality shaping life chances Equal access to higher education can mean more equitable employment and social outcomes
  8. 8. 8 Countries with lower educational attainment have higher earning disparities… Figure A4.2 Percentage of adults (25-64 year-old workers) earning more than the median, by educational attainment (2016) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Brazil CostaRica Mexico Chile Hungary Portugal Colombia Slovenia CzechRepublic Turkey SlovakRepublic Poland Latvia France Germany OECDaverage Switzerland Korea UnitedKingdom Greece Luxembourg UnitedStates Belgium Ireland Italy Spain Norway Austria Finland Netherlands Lithuania Australia Japan Israel Denmark NewZealand Estonia Sweden Canada Tertiary Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary Below upper secondary%
  9. 9. Gender and education Gender also affects participation in education and employment, but in different ways
  10. 10. 10 Men are more likely than women to not attain upper secondary education Figure A1.1 Percentage of 25-34 year-olds without upper secondary education, by gender (2017) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 China India CostaRica Mexico Indonesia Turkey Brazil Spain Portugal Argentina Colombia SaudiArabia Italy Iceland Norway SouthAfrica Denmark Latvia Sweden Belgium Chile OECDaverage Greece EU23average Estonia NewZealand Netherlands France Luxembourg Hungary Germany UnitedKingdom Australia Austria Finland Ireland Lithuania Israel UnitedStates Switzerland SlovakRepublic Canada RussianFederation Slovenia Poland CzechRepublic Korea % Men Women
  11. 11. 11 Most repeaters in lower secondary schools are boys Figure B1.2 Share of boys among repeaters in lower secondary education (2016) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Lithuania Mexico Israel Slovenia Poland Latvia Italy Greece Estonia Germany EU23average Hungary OECDaverage Austria France Spain CostaRica Belgium Denmark Colombia Argentina CzechRepublic Chile Switzerland Finland SaudiArabia SlovakRepublic Korea Ireland Luxembourg India RussianFederation Turkey %
  12. 12. Gender, education and life chances Even though they attain higher levels of education than men, women have poorer employment outcomes
  13. 13. 13 Women – even if tertiary-educated – are more likely to be inactive Figure A3.2. Gender differences in inactivity rates (women - men), by educational attainment (2017) 0 10 20 30 40 50 SaudiArabia Turkey Mexico CostaRica Chile Argentina Indonesia Israel Colombia Italy Brazil Ireland Greece Poland UnitedStates Netherlands OECDaverage Canada Belgium Hungary Korea Spain Denmark SouthAfrica EU23average Germany CzechRepublic RussianFederation France Finland UnitedKingdom SlovakRepublic Latvia Luxembourg Australia NewZealand Austria Switzerland Portugal Estonia Slovenia Sweden Norway Iceland Lithuania Below upper secondary Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary Tertiary Percentage points 76
  14. 14. 14 Women earn 26% less than men, although the pay gap has narrowed in some countries Figure A4.1 Trends in women’s earnings as a percentage of men’s earnings for full-time workers with tertiary education (2005, 2016) 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 CostaRica Slovenia Sweden Turkey Belgium Spain Luxembourg Latvia Colombia Switzerland UnitedKingdom NewZealand Netherlands Finland Australia Austria Denmark Lithuania Germany Norway OECDaverage Greece Canada Korea France Portugal Poland Ireland Italy UnitedStates CzechRepublic Estonia SlovakRepublic Hungary Mexico Israel Brazil Chile 2016 2005%
  15. 15. 15 Lower earnings for women result in a lower financial return for a tertiary degree Figure A5.1 Private net financial returns for a man or a woman attaining tertiary education (2015) 0 100 000 200 000 300 000 400 000 500 000 600 000 Chile UnitedStates Luxembourg Ireland Switzerland Hungary Poland Israel Austria France Japan Germany OECDaverage Korea Canada NewZealand CzechRepublic Slovenia EU23average Slovak… Australia United… Denmark Portugal Finland Norway Turkey Italy Spain Belgium Estonia Greece Latvia Man WomanUSD converted using PPPs for GDP
  16. 16. Migration and education Migration is also profoundly changing our communities and education systems
  17. 17. 17 Those with an immigrant background are under- represented among new entrants to tertiary education Figure B7.2 Share of 18-24 year-olds who are first- or second- generation immigrants among new entrants to bachelor’s, long first degree or equivalent programmes and in the population (2015) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Switzerland Israel Sweden Netherlands Norway Greece Latvia Estonia Slovenia Finland % Population New entrants
  18. 18. 18 However, a tertiary degree does not always lead to a job in their host country… Figure A3.4 Employment rates of native- and foreign-born 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education, by age at arrival in the country (2017) 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Sweden(24%) Switzerland(36%) Lithuania(5%) NewZealand(33%) Germany(21%) Netherlands(15%) Luxembourg(57%) Austria(24%) Latvia(11%) Poland(1%) Slovenia(12%) Israel(25%) Denmark(14%) Portugal(10%) Belgium(21%) Estonia(12%) France(15%) EU23average(15%) Australia(34%) Ireland(22%) OECDaverage(17%) CzechRepublic(4%) Hungary(2%) Chile1(3%) Canada(28%) UnitedStates(19%) Spain(16%) SlovakRepublic(1%) Italy(14%) CostaRica(11%) Mexico(0%) Greece(9%) Native-born adults Arrived in the country by the age of 15 Arrived in the country at 16 or older % Foreign-born adults The percentage in parentheses represents the share of foreign-born adults among 25-64 year-olds.
  19. 19. 19 A tertiary degree does not always lead to higher earnings Figure A4.4 Earnings of foreign-born workers as a percentage of earnings of native-born full-time workers, by educational attainment (2016) 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Colombia Chile Belgium United… Slovenia Germany France Luxembourg Switzerland CostaRica Ireland Norway Sweden Israel Latvia Austria New… Estonia Finland Spain Italy Tertiary Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary Below upper secondary % 226
  20. 20. Improving equity One way to improve equity is to provide flexible pathways through education
  21. 21. 21 The share of young adults who hold a tertiary degree has grown significantly over the past decade Figure A1.2 Percentage of 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education, by level of tertiary education (2017) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Korea Canada Japan RussianFederation Lithuania Ireland Australia UnitedKingdom Luxembourg Switzerland Norway Israel UnitedStates Iceland Sweden Netherlands Denmark Belgium Slovenia France NewZealand OECDaverage Poland Estonia Spain Greece EU23average Latvia Finland Austria SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic Portugal Turkey Germany Hungary Chile Colombia CostaRica Italy SaudiArabia Mexico Argentina China Brazil Indonesia India SouthAfrica Short-cycle tertiary Bachelor's or equivalent Master's or equivalent Doctoral or equivalent Tertiary - 2007%
  22. 22. 22 In some countries, the majority of students graduate from vocational programmes Figure B3.3 First-time upper secondary graduation rates for students below the age of 25 by programme orientation (2016) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Korea Slovenia Israel Greece Finland Canada NewZealand Chile Latvia Netherlands Poland Lithuania UnitedStates Hungary Denmark EU23Average OECDAverage Austria Norway Italy Germany Sweden Slovak… Luxembourg CzechRepublic United… Spain Portugal Iceland Turkey Colombia Brazil Mexico CostaRica % General programmes Vocational programmes All programmes
  23. 23. Not every degree shines Not all degrees lead to positive outcomes in the labour market
  24. 24. 24 Across similarly-educated adults, workers who are overqualified for their jobs tend to be less skilled Figure A3.b Mean numeracy score among adults with tertiary-type A or advanced research programmes, by selected qualification match or mismatch among workers (2012 or 2015) 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 FlemishComm.… Japan CzechRepublic Finland Austria Denmark Sweden Germany Netherlands Norway SlovakRepublic France NewZealand Australia England(UK) Estonia Canada OECDaverage NorthernIreland(UK) Slovenia UnitedStates Lithuania Korea Ireland Poland Israel Greece Spain Italy RussianFederation Turkey Chile Mean score Working in a job needing the same level of qualification (well matched) Working in a job needing upper secondary or below (overqualified)
  25. 25. Starting strong Access and staff ratios have for small children have improved markedly
  26. 26. 26 Enrolment of 3 to 5-year-olds increased by more than 10 percentage points on average in the past decade Figure B2.3 Change in enrolment rates of children aged 3 to 5 years (2005, 2010 and 2016) 0 20 40 60 80 100 France UnitedKingdom Israel Belgium Denmark Iceland Spain Norway Sweden Italy Germany Netherlands Korea NewZealand Latvia Hungary Japan Estonia Austria EU23average Slovenia Portugal CzechRepublic OECDaverage Luxembourg Australia Poland Lithuania RussianFederation Mexico Brazil Chile Finland Colombia Ireland Argentina SlovakRepublic Indonesia UnitedStates Greece CostaRica Switzerland Turkey SaudiArabia % 2016 2010 2005
  27. 27. 27 In many countries, most children under the age of three are not enrolled Figure B2.1 Enrolment rates of children under the age of 3 in early childhood education and care (ECEC), by type of service (2016) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Denmark Israel Norway Korea Colombia Iceland Belgium Sweden NewZealand Slovenia Australia Germany Portugal Spain Finland OECDaverage Estonia Lithuania EU23average Brazil Chile Russian… Austria Indonesia SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic Hungary Argentina France Poland Mexico CostaRica Luxembourg Turkey Netherlands Ireland % Other registered ECEC services Early childhood education and care (ISCED 0)
  28. 28. 28 The number of pre-primary teachers has increased even more, resulting in a smaller teacher to child ratio Figure B2.5 Changes in number of children, number of teachers and number of children per teacher in pre-primary education (2005, 2016) 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 Poland Luxembourg Germany Switzerland Austria Mexico Greece Spain SlovakRepublic Belgium OECDaverage EU23average Slovenia Italy Lithuania Israel UnitedStates CzechRepublic Hungary Portugal Chile RussianFederation Index of change Change in number of children Change in number of teachers Change in number of children per teacher
  29. 29. Investment in education
  30. 30. 30 Spending on education institutions ranges from 3.1% of GDP in Russia to 6.4% in Norway Figure C2.1. Total expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP (2015) 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 Norway NewZealand UnitedKingdom Colombia Chile UnitedStates Israel Australia Canada Iceland Korea Belgium Finland Netherlands Mexico Sweden Portugal France Brazil OECDaverage Austria Latvia Turkey Estonia EU23average Poland SlovakRepublic Spain Slovenia Germany Japan Lithuania Italy Greece CzechRepublic Hungary Luxembourg Ireland RussianFederation Primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary Tertiary% of GDP
  31. 31. 31 Capital expenditure represents a significant share of total costs at the tertiary level Table C6.1 Share of capital expenditure as a percentage of total expenditure, by level of education (2015) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Sweden Finland Belgium Israel Iceland Ireland United… Canada Portugal Austria France Germany Norway Slovenia Italy UnitedStates Hungary Netherlands Australia Estonia Korea Spain Russian… OECDaverage Japan EU23average Poland Turkey Luxembourg Lithuania Latvia Colombia Greece Primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary Tertiary%
  32. 32. Investment in advanced skills Greater resources are invested in tertiary education than in lower levels of education
  33. 33. 33 In some countries, the private sector funds a large share of tertiary education Figure C3.2b Distribution of public and private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions (2015) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Finland Norway Luxembourg Austria Iceland Sweden Greece Slovenia Belgium Germany Poland SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic France EU23average Latvia Estonia Turkey Lithuania Ireland Mexico Netherlands OECDaverage Portugal Spain RussianFederation Italy Hungary Israel NewZealand Canada Australia Korea Colombia UnitedStates Chile Japan UnitedKingdom % Public expenditure Household expenditure Expenditure from other private entities All private sources
  34. 34. 34 Changes in public and private spending on tertiary education vary across countries Figure C3.3 Change in relative share of public and private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions (between 2010 and 2015) 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Spain Ireland Sweden Canada Australia Germany France Italy UnitedStates Netherlands Japan Portugal Norway OECDaverage EU23average Estonia Mexico CzechRepublic Iceland RussianFederation Israel Slovenia Finland Chile Lithuania SlovakRepublic Latvia Poland Index of change Public sources Private sources
  35. 35. Investment in foundations Greater resources are invested in tertiary education than in lower levels of education
  36. 36. 36 OECD countries spend USD 90 700 per student on average on primary and secondary education Figure C1.2. Cumulative expenditure on educational institutions per student between the age of 6 and 15 (2015) 0 50 000 100 000 150 000 200 000 250 000 Luxembourg Austria Norway UnitedStates Iceland Belgium Korea UnitedKingdom Sweden Finland Australia Netherlands Germany Japan Canada EU23average OECDaverage Ireland NewZealand Slovenia Italy Portugal Israel Spain France CzechRepublic Poland Latvia SlovakRepublic Estonia Greece Hungary Chile Brazil Turkey Mexico Primary Lower secondary Upper secondary Equivalent USD converted using PPPs
  37. 37. 37 Teacher compensation makes up the largest share of current expenditure on primary and secondary education Figure C6.2a Composition of current expenditure in public and private educational institutions (2015) 0 20 40 60 80 100 Greece Belgium Colombia Portugal Luxembourg Italy Japan Russian… Norway Lithuania Israel Turkey Germany Spain UnitedStates Netherlands France Canada Hungary OECDaverage Slovenia EU23average Australia UnitedKingdom Poland Korea Austria Iceland Latvia Estonia SlovakRepublic Sweden Finland CzechRepublic % Compensation of all staff (if breakdowns not available) Compensation of teachers Compensation of non-teaching staff Other current expenditure
  38. 38. Investment in early learning
  39. 39. 39 Spending on early childhood education and care Figure B2.4 Expenditure on pre-primary (ISCED 02) education as a percentage of GDP (2005, 2010 and 2015) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 Sweden Iceland Norway Israel Finland Hungary Latvia Chile France Poland Slovenia Belgium Brazil Lithuania EU23average OECDaverage Portugal Luxembourg SlovakRepublic Spain Germany Korea NewZealand Italy Austria CzechRepublic CostaRica UnitedStates United… Switzerland Netherlands Colombia Greece Australia Japan Ireland % of GDP 2015 2010 2005
  40. 40. Student learning conditions Salaries and working time
  41. 41. 41 Compulsory instruction time varies significantly across countries Figure D1.1 Compulsory instruction time in general education (2018) 0 2 000 4 000 6 000 8 000 10 000 12 000 Australia(11) Denmark(10) CostaRica(9) UnitedStates(9) Israel(9) Netherlands(9 Chile(8) Mexico(9) Canada(9) Ireland(9) France(9) Luxembourg(9) Spain(9) Norway(10) Portugal(9) Iceland(10) Switzerland(9) OECDaverage(9) Italy(8) Germany(9) Japan(9) EU23average(9) Lithuania(10) CzechRepublic(9) FrenchComm.(Belgium)(8) Sweden(9) Greece(9) FlemishComm.(Belgium)(8) SlovakRepublic(9) Korea(9) Estonia(9) Austria(8) RussianFederation(9) Slovenia(9) Finland1(9) Turkey(8) Poland(9) Primary Lower secondary Total number of compulsory instruction hours In parenthesis the duration of primary and lower secondary education, in years
  42. 42. 42 Various factors contribute to the total salary cost of teachers per student Figure C7.2 Contribution of various factors to salary cost of teachers per student in public institutions, lower secondary education (2016) -4 500 -3 500 -2 500 -1 500 - 500 500 1 500 2 500 3 500 4 500 Luxembourg Switzerland Slovenia Austria Germany omm.(Belgium) omm.(Belgium) Norway Finland Spain Denmark Australia Portugal Netherlands Ireland UnitedStates Canada Japan Italy Iceland Greece Israel Poland France Hungary Estonia CzechRepublic Chile SlovakRepublic Turkey Latvia Mexico USD Moderately high salary cost Low salary costModerately low salary cost High salary cost
  43. 43. Teacher working conditions Salaries and working time
  44. 44. 44 In many countries teachers’ salaries are still low and the earnings progression is relatively flat Figure D3.2 Lower secondary teachers’ statutory salaries at different points in teachers' careers (2017) 0 20 000 40 000 60 000 80 000 100 000 120 000 Luxembourg Germany Switzerland Denmark Spain Australia Netherlands Austria UnitedStates Norway Sweden Canada Flemishcomm.(Belgium) Finland Iceland Frenchcomm.(Belgium) Ireland Scotland(UK) Portugal OECDaverage EU23average France Italy Japan NewZealand Korea Slovenia Turkey Mexico Chile England(UK) Israel Estonia Lithuania Greece CzechRepublic Hungary SlovakRepublic Latvia Brazil Poland CostaRica Starting salary/minimum qualifications Salary after 15 years of experience/most prevalent qualifications Salary at top of scale/maximum qualifications Equivalent USD converted using PPPs
  45. 45. 45 In many countries teachers’ salaries are still low and the earnings progression is flat Figure D3.1. Lower secondary teachers' salaries relative to earnings for tertiary-educated workers (2017) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 Luxembourg Portugal Greece Germany Finland Latvia Lithuania Israel EU23average Australia Netherlands Estonia OECDaverage England(UK) Austria Slovenia Sweden France NewZealand Flemishcomm.… Scotland(UK) Denmark Chile Frenchcomm.… Poland Turkey Norway Hungary Italy UnitedStates SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic Teachers' actual salaries relative to earnings for tertiary-educated workers Teachers' actual salaries relative to earnings for similarly educated workers (weighted averages)Ratio
  46. 46. 46 The time teachers have for other things than teaching varies greatly Figure D4.4 Percentage of lower secondary teachers' working time spent teaching (2017) Poland Turkey Korea Estonia Austria Japan Lithuania Czech Republic Iceland Portugal Slovak Republic Hungary Norway France Israel Spain Germany Netherlands Switzerland Scotland (UK) United States Latvia Chile Colombia 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 Percentage of total statutory working time spent teaching Country average Country average Number of teaching hours per year
  47. 47. Is leadership a rewarding career choice?
  48. 48. 48 School heads can earn much more than teachers Figure D3.4 Minimum and maximum statutory salaries for lower secondary teachers and school heads (2017) 0 20 000 40 000 60 000 80 000 100 000 120 000 140 000 160 000 Luxembourg England(UK) Netherlands Ireland Australia Scotland(UK) UnitedStates Korea Chile Austria Iceland Spain OECDaverage Flemishcomm.… EU23average Mexico Portugal Israel Italy Frenchcomm.… France CostaRica Japan Finland Sweden Denmark Slovenia Hungary Greece Lithuania SlovakRepublic Turkey Poland Salary range of teachers (most prevalent qualification) School head - Minimum School head - Maximum Equivalent USD converted using PPPs
  49. 49. Who decides?
  50. 50. 50 Only one in three decisions is taken at the school level on average across OECD countries Table D6.1 Percentage of decisions taken at each level of government in public lower secondary education (2017) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Netherlands CzechRepublic England(UK) Latvia Flemishcomm.… Iceland Estonia Australia NewZealand Slovenia Scotland(UK) Chile Austria Ireland SlovakRepublic Lithuania EU23average Sweden OECDaverage Italy Hungary Denmark Frenchcomm.… RussianFederation Japan Israel Germany Luxembourg Mexico UnitedStates Canada Korea Portugal Norway France Spain Switzerland Greece Turkey Finland School Local Regional or Sub-regional Central or State Multiple levels%
  51. 51. 51 Decisions on teacher salary are often centralised while those on staff management are made at school level Figure D6.3 Decisions taken at each level of government in public lower secondary education, planning and structure (2017) 0510152025303540 School Local Regional or Sub-regional Central or State Multiple levels Management of teachers Hiring Dismissal Duties Conditions of service Fixing of salary levels In number of countries and economies
  52. 52. Internationalisation
  53. 53. 53 The number of international students has more than doubled in less than 20 years Figure B6.a Growth in international or foreign enrolment in tertiary education worldwide (1998 to 2016) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 Millions of mobile students OECD Non-OECD Total, 5.0 Non-OECD, 1.5 OECD, 3.5
  54. 54. 54 The share of international students increases with each successive level of tertiary education Figure B5.2 Share of first-time international graduates, by level of education (2016) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Luxembourg Australia NewZealand Austria UnitedKingdom Netherlands Canada Belgium CzechRepublic OECDaverage EU23average Switzerland Denmark Finland SlovakRepublic UnitedStates Italy Hungary Germany Latvia Norway Israel Greece Japan Sweden Portugal Iceland Slovenia Turkey Spain Chile % Bachelor’s or equivalent Master’s or equivalent Doctoral or equivalent
  55. 55. Find out more about our work at – All publications – The complete micro-level database Email: Twitter: SchleicherOECD Wechat: AndreasSchleicher Thank you