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The resilience of students with an immigrant background - factors that shape well being

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The Resilience of Students with an Immigrant Background: Factors that Shape Well-being reveals some of the difficulties students with an immigrant background encounter and where they receive the support they need. The report provides an in-depth analysis of the risk and protective factors that can undermine or promote the resilience of immigrant students. It explores the role that education systems, schools and teachers can play in helping these students integrate into their communities, overcome adversity, and build their academic, social, emotional and motivational resilience.

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The resilience of students with an immigrant background - factors that shape well being

  1. 1. The resilience of students with an immigrant background: Factors that shape well-being Paris 19 March 2018 Francesca Borgonovi Co-funded by the European Union
  2. 2. Migration flows are changing the composition of classrooms
  3. 3. Trends in the prevalence of students without an immigrant background 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Korea-0.99 Poland-1.63 Japan-1.71 Turkey Mexico Chile SlovakRepublic Hungary-3.77 CzechRepublic-2.77 Finland-6.42 Slovenia Italy-9.57 Iceland-6.89 Spain-10.28 Netherlands Latvia8.92 Greece-7.31 Estonia Denmark-8 OECDaverage-6.44 Norway-9.43 Portugal-8.92 France Germany-7.33 UnitedKingdom-8.75 Austria-12.37 Israel Sweden-9.3 UnitedStates-10.14 Belgium-9.44 Ireland-15.91 Canada-10.82 Australia NewZealand-7.13 Switzerland-15.77 Luxembourg-19.7 PISA 2015 PISA 2003%% On average across OECD countries 77% of students in 2015 did not have an immigrant background. In 2003 this figure was 83%.
  4. 4. N N N Native students Students with an immigrant background Immigrant students Immigrant students with at least one native-born parent First-generation immigrant students Were not born in the country in which they sat the PISA test and have two foreign-born parents Second-generation immigrant students Were born in the country in which they sat the PISA test but who have two foreign-born parents N F F F F F F N N F N F Returning foreign-born students Were not born in the country in which they sat the PISA test but have at least one parent who was born in such country Native students of mixed heritage N N F Were born in the country in which they sat the PISA test and have one native-born and one foreign-born parent
  5. 5. How many students have an immigrant background? Percentage of students with an immigrant background, by group 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Luxembourg Switzerland NewZealand Australia Canada Ireland Belgium UnitedStates Sweden Israel Austria UnitedKingdom Germany France Portugal Norway OECDaverage Denmark Estonia Greece Latvia Netherlands Spain Iceland Italy Slovenia Finland CzechRepublic Hungary SlovakRepublic Chile Mexico Turkey Japan Poland Second-generation immigrant students Native students of mixed heritage First-generation immigrant students Returning foreign-born students% On average across OECD countries: 5% of students were first-generation immigrant students 7% of students were second-generation immigrant students 2% of students were returning foreign-born students 9% of students were native students of mixed heritage
  6. 6. Resilience and a whole child perspective • Academic – reaching PISA level 2 in reading, mathematics and science • Social – reporting feelings of belonging at school • Emotional – reporting high satisfaction with life and low school-work related anxiety • Motivational – reporting high motivation to achieve
  7. 7. Academic and well-being outcomes of immigrant students (OECD average) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Academic under-performance Weak sense of belonging at school Low satisfaction with life High schoolwork-related anxiety Poor achievement motivation Students without an immigrant background Second-generation immigrant students First-generation immigrant students Native students of mixed heritage Returning foreign-born students Percentage of students
  8. 8. Academically sound and socially and emotionally well-adapted students, by immigrant background Percentage of students who attain baseline academic proficiency, report a sense of belonging at school and being satisfied with life 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Estonia Hungary Ireland-8 Netherlands-26 Portugal-15 Latvia Switzerland-25 Spain-24 Slovenia-16 UnitedStates-13 Finland-33 UnitedKingdom-12 Germany-23 OECDaverage-17 zechRepublic Luxembourg-23 Austria-25 Belgium-12 Italy-14 France-12 Greece-21 Chile-14 Iceland-32 First-generation immigrant students Native students%
  9. 9. Differences in the percentage of academically sound and socially and emotionally well-adapted students, by immigrant group Difference between students with an immigrant background and native students in the percentage of students who attain baseline academic proficiency, report a sense of belonging at school and being satisfied with life -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 Portugal Hungary Turkey Italy Chile Spain Greece Latvia Ireland UnitedKingdom CzechRepublic Iceland Belgium France OECDaverage UnitedStates lovakRepublic Slovenia Austria Finland Netherlands Mexico Estonia Switzerland Luxembourg Germany Native students of mixed heritage Second-generation immigrant students First-generation immigrant students Percentage point difference d
  10. 10. Baseline academic proficiency, by immigrant background Percentage of students attaining baseline academic proficiency, by immigrant background 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Canada Ireland NewZealand Estonia Australia UnitedKingdom-11 Hungary Portugal-14 Switzerland-27 Luxembourg-24 Norway-25 Latvia-21 CzechRepublic-19 Spain-23 UnitedStates-22 OECDaverage-24 Netherlands-30 Belgium-31 Denmark-33 Germany-37 Slovenia-34 Italy-24 Finland-42 France-36 Austria-38 Sweden-38 Israel-22 Greece-29 Iceland-39 Chile-20 SlovakRepublic-35 % First-generation immigrant students Native students
  11. 11. Difference in attaining baseline academic proficiency, by age at arrival -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 Canada11 NewZealand14 Australia11 Ireland UnitedKingdom23 Portugal CzechRepublic Chile UnitedStates Israel37 Spain30 OECDaverage15 Luxembourg Italy16 Norway18 Switzerland Belgium20 Denmark Slovenia32 France19 Germany27 Austria Sweden21 First-generation immigrant students Arrived at or after the age of 12 Arrived before the age of 12Percentage-point difference compared to native students
  12. 12. Sense of belonging at school, by immigrant background 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Netherlands Spain-14 Australia8 Estonia Chile Finland Portugal-11 NewZealand Canada4 Greece-12 Hungary Slovenia Norway-10 Germany-8 UnitedStates Ireland-8 OECDaverage-9 Austria-13 UnitedKingdom Iceland-17 Italy-9 Denmark-14 Switzerland-17 CzechRepublic-10 Sweden-15 Mexico-16 Belgium-14 Luxembourg-22 Latvia-28 France First-generation immigrant students Native students%
  13. 13. Difference in sense of belonging at school, by age at arrival Difference between native and first-generation immigrant students in the percentage of students who reported a sense of belonging at school -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 Australia15 NewZealand8 Canada Chile UnitedKingdom20 UnitedStates Slovenia France Ireland14 Finland Germany45 OECDaverage12 Italy Norway16 zechRepublic Portugal Austria18 Denmark Spain18 Belgium Sweden26 Switzerland First-generation immigrant students Arrived at or after the age of 12 Arrived before the age of 12Percentage-point difference f
  14. 14. Satisfaction with life, by immigrant background Percentage of students who reported being satisfied with life (at least 7 on a 0-10 scale) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Mexico Estonia Hungary Netherlands-10 Switzerland-8 Finland Luxembourg-5 Belgium-8 Ireland Iceland-10 Latvia OECDaverage-6 France-11 Austria-11 Germany-8 CzechRepublic UnitedStates-7 Portugal-8 Slovenia Spain-11 Italy Greece UnitedKingdom-9 Chile-12 First-generation immigrant students Native students%
  15. 15. Low schoolwork-related anxiety, by immigrant background Percentage of students who reported low schoolwork-related anxiety 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Latvia SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic Switzerland-17 Belgium-7 Israel Hungary Netherlands-16 Germany-14 Luxembourg-18 Iceland Estonia Austria-15 Chile OECDaverage-6 Finland-17 France-14 Greece Portugal Canada-4 Sweden-8 Denmark Norway-8 Ireland-4 UnitedStates Slovenia-8 Italy NewZealand Australia-7 UnitedKingdom Spain-7 Mexico-16 First-generation immigrant students Native students%
  16. 16. Difference in motivation to achieve, by immigrant background Percentage of students who reported high motivation to achieve 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 UnitedStates nitedKingdom Australia Israel-5 Sweden16 Canada6 NewZealand Ireland Portugal Chile Iceland CzechRepublic13 Norway13 Mexico Latvia OECDaverage7 Netherlands36 Hungary Spain6 Austria22 Italy10 Denmark14 France16 Greece Luxembourg12 Belgium23 Slovenia Germany16 Estonia Finland14 First-generation immigrant students Native students%
  17. 17. The ability of education systems to promote the resilience of students with an immigrant background differs
  18. 18. Attaining baseline academic proficiency, by country of origin in selected countries % point difference between immigrant and native students -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 Albania Turkey Spain Italy Germany France Turkey Poland Italy Afghanistan Somalia Iraq Turkey Pakistan Lebanon Somalia Iraq Estonia RussianFederation Turkey Morocco Suriname Difference between first-generation immigrant students and native students Difference between second-generation immigrant students and native students Netherlands Finland Denmark Germany Switzerland Percentage-point difference
  19. 19. Reporting sense of belonging at school, by country of origin in selected countries % point difference between native students and immigrant students -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 Spain France Portugal Italy Turkey Germany Albania Turkey Poland Italy Turkey Afghanistan Somalia Pakistan Iraq Lebanon Iraq Somalia RussianFederation Estonia Suriname Turkey Morocco Difference between first-generation immigrant students and native students Difference between second-generation immigrant students and native students Netherlands Finland Denmark Germany Switzerland Percentage-point difference
  20. 20. • Gender • Working (paid and unpaid work) • Enrolment in ECEC • Language spoken at home Individual factors that shape vulnerability
  21. 21. Students attaining baseline academic proficiency, by immigrant background and language spoken at home -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 Canada Australia Israel-7 UnitedStates Ireland NewZealand-7 UnitedKingdom Hungary CzechRepublic Portugal France Italy Netherlands-9 Norway Spain OECDaverage-8 Greece-10 Slovenia Estonia Sweden Austria-14 Germany-14 Switzerland-15 Belgium-11 Denmark-10 Finland Latvia-24 Native-speaking immigrant students Non-native-speaking immigrant studentsPercentage-point difference compared to native students
  22. 22. Students reporting a sense of belonging at school, by immigrant background and language spoken at home -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 Australia UnitedStates7 NewZealand Canada France Austria Finland Germany Netherlands Slovenia UnitedKingdom-15 Norway-16 Switzerland OECDaverage-5 CzechRepublic Ireland Sweden Belgium Denmark Portugal Hungary Italy-10 Greece-12 Spain-12 Latvia Estonia Native-speaking immigrant students Non-native-speaking immigrant studentsPercentage-point difference compared to native students Students reporting a sense of belonging at school, by immigrant background and language spoken at home
  23. 23. • Family socio-economic condition • Parental involvement • School choice The role of the family context
  24. 24. In many countries immigrant students are socio- economically disadvantaged compared to native students -1.0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Turkey Hungary0.58 Portugal0.41 Latvia Chile0.57 Ireland NewZealand-0.25 Estonia-0.25 Australia Canada-0.21 UnitedKingdom Israel0.39 SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic OECDaverage Italy Iceland Sweden Norway Finland Spain France Belgium Greece0.25 Germany-0.21 Netherlands Slovenia Austria Switzerland-0.2 Denmark-0.26 UnitedStates Luxembourg-0.19 Second-generation immigrant students First-generation immigrant studentsESCS Index-point difference
  25. 25. But mixed-heritage and returning foreign-born students are generally socio-economically advantaged -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 Turkey Mexico Portugal0.82 Chile Poland Hungary NewZealand Canada-0.21 Ireland Spain-0.39 Australia-0.16 Greece0.24 Denmark-0.22 UnitedKingdom-0.18 OECDaverage-0.17 Switzerland-0.27 Israel-0.29 France Netherlands-0.24 Austria Norway-0.19 Finland-0.5 Italy-0.25 Slovenia SlovakRepublic Latvia-0.75 Iceland-0.33 Sweden-0.17 Estonia-0.33 Japan-0.42 CzechRepublic-0.27 UnitedStates Germany Belgium-0.32 Luxembourg Korea Native students of mixed heritage Returning foreign-born studentsESCS Index-point difference
  26. 26. Differences in socio-economic status explain around a fifth of differences in academic proficiency Difference between immigrant and native students in attaining baseline academic proficiency -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 Australia Israel4 Canada Hungary-6 UnitedStates11 NewZealand-2 Ireland UnitedKingdom2 Estonia Portugal zechRepublic Luxembourg10 Chile Netherlands8 Latvia-3 Greece10 Italy6 France11 Norway6 OECDaverage4 Turkey-10 Spain6 Slovenia7 Germany5 Switzerland6 Belgium8 Austria8 Sweden6 Denmark6 Mexico8 Finland5 Iceland5 Japan After accounting for students' socio-economic status Before accounting for students' socio-economic status Percentage-point difference
  27. 27. Socio-economic status play a less important role in explaining the variability in the academic outcomes among immigrant than among native students 0 5 10 15 20 25 Chile NewZealand France-7 Australia Finland Luxembourg Austria Israel-5 Belgium Ireland Spain UnitedKingdom Portugal Estonia UnitedStates-4 Norway Sweden OECDaverage-4 Hungary-10 Japan CzechRepublic Latvia SlovakRepublic-8 Italy Canada-4 Netherlands-7 Slovenia Germany Turkey Greece-9 Denmark-6 Iceland Mexico-9 Immigrant students Native studentsPercentage-point increase in likelihood Change in likelihood of attaining baseline academic proficiency related to socio-economic status, by immigrant background
  28. 28. Socio-economic status plays a less important role in explaining differences in sense of belonging -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 Australia NewZealand-0.5 UnitedStates4.4 Canada UnitedKingdom0.7 Chile Norway2.9 Hungary-1.5 Finland1.9 France4.8 Austria2.5 Netherlands2 Germany1.2 Slovenia OECDaverage1.2 Portugal Sweden1.9 Denmark3 Switzerland Greece1.1 CzechRepublic Belgium3.4 Ireland Italy0.8 Japan Spain0.8 Estonia Latvia Luxembourg3.7 Mexico1.8 Turkey-2.1 Iceland1.9 After accounting for students' socio-economic status Before accounting for students' socio-economic statusPercentage-point difference Difference between immigrant and native students in reporting a sense of belonging at school
  29. 29. … and in feeling satisfied with life Difference between immigrant and native students in feeling satisfied with life -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 Hungary-1.5 UnitedStates5.1 Netherlands1.1 Luxembourg3.2 CzechRepublic Germany2.7 Italy2.1 Japan Belgium2.7 Finland1.9 Greece2.6 OECDaverage1.2 Estonia Austria3 Portugal Switzerland0.8 Iceland3.1 Latvia-1.6 France2.9 Ireland Slovenia Mexico1.4 Spain2.1 Chile UnitedKingdom0.7 Turkey-2.6 After accounting for students' socio-economic status Before accounting for students' socio-economic statusPercentage differencePercentage-point difference
  30. 30. Immigrant-native differences in the criteria parents use to choose a school -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Theschoolisashortdistance tohome Theschoolhasagood reputation Theschooloffersparticular coursesorschoolsubjects Theschooladherestoa particularreligiousphilosophy Theschoolhasaparticular approachtopedagogy Otherfamilymembers attendedtheschool Expensesarelow Theschoolhasfinancialaid available Theschoolhasanactiveand pleasantclimate Theacademicachievementof studentsishigh Thereisasafeschool environment Percentage-pointdifference Difference in the percentage of immigrant parents and native parents who indicated that the following criteria are important when choosing a school, after accounting for socio-economic status
  31. 31. The role of schools and teachers
  32. 32. Immigrant students are more likely to be the victims of frequent bullying 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 SlovakRepublic23 CzechRepublic13 Latvia Mexico13 Estonia8 Chile Turkey UnitedKingdom Greece7 OECDaverage3 Hungary NewZealand-7 Japan Australia-7 France Denmark Switzerland4 Belgium Austria Finland Iceland Spain5 Canada-3 Germany Ireland4 Luxembourg5 Slovenia Sweden Norway UnitedStates-4 Portugal Netherlands Native students Immigrant students%
  33. 33. And to feel being unfairly treated by their teachers % of students reporting being unfairly treatment by teachers 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Hungary SlovakRepublic Turkey Estonia Austria14 France7 Slovenia Latvia Germany12 Greece Portugal8 CzechRepublic Luxembourg6 UnitedKingdom5 Belgium11 Switzerland12 OECDaverage6 Denmark10 Chile UnitedStates Ireland5 NewZealand-5 Mexico18 Australia-2 Sweden11 Japan Netherlands14 Spain Norway Finland Native students Immigrant students%
  34. 34. Immigrant students are more likely to be asked to repeat grades -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 SlovakRepublic Mexico Turkey Italy CzechRepublic Austria Sweden Greece Spain Portugal Switzerland Finland Belgium OECDaverage Hungary Slovenia Denmark Ireland UnitedKingdom Iceland Australia Germany Netherlands Luxembourg Canada NewZealand Latvia Estonia Chile UnitedStates Israel France after, nonsig Before accounting for socio-economic status and performance in PISA core subjectsPercentage-point difference
  35. 35. But immigrant students report receiving more feedback from their teachers -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 Finland Japan Norway Chile Estonia Luxembourg Sweden France SlovakRepublic Belgium Slovenia Denmark Germany Switzerland OECDaverage UnitedStates Portugal NewZealand Italy Australia Austria Ireland Mexico CzechRepublic UnitedKingdom Greece Netherlands Canada Latvia Spain Iceland Turkey Israel Hungary After accounting for science performance Before accounting for science performancePercentage-point difference Differences in the % of native and immigrant students who reported that they receive frequent feedback from their science teacher
  36. 36. Teacher's report needing professional development to deal with multicultural classrooms 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Netherlands Belgium(Flemish) Canada(Alberta) Australia NewZealand Latvia UnitedStates CzechRepublic Finland Poland Denmark England Norway SlovakRepublic Iceland Estonia Japan OECDTALISsystemsaverage Sweden France Israel Portugal Korea,Republicof Spain Chile Italy Mexico % TALIS 2013
  37. 37. Most students with an immigrant background and their parents are highly motivated to achieve and see education as a springboard for social mobility
  38. 38. Many immigrant students expect to complete tertiary education % of students who report expecting to complete tertiary education 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Canada21 UnitedStates Turkey Australia20 zechRepublic UnitedKingdom24 Chile NewZealand18 Israel Ireland10 Hungary18 Sweden14 Greece-19 Mexico-15 OECDaverage Japan Spain-12 Portugal Luxembourg-6 Belgium Denmark Norway13 France Latvia Switzerland Estonia-21 Italy-14 Iceland-15 Austria-5 SlovakRepublic14 Netherlands Slovenia-9 Germany Native students Immigrant students%
  39. 39. Yet many lack key baseline levels of skills 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Canada16 Australia16 UnitedStates-9 CzechRepublic NewZealand13 UnitedKingdom15 Hungary16 Ireland5 Israel Turkey Sweden Spain-16 Portugal Luxembourg-10 Japan-23 OECDaverage-4 Greece-23 Belgium Chile Denmark-8 France-6 Norway5 Estonia-21 Switzerland Latvia Austria-8 Italy-15 Netherlands Germany-4 Slovenia-11 SlovakRepublic Iceland-20 Finland Native students Immigrant students% Percentage of students who expect to complete tertiary education and who attain baseline academic proficiency in reading, math and science in PISA
  40. 40. Thank you! Francesca.Borgonovi@OECD.org For more information: http://www.oecd.org/education/school/strength-through-diversity.htm #oecd-education

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