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1
Global Webinar
Andreas Schleicher
Director for the Director of Education
and Skills
Education at a Glance 2016
Individuals reap high rewards for investing in better skills…
2
There is a high degree of variation between countries in the private costs
and gross earnings benefits of attaining a tert...
Those with tertiary qualifications earn on average 55%
more than those with upper secondary level attainment
Relative earn...
…but the choice of subject matters…
9
Adults who studied in the field of education earn less than
the average tertiary-educated full-time worker
Relative earnin...
…so gender differences in fields of study
will, together with other factors, translate into different incomes
11
There remain large gender disparities with regard to
field of study
Share of female tertiary graduates, by field of educat...
Men have higher private benefits to tertiary education than
women, while the costs are evenly balanced among the genders
P...
The rewards are not just about money
14
Lower levels of educational attainment are associated with
higher shares of adults reporting health-related issues
Average...
Tertiary-educated adults tend to report higher levels
of life satisfaction
Life satisfaction today, by educational attainm...
Also for taxpayers the benefits of better education
far outweigh the costs
17
The public benefits for a man attaining a tertiary education
are on average nearly 4 times greater than the public costs
P...
Many countries have been able to meet rising demand
for tertiary education with more resources…
21
In more than half of the countries, expenditure per tertiary student
increased, with an average increase of 5% between 200...
On average, over USD 15 000 is spent per student in
tertiary education per year
Annual expenditure per student by educatio...
Countries spend 1.6% of their GDP on tertiary
education, on average
Public and private expenditure on tertiary education i...
…often by finding new ways to share the costs and benefits
25
Considerably more private spending is directed towards
tertiary education relative to lower levels of education
Share of p...
On average, 21% of expenditure at the tertiary level
comes from households
Distribution of public and private expenditure ...
The share of private expenditure tends to be more variable over
time at the tertiary level compared to lower levels of edu...
Independent private tertiary institutions tend to charge
significantly higher tuition fees than public institutions
Tuitio...
But the demand for better education remains unwavering
32
Since 2005, the enrolment rate of 20-24 year-olds in tertiary
education has increased by four percentage points
Change in ...
Excluding international students, over 60% of young
adults are expected to enter tertiary education
First-time tertiary en...
Close to half of today's young people are expected
to graduate from tertiary education in their lifetime
First-time tertia...
On average, women make up 58%of bachelor's graduates
and 47% of doctoral graduates
Percentage of female graduates in terti...
Not every shining degree is gold
38
There exists a high degree of variation between countries
in the literacy proficiency of tertiary-educated adults
Percenta...
While completion rates increase on average by 30 percentage points three
years beyond the theoretical duration, the share ...
While those with advanced skills reap large rewards,
people failing to obtain baseline qualifications pay a rising price
41
The unemployment rate of adults with low levels of educational attainment
has increased in more than three fourths of the ...
The unemployment rate of adults with low levels of educational attainment has
increased in more than three fourths of the ...
On average, the gender gap in employment rates
decreases as level of educational attainment increases
Gender difference in...
17% of young people are neither employed nor in education or training, and
young women more likely than men to be classifi...
Since 2005, slightly more than half of the countries have experienced an increase
in the share of young people neither emp...
Adults with immigrant parents are on average more likely to have below upper
secondary level education, but in almost half...
A higher share of young men than women have not
attained upper secondary level
Percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with be...
Over 85% of young people are expected to graduate
from upper secondary education in their lifetime
Upper secondary graduat...
On average, the majority of young adults with upper secondary or post-
secondary non-tertiary attainment have studied in v...
On average, more young adults are enrolled in general rather
than vocational programmes at the upper secondary level
Upper...
For those who studied only through the upper secondary level, vocational
programmes tend to lead to greater employment pro...
There are significant gendered divisions with regard
to field of study in vocational programmes
Share of females graduates...
Investment in basic skills varies widely among countries
57
Countries spend 3.7% of their GDP on primary, secondary
and post-secondary non-tertiary education, on average
Public and p...
On average, over USD 8 400 is spent per student in
primary education per year
Annual expenditure per student by educationa...
On average, over USD 9 800 is spent per student in
secondary education per year
Annual expenditure per student by educatio...
In two thirds of the countries, expenditure per student in primary to post-
secondary non-tertiary education increased, wi...
Two thirds of the countries saw an increase in public expenditure on
educational institutions expressed as a share of GDP ...
Those who need better education most get the least of it
71
Among adults aged 25-64, around half of both men and women
participate in formal and/or non-formal education, on average
P...
Adults that report frequent use of reading skills are more than twice as likely
to participate in formal and/or non-formal...
The internet is the primary source of information for those
who participate in formal and/or non-formal education
Sources ...
Employers are the major providers of non-formal
education in about half of the countries
Distribution of non-formal educat...
Countries also spend their money differently
77
In many countries, teacher pay is not competitive…
78
Teachers at the lower secondary level earn about
85% of the average tertiary-educated worker's salary
Lower secondary teac...
Salary cost of teachers per student tends to be
highest at the upper secondary level
Salary cost of teachers per student i...
Teachers' salaries were hit by the financial crisis,
but have been rising again since 2013
Change in teachers’ salaries in...
…and does not offer much in terms of career progression
82
In some countries there is very little salary progression, while in others the
salaries of teachers increase significantly...
The time students spend in class varies hugely…
84
On average, compulsory instruction time exceeds 7 500 hours for
combined primary and lower secondary education
Compulsory ...
…as do class sizes
86
Primary classes tend to be smaller than lower
secondary classes
Average class size, by level of education (2014)
0
5
10
15...
Three fourths of the countries have experienced a decrease in class
size at primary and/or secondary levels between 2005 a...
Vocational programmes in upper secondary education tend to
have higher student-teacher ratios than general programmes
Rati...
Countries make very different tradeoffs
between better pay and smaller classes…
90
The salary cost of teachers per student has increased in more than half of the
countries between 2010 and 2014, driven pri...
The salary cost of teachers per student has increased in more than half of the
countries between 2010 and 2014, driven pri...
…and between teaching and working hours
93
Average class size seems to have a weak relationship with the
percentage of total statutory working time spent teaching
Lo...
The proportion of working time spent teaching tends to
increase with the annual number of teaching hours
Percentage of low...
The higher the level of education, the fewer the
teaching hours per year
Number of teaching hours per year, by level of ed...
In many countries teaching is a life-time job
97
The share of teachers over the age of 50 has been
increasing in more than two thirds of the countries
Average annual growt...
Around 45% of lower secondary principals are women,
and the majority of principals are aged 50 or over
Gender and age dist...
The share of female teachers decreases as the level
of education increases
Share of female teachers by level of education ...
Instructional leadership is not yet universal
10
1
Some 40% of principals observe instruction in the
classroom
Collaboration between teachers and principals in lower seconda...
Starting strong
10
3
Participation in pre-primary education is associated with a
lower likelihood of becoming a low performer in mathematics
Pe...
Over 70% of 3 year-olds and 86% of 4 year-olds are
enrolled in early childhood education
Enrolment rates at age 3 and 4 in...
Some 67% of pre-primary students are enrolled in
public institutions
Percentage of pupils enrolled in public and private i...
In nearly two thirds of the countries, total expenditure on early
childhood education accounts for less than 1% of GDP
Tot...
On average, over USD 8 000 is spent per student in
primary education
Expenditure on pre-primary educational institutions (...
On average, there are 14 pupils per teacher in pre-
primary education
Ratio of pupils to teaching staff in early childhood...
Education continues to internalionalise
11
0
41% of international students pursue master's or doctoral
programmes in the United States or the United Kingdom
Distributi...
The share of international and foreign students is
highest in doctoral programmes
Student mobility in tertiary education, ...
In more than four fifths of the countries, the number of
international and foreign tertiary students has increased
Rate of...
There remains a lot to do to achieve
the Sustainable Development Goals
11
4
Two thirds of OECD countries have yet to achieve at least half of
the 10 targets of the education Sustainable Development ...
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Education at a Glance 2016

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Education at a Glance is the authoritative source for information on the state of education around the world. It provides key information on the output of educational institutions; the impact of learning across countries; the financial and human resources invested in education; access, participation and progression in education; and the learning environment and organisation of schools.

The 2016 edition introduces a new indicator on the completion rate of tertiary students and another one on school leaders. It provides more trend data and analysis on diverse topics, such as: teachers’ salaries; graduation rates; expenditure on education; enrolment rates; young adults who are neither employed nor in education or training; class size; and teaching hours. The publication examines gender imbalance in education and the profile of students who attend, and graduate from, vocational education.

The report covers all 35 OECD countries and a number of partner countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, India, Indonesia, Lithuania, the Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia and South Africa).

This edition includes more than 125 figures and 145 tables. The Excel™ spreadsheets used to create them are available via the StatLinks provided throughout the publication. More data is available in the OECD Education Statistics database.




Published in: Education

Education at a Glance 2016

  1. 1. 1 Global Webinar Andreas Schleicher Director for the Director of Education and Skills Education at a Glance 2016
  2. 2. Individuals reap high rewards for investing in better skills… 2
  3. 3. There is a high degree of variation between countries in the private costs and gross earnings benefits of attaining a tertiary degree for a man Private costs and benefits for a man attaining tertiary education (2012) -600 000 -400 000 -200 000 0 200 000 400 000 600 000 800 000 1000 000 New Zealand Estonia Denmark Canada Spain Norway Italy Finland Israel Australia Netherlands Japan EU22 average Slovenia OECD average Austria Slovak Republic Portugal Czech Republic Hungary Poland United States Luxembourg Chile Direct costs Foregone earnings Income tax effect Social contribution effect Transfers effect Gross earnings benefits USD Table A7.3a
  4. 4. Those with tertiary qualifications earn on average 55% more than those with upper secondary level attainment Relative earnings of adults working full-time, by educational attainment (2014). Upper secondary education = 100 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 Sweden Denmark Norway Estonia Finland Belgium Australia Greece Korea Canada Spain France Italy Switzerland Latvia NewZealand UnitedKingdom Netherlands Austria Japan EU22average Luxembourg OECDaverage Israel Germany Lithuania Poland Ireland UnitedStates Portugal Turkey SlovakRepublic Slovenia CostaRica CzechRepublic Mexico Hungary Colombia Chile Brazil Below upper secondary All tertiary Short-cycle tertiary Bachelor's or equivalent Master's, doctoral or equivalent Index Figure A6.1
  5. 5. …but the choice of subject matters… 9
  6. 6. Adults who studied in the field of education earn less than the average tertiary-educated full-time worker Relative earnings of adults with tertiary education by field of education studied (2012 or 2015). All fields of education = 100 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 SlovakRepublic Israel UnitedStates England(UK) Jakarta(Indonesia) Chile Estonia Denmark RussianFederation Norway Flanders(Belgium) CzechRepublic Sweden Australia NewZealand Netherlands OECDaverage Canada EU22average Austria Singapore Lithuania Turkey Germany Poland France Finland Slovenia Korea Japan Spain Ireland Greece NorthernIreland(UK) Italy Index Teacher training and education science Science, mathematics and computing Engineering, manufacturing and construction Health and welfare Earn less than average across all fields Earn more than average across all fields Figure A6.4
  7. 7. …so gender differences in fields of study will, together with other factors, translate into different incomes 11
  8. 8. There remain large gender disparities with regard to field of study Share of female tertiary graduates, by field of education (2014) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Argentina India Poland SouthAfrica Italy Portugal SaudiArabia Estonia UnitedKingdom Greece Iceland Indonesia SlovakRepublic Denmark Turkey Israel CostaRica Brazil NewZealand Colombia Sweden CzechRepublic Canada Latvia UnitedStates Mexico Slovenia France Australia Hungary Spain Lithuania Korea Luxembourg Germany Finland Ireland Belgium Austria Netherlands Norway RussianFederation Switzerland Chile Japan Sciences and engineering Education, humanities and social sciences % Education database
  9. 9. Men have higher private benefits to tertiary education than women, while the costs are evenly balanced among the genders Private costs and benefits of education on attaining tertiary education over a lifetime, by gender (2012) Countries are ranked in ascending order of financial returns for men -150 000 -50 000 50 000 150 000 250 000 350 000 450 000 550 000 650 000 -150 000 -50 000 50 000 150 000 250 000 350 000 450 000 550 000 650 000 NewZealand Estonia Denmark Canada Spain Norway Italy Finland Israel Australia Netherlands Japan EU22average Slovenia OECDaverage Austria SlovakRepublic Portugal CzechRepublic Hungary Poland UnitedStates Luxembourg Chile Women - total costs Men - total costs Women - total benefits Men - total benefits USD Figure A7.2
  10. 10. The rewards are not just about money 14
  11. 11. Lower levels of educational attainment are associated with higher shares of adults reporting health-related issues Average percentage of adults reporting activity limitation due to health problem, by educational attainment and age group (2014) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 25-34 year-olds 35-44 year-olds 45-54 year-olds 55-64 year-olds 65-74 year-olds 75-year-olds and over Below upper secondary Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary Tertiary% Figure A8.2
  12. 12. Tertiary-educated adults tend to report higher levels of life satisfaction Life satisfaction today, by educational attainment (2015) 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Iceland SlovakRepublic Sweden NewZealand Norway Switzerland Chile Canada Netherlands Denmark CzechRepublic Finland Luxembourg Australia Belgium Spain CostaRica Latvia Ireland France Israel OECDaverage EU22average UnitedStates Poland SaudiArabia Italy Portugal Argentina RussianFederation Lithuania UnitedKingdom China SouthAfrica Slovenia Japan Greece Austria Hungary Turkey Korea India Life satisfaction today - Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary Life satisfaction today - Tertiary% Figure A8.5
  13. 13. Also for taxpayers the benefits of better education far outweigh the costs 17
  14. 14. The public benefits for a man attaining a tertiary education are on average nearly 4 times greater than the public costs Public costs and benefits for a man attaining tertiary education (2012) -200 000 -100 000 0 100 000 200 000 300 000 400 000 500 000 Estonia New Zealand Switzerland Canada Spain Slovak Republic Norway Israel Poland Australia Finland Chile Czech Republic Japan Denmark OECD average EU22 average Portugal Italy Austria Netherlands Hungary Slovenia United States Luxembourg Direct costs Foregone taxes on earnings Income tax effect Social contribution effect Transfers effect Unemployment benefits effect USD Table A7.4a
  15. 15. Many countries have been able to meet rising demand for tertiary education with more resources… 21
  16. 16. In more than half of the countries, expenditure per tertiary student increased, with an average increase of 5% between 2008 and 2013 Changes in the number of students, expenditure on educational institutions and expenditure per student in tertiary education (2008, 2013) 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 Estonia Poland SlovakRepublic RussianFederation Turkey Israel CzechRepublic Korea Japan Sweden EU22average Slovenia OECDaverage Chile Italy Finland Netherlands Australia France Iceland Hungary Norway Belgium Portugal UnitedStates Mexico Germany Spain Denmark Ireland Index of change (2008=100) Change in expenditure Change in the number of students (in full-time equivalents) Change in expenditure per student Figure B1.5b
  17. 17. On average, over USD 15 000 is spent per student in tertiary education per year Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services in tertiary education (2013) 0 5 000 10 000 15 000 20 000 25 000 30 000 35 000 40 000 45 000 Luxembourg UnitedStates UnitedKingdom Switzerland Sweden Canada Norway Netherlands Australia Japan Finland Germany Austria Denmark France Belgium OECDaverage EU22average Israel NewZealand Ireland Brazil Spain Slovenia Estonia Iceland Italy Portugal Turkey CzechRepublic SlovakRepublic Hungary Korea Poland Lithuania RussianFederation Latvia Chile Mexico Colombia Indonesia USD Figure B1.3c
  18. 18. Countries spend 1.6% of their GDP on tertiary education, on average Public and private expenditure on tertiary education institutions as a percentage of GDP (2013) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 UnitedStates CostaRica Canada Chile Korea Colombia Estonia UnitedKingdom Finland NewZealand Austria Denmark Netherlands Sweden Turkey Lithuania Australia Israel Norway Japan France RussianFederation Belgium Portugal Latvia Poland CzechRepublic Hungary Spain Iceland Mexico Germany Ireland Slovenia Argentina SlovakRepublic Italy % of GDP OECD average (total expenditure) Figure B2.2b
  19. 19. …often by finding new ways to share the costs and benefits 25
  20. 20. Considerably more private spending is directed towards tertiary education relative to lower levels of education Share of private expenditure on educational institutions (2013) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Korea Japan UnitedStates Chile Australia Israel Colombia NewZealand Canada UnitedKingdom Portugal CostaRica Hungary RussianFederation Italy Mexico Latvia Spain OECDaverage Netherlands Lithuania SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic Ireland EU22average France Turkey Poland Estonia Germany Slovenia Belgium Sweden Iceland Denmark Austria Norway Finland Argentina % Primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education Figure B3.1
  21. 21. On average, 21% of expenditure at the tertiary level comes from households Distribution of public and private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions (2013) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Argentina Finland Norway Austria Denmark Iceland Sweden Belgium Slovenia Germany Estonia Poland Turkey France EU22average Ireland CzechRepublic SlovakRepublic Lithuania Netherlands OECDaverage Spain Latvia Mexico Italy RussianFederation Hungary CostaRica Portugal UnitedKingdom Canada NewZealand Colombia Israel Australia Chile UnitedStates Japan Korea Public expenditure on educational institutions Household expenditure Expenditure of other private entities All private sources% Figure B3.2b
  22. 22. The share of private expenditure tends to be more variable over time at the tertiary level compared to lower levels of education Trends in the shares of private expenditure on educational institutions (2013) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Korea Japan UnitedStates Chile Australia Israel Colombia NewZealand Canada UnitedKingdom Portugal CostaRica Hungary RussianFederation Italy Mexico Latvia Spain OECDaverage Netherlands Lithuania SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic Ireland EU22average France Turkey Poland Estonia Germany Slovenia Belgium Sweden Iceland Denmark Austria Norway Finland Argentina % 2013- Tertiary education 2008- Tertiary education Table B3.2
  23. 23. Independent private tertiary institutions tend to charge significantly higher tuition fees than public institutions Tuition fees charged by public and private institutions at bachelor's or equivalent level (2013/14) 0 5 000 10 000 15 000 20 000 25 000 UnitedStates Japan Korea Canada Australia NewZealand Israel Netherlands Italy Switzerland Austria Belgium(Fl.) Colombia Belgium(Fr.) Denmark Estonia Finland Norway SlovakRepublic Slovenia Sweden Turkey Mexico UnitedKingdom Public institutions Government-dependent private institutions Independent private institutions Data not available or applicable for public institutions USD Figure B5.1
  24. 24. But the demand for better education remains unwavering 32
  25. 25. Since 2005, the enrolment rate of 20-24 year-olds in tertiary education has increased by four percentage points Change in tertiary enrolment rates among 20-24 year-olds (2005 and 2014) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Korea Slovenia Poland Lithuania Chile Turkey Greece Denmark Spain CzechRepublic Ireland Netherlands Belgium Latvia Finland Norway Australia UnitedStates EU22average Estonia OECDaverage France Italy SlovakRepublic Argentina NewZealand Portugal RussianFederation Austria Canada Hungary Germany Sweden Switzerland UnitedKingdom Indonesia Brazil Mexico Israel China Luxembourg 2014 2005% Figure C1.2
  26. 26. Excluding international students, over 60% of young adults are expected to enter tertiary education First-time tertiary entry rates (2014) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Turkey Chile Slovenia Poland Norway Portugal Belgium Netherlands Denmark CzechRepublic NewZealand OECDaverage EU22average SlovakRepublic Iceland Germany Austria UnitedStates UnitedKingdom Sweden Finland Switzerland Mexico Luxembourg SaudiArabia Japan Lithuania Spain Israel Argentina Italy Hungary Colombia First-time entry rates at tertiary level Excluding international students% Figure C3.1
  27. 27. Close to half of today's young people are expected to graduate from tertiary education in their lifetime First-time tertiary graduation rates (2014) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Japan NewZealand Denmark Turkey Slovenia Iceland UnitedStates Chile Switzerland Norway OECDaverage Latvia Australia Finland Austria UnitedKingdom Portugal SlovakRepublic EU22average CzechRepublic Netherlands Germany Sweden Hungary China Luxembourg Spain Lithuania India Italy Mexico Indonesia Excluding international students First-time tertiary graduation rates Younger than 30 (excluding international students) % Figure A3.1
  28. 28. On average, women make up 58%of bachelor's graduates and 47% of doctoral graduates Percentage of female graduates in tertiary levels of education (2014) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Sweden CostaRica SlovakRepublic Norway Latvia CzechRepublic Iceland Argentina Lithuania SouthAfrica Slovenia Belgium Hungary Portugal Spain Denmark Canada NewZealand Israel Finland Austria Italy Australia EU22average Luxembourg Colombia UnitedStates RussianFederation SaudiArabia OECDaverage Netherlands UnitedKingdom Mexico Chile Indonesia China Turkey India Switzerland Germany Japan Bachelor’s or equivalent Doctoral or equivalent% Figure A3.3
  29. 29. Not every shining degree is gold 38
  30. 30. There exists a high degree of variation between countries in the literacy proficiency of tertiary-educated adults Percentage of adults scoring at literacy proficiency Level 4 or 5, by educational attainment (2012 or 2015) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Japan Finland Netherlands Sweden Australia Norway Flanders(Belgium) NewZealand England(UK) UnitedStates CzechRepublic Poland Canada NorthernIreland(UK) EU22average Austria OECDaverage Germany Ireland France Denmark Estonia Singapore SlovakRepublic Korea Slovenia Israel RussianFederation Spain Greece Lithuania Italy Chile Turkey Jakarta(Indonesia) % Tertiary Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary Below upper secondary Figure A1.2
  31. 31. While completion rates increase on average by 30 percentage points three years beyond the theoretical duration, the share of students who failed to graduate and were no longer in education also increases Figure A9.2 Distribution of full-time students who entered the bachelor's or equivalent level, by duration (2014) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% United Kingdom Norway Denmark UnitedStates Israel France Finland Average Belgium(Fl.) CzechRepublic Sweden NewZealand Estonia Netherlands Australia Austria By theoretical duration plus 3 years (N+3) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% By the theoretical duration (N) Graduated from any educational level Still in education Had not graduated and were not in education
  32. 32. While those with advanced skills reap large rewards, people failing to obtain baseline qualifications pay a rising price 41
  33. 33. The unemployment rate of adults with low levels of educational attainment has increased in more than three fourths of the countries in the past decade Unemployment rates of 25-64 year-olds, by educational attainment (2015) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 SlovakRepublic Spain Greece SouthAfrica Lithuania CzechRepublic Latvia Ireland Poland Hungary EU22average Belgium Italy France Slovenia Sweden Portugal Estonia RussianFederation OECDaverage Finland Germany Austria Canada Switzerland Netherlands UnitedStates Turkey Denmark Luxembourg Australia Norway CostaRica UnitedKingdom Israel NewZealand Colombia Chile Brazil Iceland Mexico Korea Indonesia SaudiArabia Japan Below upper secondary Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary Tertiary% Figure A5.1a
  34. 34. The unemployment rate of adults with low levels of educational attainment has increased in more than three fourths of the countries in the past decade Trends in unemployment rates of adults aged 25-64 without upper secondary education (2005 and 2015) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 SlovakRepublic Spain Greece SouthAfrica Lithuania CzechRepublic Latvia Ireland Poland Hungary EU22average Belgium Italy France Slovenia Sweden Portugal Estonia RussianFederation OECDaverage Finland Germany Austria Canada Switzerland Netherlands UnitedStates Turkey Denmark Luxembourg Australia Norway CostaRica UnitedKingdom Israel NewZealand Colombia Chile Brazil Iceland Mexico Korea Indonesia SaudiArabia 2005 2015% Table A5.3
  35. 35. On average, the gender gap in employment rates decreases as level of educational attainment increases Gender difference in employment rates, by educational attainment (2015) Employment rate of men – employment rate of women 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 SaudiArabia Turkey Mexico Chile CostaRica Indonesia Colombia Brazil Israel Italy Ireland UnitedStates Greece Netherlands Poland UnitedKingdom OECDaverage Spain Hungary Korea Australia Denmark RussianFederation Canada EU22average Latvia SouthAfrica CzechRepublic Germany Belgium Switzerland Luxembourg Sweden NewZealand Slovenia Iceland France Portugal Finland Lithuania Estonia Austria Norway SlovakRepublic Japan Below upper secondary Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary TertiaryPercentage points Figure A5.2
  36. 36. 17% of young people are neither employed nor in education or training, and young women more likely than men to be classified as NEET Percentage of NEETs among 20-24 year-olds, by gender (2015) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Italy Turkey Greece Spain Mexico Colombia Brazil CostaRica Korea Chile France Portugal Ireland SlovakRepublic Israel Poland Hungary Finland Slovenia EU22average OECDaverage RussianFederation Lithuania Belgium UnitedStates UnitedKingdom Estonia NewZealand Canada Latvia Australia Denmark Switzerland Sweden Austria CzechRepublic Norway Japan Luxembourg Germany Netherlands Iceland Men and women Men Women% Figure C5.1
  37. 37. Since 2005, slightly more than half of the countries have experienced an increase in the share of young people neither employed nor in education or training Difference in the percentage of NEETs among 20-24 year-olds (2005 and 2015) - 20 - 15 - 10 - 5 0 5 10 15 20 Turkey Germany SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic Belgium Japan Mexico Poland Sweden Estonia Austria UnitedKingdom Hungary OECDaverage Canada Iceland Luxembourg UnitedStates Switzerland Norway Lithuania Netherlands NewZealand EU22average Australia France Denmark Slovenia Finland Greece Portugal Ireland Spain Italy Difference (2015 - 2005)Percentage points Figure C5.2
  38. 38. Adults with immigrant parents are on average more likely to have below upper secondary level education, but in almost half of the countries with available data, adults with immigrant parents are more likely to attain tertiary education Percentage of 25-44 year-olds with below upper secondary or tertiary education, by parents' immigrant status and educational attainment (2012 or 2015) - 100 - 80 - 60 - 40 - 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 Italy* Spain NorthernIreland(UK) SlovakRepublic* England(UK) Chile* Greece Ireland Australia NewZealand Estonia Netherlands OECDaverage Israel Slovenia* Norway UnitedStates Denmark Canada Lithuania* Singapore France Austria Poland* Germany Japan* Flanders(Belgium) Sweden CzechRepublic* Finland* Korea* Both parents are native-born Both parents are foreign-born Thehighestlevelofeducation oftheindividualandhisorher parentsisbelowupper secondaryeducation Thehighestlevelof educationofthe individualandhisorher parentsistertiary education *Note: Data on both foreign-born parents are not displayed for some countries because there are too few observations to provide reliable estimates. % Table A4.3
  39. 39. A higher share of young men than women have not attained upper secondary level Percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with below upper secondary education as their highest level of education, by gender (2015) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Indonesia Mexico CostaRica SouthAfrica Turkey Brazil Spain Portugal Colombia SaudiArabia Italy Iceland Chile NewZealand Norway Sweden Belgium OECDaverage Denmark Greece Luxembourg Latvia EU22average UnitedKingdom Netherlands Hungary France Germany Australia Estonia Finland Lithuania Austria UnitedStates Ireland Israel Switzerland SlovakRepublic Canada CzechRepublic Poland Slovenia RussianFederation Korea Total Men Women % Figure A1.1
  40. 40. Over 85% of young people are expected to graduate from upper secondary education in their lifetime Upper secondary graduation rates (2014) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Portugal Finland Japan NewZealand Netherlands Korea Denmark Italy Lithuania Germany Slovenia Austria Israel Iceland Canada Hungary Latvia Chile EU22average China OECDaverage Norway SlovakRepublic Poland UnitedStates Spain CzechRepublic Luxembourg SaudiArabia Colombia Indonesia Sweden Turkey Brazil Argentina CostaRica Mexico RussianFederation SouthAfrica Total Over 25 years old Below 25 years old% Figure A2.1
  41. 41. On average, the majority of young adults with upper secondary or post- secondary non-tertiary attainment have studied in vocational programmes Percentage of 25-34 year-olds whose highest level of education is upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary, by programme orientation (2015) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 CzechRepublic SlovakRepublic Germany Hungary Slovenia Chile Austria Poland Italy Finland Estonia OECDaverage Brazil Israel Latvia EU22average UnitedStates Greece SaudiArabia Switzerland France NewZealand Netherlands Japan Australia Colombia Belgium Denmark Ireland RussianFederation UnitedKingdom Sweden Iceland SouthAfrica Lithuania Luxembourg Canada Portugal Norway Indonesia Korea Spain Turkey Mexico CostaRica China General orientation Vocational orientation No distinction by orientation% Figure A1.3
  42. 42. On average, more young adults are enrolled in general rather than vocational programmes at the upper secondary level Upper secondary enrolment rates of 15-19 year-olds, by programme orientation (2014) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 SaudiArabia Ireland Hungary NewZealand Spain Korea Japan Argentina UnitedKingdom Greece Chile Brazil Denmark Estonia France Portugal Latvia OECDaverage Sweden EU22average Australia Norway Israel Italy Lithuania Germany Finland Slovenia Belgium Poland Turkey China Luxembourg Indonesia Switzerland Mexico Netherlands CzechRepublic SlovakRepublic CostaRica RussianFederation Austria Colombia General programmes Other vocational programmes Combined school- and work-based programmes% Figure C1.1
  43. 43. For those who studied only through the upper secondary level, vocational programmes tend to lead to greater employment prospects Employment rates of 25-34 year-olds whose highest level of educational attainment is upper secondary, by type of programme (2015) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Iceland Sweden Switzerland Norway Canada Luxembourg Austria Germany Denmark UnitedKingdom Latvia Netherlands Australia Estonia Israel Slovenia Belgium OECDaverage Hungary NewZealand Portugal EU22average Lithuania Finland Chile Poland SlovakRepublic France CostaRica Spain Turkey Ireland Italy Greece Vocational programmes General programmes% Table A5.5
  44. 44. There are significant gendered divisions with regard to field of study in vocational programmes Share of females graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes, by field of education (2014) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Lithuania Estonia Latvia Hungary Iceland Turkey France CzechRepublic Switzerland Norway Netherlands Australia Denmark Finland Japan Chile Portugal Brazil OECDaverage SlovakRepublic EU22average Ireland Belgium Korea Austria Luxembourg Germany Sweden Greece Poland Slovenia Spain Italy NewZealand Indonesia India Social sciences, business and law Engineering, manufacturing and construction Health and welfare Services % Figure A2.4
  45. 45. Investment in basic skills varies widely among countries 57
  46. 46. Countries spend 3.7% of their GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education, on average Public and private expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education institutions as a percentage of GDP by level of education (2013) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 CostaRica UnitedKingdom Portugal NewZealand Norway Denmark Iceland Argentina Belgium Colombia Israel Ireland Australia Mexico Finland Netherlands France Sweden Slovenia Korea Canada UnitedStates Poland Turkey Austria Chile Estonia Latvia Germany Spain Italy Luxembourg Japan SlovakRepublic Lithuania CzechRepublic Hungary RussianFederation % of GDP Public expenditure on education institutions Private expenditure on education institutions OECD average (total expenditure) Figure B2.2a
  47. 47. On average, over USD 8 400 is spent per student in primary education per year Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services in primary education (2013) 0 5 000 10 000 15 000 20 000 25 000 Luxembourg Switzerland Norway Denmark UnitedStates Austria UnitedKingdom Sweden Iceland Belgium Canada Slovenia Japan EU22average Finland OECDaverage Italy Netherlands Australia Germany Ireland Korea NewZealand Portugal France Estonia Spain Israel Poland Latvia SlovakRepublic Hungary Lithuania CzechRepublic Chile Brazil Argentina Turkey Mexico SouthAfrica Colombia Indonesia USD Figure B1.3a
  48. 48. On average, over USD 9 800 is spent per student in secondary education per year Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services in secondary education (2013) 0 5 000 10 000 15 000 20 000 25 000 Luxembourg Switzerland Norway Austria Belgium UnitedStates Netherlands UnitedKingdom France Sweden Germany Denmark Australia Ireland Japan Finland NewZealand Portugal EU22average OECDaverage Iceland Italy Slovenia Korea Spain CzechRepublic Poland Estonia Latvia Israel SlovakRepublic Argentina RussianFederation Lithuania Hungary Chile Brazil Turkey Mexico Colombia SouthAfrica Indonesia USD Figure B1.3b
  49. 49. In two thirds of the countries, expenditure per student in primary to post- secondary non-tertiary education increased, with an average increase of 8% between 2008 and 2013 Changes in the number of students, expenditure on educational institutions and expenditure per student in primary, secondary and post-tertiary non-tertiary education (2008, 2013) 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 Turkey Portugal SlovakRepublic Korea Poland UnitedKingdom RussianFederation Israel CzechRepublic Mexico Chile Germany Australia Netherlands OECDaverage Japan Norway Finland Sweden EU22average Belgium France Denmark Slovenia UnitedStates Estonia Ireland Iceland Italy Spain Hungary Index of change (2008=100) Change in expenditure Change in the number of students (in full-time equivalents) Change in expenditure per student Figure B1.5a
  50. 50. Two thirds of the countries saw an increase in public expenditure on educational institutions expressed as a share of GDP between 2008 and 2013 Index of change between 2008 and 2013 in public expenditure on education institutions as a percentage of GDP, primary to tertiary levels of education (2008 = 100, 2013 constant prices) 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 Turkey SlovakRepublic Netherlands Portugal Finland Switzerland Denmark RussianFederation Korea Japan Mexico Australia Germany Israel Belgium OECDaverage Chile Slovenia EU22average Sweden France Norway Poland Iceland Ireland Spain Italy Estonia UnitedStates Hungary Change in public expenditure on educational institutions Change in gross domestic product Change in public expenditure on educational institutions in percentage of GDP Index of change (2008=100) Table B2.4
  51. 51. Those who need better education most get the least of it 71
  52. 52. Among adults aged 25-64, around half of both men and women participate in formal and/or non-formal education, on average Participation in formal and/or non-formal education (2012 or 2015) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 NewZealand Finland Denmark Sweden Norway Netherlands UnitedStates Canada Singapore England(UK) Australia Israel Germany Estonia Ireland Korea CzechRepublic OECDaverage Flanders(Belgium) NorthernIreland(UK) Austria Slovenia Chile EU22average Spain Japan France Poland Lithuania SlovakRepublic Italy Turkey Greece RussianFederation Jakarta(Indonesia) % Figure C6.1
  53. 53. Adults that report frequent use of reading skills are more than twice as likely to participate in formal and/or non-formal education than those who do not Adult participation in formal and/or non-formal education, by frequency of use of reading skills in everyday life (2012 or 2015) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Finland Denmark Sweden Israel Netherlands Estonia NewZealand Norway Slovenia Korea UnitedStates Chile Singapore Spain Canada Australia OECDaverage Ireland Poland EU22average Lithuania CzechRepublic Germany England(UK) Flanders(Belgium) Turkey NorthernIreland(UK) Austria Jakarta(Indonesia) Japan SlovakRepublic Italy Greece France RussianFederation % Participation among adults with the highest frequency of use of reading skills in everyday life Participation among adults with the lowest frequency of use of reading skills in everyday life Figure C6.2
  54. 54. The internet is the primary source of information for those who participate in formal and/or non-formal education Sources of information on formal and/or non-formal education used by participants (2011) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Lithuania Finland Sweden Estonia Poland Spain SlovakRepublic Norway Switzerland Ireland CzechRepublic Netherlands Luxembourg Canada Hungary Latvia Greece OECDaverage EU22average Italy Belgium Germany Slovenia Austria Denmark Portugal Turkey France UnitedKingdom % Internet Education or training institution Employer Figure C6.a
  55. 55. Employers are the major providers of non-formal education in about half of the countries Distribution of non-formal education and training activities, by provider (2011) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Poland Slovenia Lithuania Turkey CzechRepublic Austria Estonia SlovakRepublic Latvia Germany OECDaverage Finland EU22average Switzerland Netherlands France Portugal Luxembourg Ireland Spain Italy Belgium Canada Denmark Norway Sweden Hungary Greece UnitedKingdom % Education institution Employer Other labour market institutions Civil society Figure C6.b
  56. 56. Countries also spend their money differently 77
  57. 57. In many countries, teacher pay is not competitive… 78
  58. 58. Teachers at the lower secondary level earn about 85% of the average tertiary-educated worker's salary Lower secondary teachers' salaries relative to earnings for tertiary-educated workers (2014) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 Luxembourg Greece Israel Finland Germany England(UK) France Belgium(Fl.) Estonia Slovenia Denmark NewZealand Austria EU22average Netherlands Australia OECDaverage Belgium(Fr.) Sweden Scotland(UK) Poland Chile Hungary Norway Italy UnitedStates SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic Teachers' actual salaries relative to earnings for tertiary-educated workers Teachers' actual salaries relative to earnings for similarly-educated workers (weighted averages) Ratio Figure D3.1
  59. 59. Salary cost of teachers per student tends to be highest at the upper secondary level Salary cost of teachers per student in public institutions, by level of education (2014) 0 2 000 4 000 6 000 8 000 10 000 12 000 14 000 Luxembourg Austria Belgium(Fl.) Germany Belgium(Fr.) Finland Denmark Australia Slovenia Norway Spain Ireland EU22average Netherlands Canada Portugal UnitedStates Japan OECDaverage Greece Italy Korea Israel France Poland Hungary CzechRepublic Turkey Chile SlovakRepublic Mexico USD Lower secondary Primary Upper secondary Figure B7.1
  60. 60. Teachers' salaries were hit by the financial crisis, but have been rising again since 2013 Change in teachers’ salaries in OECD countries (2005-14) 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Primary Lower secondary, general programmes Upper secondary, general programmes Figure D3.3
  61. 61. …and does not offer much in terms of career progression 82
  62. 62. In some countries there is very little salary progression, while in others the salaries of teachers increase significantly over their careers Lower secondary teachers’ salaries at different points in teachers' careers (2014) 0 20 000 40 000 60 000 80 000 100 000 120 000 140 000 Luxembourg Switzerland Germany Denmark Spain Australia UnitedStates Netherlands Canada Norway Finland Belgium(Fl.) Austria Belgium(Fr.) Sweden Portugal OECDaverage EU22average Ireland France Italy NewZealand Japan Turkey Scotland(UK) Korea Slovenia Mexico England(UK) Israel Greece Chile CzechRepublic Estonia Colombia Poland Hungary Brazil SlovakRepublic Starting salary/minimum qualifications Salary after 15 years of experience/typical qualifications Salary at top of scale/maximum qualifications USD Figure D3.2
  63. 63. The time students spend in class varies hugely… 84
  64. 64. On average, compulsory instruction time exceeds 7 500 hours for combined primary and lower secondary education Compulsory instruction time in general education (2016) 0 2 000 4 000 6 000 8 000 10 000 12 000 Australia 11 Denmark 10 Colombia 9 United States 9 Israel 9 Netherlands 9 Chile 8 Mexico 9 Ireland 9 Canada 9 France 9 Luxembourg 9 Spain 9 Norway 10 Switzerland 9 Iceland 10 Portugal 9 OECD average 9 Italy 8 Germany 9 Japan 9 EU22 average 9 Greece 9 Czech Republic 9 Belgium (Fr.) 8 Slovak Republic 9 Belgium (Fl.) 8 Sweden 9 Lithuania 10 Estonia 9 Austria 8 Korea 9 Finland 9 Slovenia 9 Turkey 8 Poland 9 Russian Federation 9 Latvia 9 Hungary 8 Total number of compulsory instruction hours Primary Lower secondary Duration of primary and lower secondary education, in years Figure D1.1
  65. 65. …as do class sizes 86
  66. 66. Primary classes tend to be smaller than lower secondary classes Average class size, by level of education (2014) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 China Japan Korea Chile Indonesia India Israel Turkey Mexico Brazil UnitedStates Spain France NewZealand Germany Australia OECDaverage Portugal Poland CzechRepublic Italy Austria Hungary EU22average Sweden Iceland Slovenia Finland Lithuania SlovakRepublic UnitedKingdom Russian… Luxembourg Estonia Latvia Netherlands Lower secondary education Primary educationStudents Figure D2.1
  67. 67. Three fourths of the countries have experienced a decrease in class size at primary and/or secondary levels between 2005 and 2014 Change in average class size (2005, 2014) - 40 - 30 - 20 - 10 0 10 20 30 40 France UnitedStates Spain Italy Iceland Portugal RussianFederation Germany Hungary Japan Slovenia Luxembourg Australia OECDaverage EU22average Poland Mexico CzechRepublic Chile Israel Korea Austria UnitedKingdom Brazil SlovakRepublic Estonia Turkey Netherlands Lower secondary education Primary educationIndex of change (2005=0) Figure D2.2
  68. 68. Vocational programmes in upper secondary education tend to have higher student-teacher ratios than general programmes Ratio of students to teaching staff in upper secondary education, by type of programme (2014) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Indonesia Chile UnitedKingdom Netherlands China NewZealand Latvia Estonia Finland Denmark Hungary Slovenia OECDaverage Germany Turkey EU22average SlovakRepublic France Italy Korea CzechRepublic Spain Austria Belgium Poland Luxembourg Lithuania Brazil Greece Ireland Australia Switzerland Vocational programmes General programmes Students Figure D2.3
  69. 69. Countries make very different tradeoffs between better pay and smaller classes… 90
  70. 70. The salary cost of teachers per student has increased in more than half of the countries between 2010 and 2014, driven primarily by changes in class size Change in the salary cost of teachers per student, teachers' salaries and estimated class size in public institutions in primary education (2010 and 2014) - 40 - 30 - 20 - 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 Israel Chile Luxembourg Hungary Korea Turkey Mexico SlovakRepublic Germany Japan Australia Norway OECDaverage Finland Belgium(Fr.) Austria Belgium(Fl.) EU22average Poland France Ireland Denmark Slovenia Italy Spain Portugal change in teachers' salary change in estimated class size change in salary cost of teachers per student % Figure B7.3a
  71. 71. The salary cost of teachers per student has increased in more than half of the countries between 2010 and 2014, driven primarily by changes in class size Change in the salary cost of teachers per student, teachers' salaries and estimated class size in public institutions in lower secondary education (2010 and 2014) - 40 - 30 - 20 - 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Poland SlovakRepublic Chile Hungary Israel Korea Germany Mexico Norway Japan Australia Finland EU22average OECDaverage Austria Ireland Luxembourg Denmark France Italy Slovenia Belgium(Fr.) Belgium(Fl.) Portugal Spain % Figure B7.3b
  72. 72. …and between teaching and working hours 93
  73. 73. Average class size seems to have a weak relationship with the percentage of total statutory working time spent teaching Lower secondary level schools (2014) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 10 15 20 25 30 35 Percentage of total statutory working time spent teaching Average class size Tables D2.1 & D4.1
  74. 74. The proportion of working time spent teaching tends to increase with the annual number of teaching hours Percentage of lower secondary teachers' working time spent teaching (2014) Scotland (UK) England (UK) Chile United States Colombia Spain Portugal Netherlands Germany Slovak Republic France Estonia Denmark Norway Czech Republic Korea Austria Poland Japan Hungary Turkey Israel 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 Percentage of total statutory working time spent teaching Average Annual number of teaching hours Average Figure D4.3
  75. 75. The higher the level of education, the fewer the teaching hours per year Number of teaching hours per year, by level of education (2014) 0 200 400 600 800 1 000 1 200 Colombia Chile Scotland(UK) Mexico Australia NewZealand Netherlands England(UK) Canada Luxembourg Ireland Germany Spain France OECDaverage EU22average Italy SlovakRepublic Belgium(Fr.) Portugal Hungary CzechRepublic Austria Slovenia Estonia Korea Finland Poland Israel Norway Japan1 Belgium(Fl.) Turkey RussianFederation Greece Denmark Hours per year Upper secondary, general programmes Primary Lower secondary, general programmes Figure D4.2
  76. 76. In many countries teaching is a life-time job 97
  77. 77. The share of teachers over the age of 50 has been increasing in more than two thirds of the countries Average annual growth rate of the share of teachers over the age of 50 in secondary education (2005, 2014) - 4 - 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 Korea Portugal Austria Slovenia Japan Greece Spain Hungary Poland NewZealand Switzerland EU22average OECDaverage Israel Italy Finland Belgium SlovakRepublic Sweden UnitedStates Chile France Germany Luxembourg Ireland UnitedKingdom Average annual growth rate % Figure D5.2
  78. 78. Around 45% of lower secondary principals are women, and the majority of principals are aged 50 or over Gender and age distribution of principals in lower secondary education (TALIS 2013) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Brazil AbuDhabi(UAE) Romania Israel Shanghai(China) UnitedStates Serbia England(UK) Singapore Sweden RussianFederation Spain CzechRepublic Poland Georgia Iceland Norway Belgium(Flanders) Finland Bulgaria Mexico EU22average OECDaverage Estonia Croatia France SlovakRepublic Netherlands Latvia Chile Portugal Denmark Australia NewZealand Italy Malaysia Cyprus Japan Korea % Under 40 years 40-49 years 50-59 years 60 years or more Female Figure D6.1
  79. 79. The share of female teachers decreases as the level of education increases Share of female teachers by level of education (2014) The zero line represents 50% of female teachers - 30 - 20 - 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 RussianFederation Latvia Lithuania Estonia SlovakRepublic Israel Slovenia Italy Ireland Hungary Portugal Poland CzechRepublic Finland Brazil EU22average Austria Sweden Belgium OECDaverage NewZealand Norway UnitedStates Germany UnitedKingdom Chile France Korea Greece CostaRica Spain Denmark Indonesia Luxembourg Colombia Netherlands China SaudiArabia Mexico Turkey Switzerland Japan Canada SouthAfrica Secondary education Tertiary education Primary educationPercentage point difference from 50% Share of female teachers is higher Share of male teachers is higher Figure D5.3
  80. 80. Instructional leadership is not yet universal 10 1
  81. 81. Some 40% of principals observe instruction in the classroom Collaboration between teachers and principals in lower secondary education (TALIS 2013) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Shanghai(China) Bulgaria Malaysia AbuDhabi(UAE) Romania UnitedStates England(UK) Georgia Chile Serbia Korea RussianFederation Japan Mexico Cyprus Poland SlovakRepublic Brazil Singapore CzechRepublic Croatia Israel Latvia Netherlands NewZealand OECDaverage Italy EU22average Australia Spain Sweden Belgium(Flanders) Norway Denmark Iceland Finland France Estonia Portugal % Observe instruction in the classroom Take action to support co-operation among teachers to develop new teaching practices Take action to ensure that teachers take responsibility for improving their teaching skills Figure D6.2
  82. 82. Starting strong 10 3
  83. 83. Participation in pre-primary education is associated with a lower likelihood of becoming a low performer in mathematics Percentage of low performers in PISA mathematics assessments, by attendance in pre-primary school (2012) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Estonia Korea Canada Ireland Latvia Slovenia Netherlands Japan Poland Germany RussianFederation Norway Portugal Lithuania Finland Iceland Austria Australia EU22average Switzerland Luxembourg NewZealand UnitedStates OECDaverage UnitedKingdom Denmark Spain CzechRepublic Sweden Italy Turkey Belgium France Greece SlovakRepublic Israel Mexico Chile Brazil Colombia Indonesia Argentina More than a year of pre-primary education A year or less of pre-primary education % Figure C2.2
  84. 84. Over 70% of 3 year-olds and 86% of 4 year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education Enrolment rates at age 3 and 4 in early childhood and primary education (2014) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 France Belgium Israel Spain Norway Germany Sweden Italy Denmark Korea NewZealand Latvia UnitedKingdom Slovenia Japan Netherlands Hungary RussianFederation Lithuania Portugal EU22average Luxembourg OECDaverage CzechRepublic Finland SlovakRepublic Austria Poland Chile Ireland UnitedStates Mexico Australia Brazil Turkey Switzerland CostaRica Greece Enrolment rates at age 3 in early childhood educational programmes Enrolment rates at age 3 in pre-primary education Enrolment rates at age 4 % Figure C2.1
  85. 85. Some 67% of pre-primary students are enrolled in public institutions Percentage of pupils enrolled in public and private institutions in pre-primary education (2014) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 RussianFederation Lithuania CzechRepublic Slovenia SlovakRepublic Switzerland Latvia Canada Finland Hungary France Turkey Mexico Denmark Sweden Poland EU22average Brazil Austria Italy Netherlands UnitedKingdom Spain OECDaverage Israel UnitedStates Norway Portugal Belgium Germany Chile Japan Australia Korea NewZealand % Private institutions Public institutions Figure C2.3
  86. 86. In nearly two thirds of the countries, total expenditure on early childhood education accounts for less than 1% of GDP Total expenditure on early childhood educational institutions (2013) 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 Norway Sweden Iceland Denmark Slovenia Chile Finland RussianFederation Israel NewZealand Germany Latvia OECDaverage Spain Poland EU22average France Lithuania Mexico Portugal Luxembourg Austria Brazil Argentina CzechRepublic SlovakRepublic UnitedKingdom Colombia Italy Australia Netherlands Estonia Japan Switzerland Ireland Pre-primary Early childhood educational development All early childhood education (if no breakdown) % Figure C2.5
  87. 87. On average, over USD 8 000 is spent per student in primary education Expenditure on pre-primary educational institutions (2013) 0 5 000 10 000 15 000 20 000 25 000 Luxembourg Norway Australia Sweden Iceland Finland NewZealand UnitedStates Germany Austria UnitedKingdom Netherlands Slovenia OECDaverage EU22average Belgium France Portugal Ireland Chile Japan Italy Korea Spain Poland Switzerland Hungary SlovakRepublic Latvia CzechRepublic Israel Turkey USD Table C2.3
  88. 88. On average, there are 14 pupils per teacher in pre- primary education Ratio of pupils to teaching staff in early childhood education (2014) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Chile Mexico France China UnitedKingdom Indonesia Portugal Brazil Turkey Poland Netherlands Switzerland Belgium Japan Spain Austria OECDaverage CzechRepublic Korea EU22average Italy Hungary SlovakRepublic UnitedStates Greece Luxembourg Latvia Finland Germany Denmark Slovenia NewZealand Sweden Australia Pre-primary education Early childhood educational development Figure C2.4
  89. 89. Education continues to internalionalise 11 0
  90. 90. 41% of international students pursue master's or doctoral programmes in the United States or the United Kingdom Distribution of foreign and international students in OECD countries at the master's and doctoral or equivalent levels, by country of destination (2014) United States, 26 United Kingdom, 15 France, 11 Germany, 10 Australia, 8 Canada, 3 Japan, 3 Italy, 3 Austria, 2 Switzerland, 2 Belgium, 2 Netherlands, 2 Korea, 2 Others, 12 Figure C4.2
  91. 91. The share of international and foreign students is highest in doctoral programmes Student mobility in tertiary education, by ISCED level (2014) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Luxembourg NewZealand Australia UnitedKingdom Switzerland Austria Belgium Netherlands Denmark France Canada Finland Germany Hungary Ireland OECDaverage Sweden Latvia UnitedStates Portugal Estonia Norway Japan Lithuania Slovenia Spain Poland Chile CzechRepublic SlovakRepublic Italy Greece Israel RussianFederation Korea Turkey China Brazil India Total tertiary education Master’s or equivalent Doctoral or equivalent Foreign studentsInternational students % Figure C4.1
  92. 92. In more than four fifths of the countries, the number of international and foreign tertiary students has increased Rate of growth of the number of international or foreign students between 2013 and 2014, total tertiary education - 15 - 5 5 15 25 35 45 55 RussianFederation Latvia Poland Belgium Estonia NewZealand China Hungary Canada Ireland SlovakRepublic Chile UnitedStates Germany Australia OECDaverage Switzerland Finland EU22average Luxembourg UnitedKingdom France Netherlands CzechRepublic Portugal Denmark Norway Sweden Japan Slovenia Korea Austria Spain Turkey % Table C4.1
  93. 93. There remains a lot to do to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals 11 4
  94. 94. Two thirds of OECD countries have yet to achieve at least half of the 10 targets of the education Sustainable Development Goal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Australia Canada Belgium Netherlands Norway NewZealand Denmark Japan Sweden Austria Finland Korea CzechRepublic EU22average OECDaverage Germany Poland Spain Ireland UnitedKingdom Estonia Switzerland Slovenia Luxembourg Latvia Israel Italy SlovakRepublic Turkey Portugal UnitedStates Iceland Chile France Mexico Hungary Greece Number of targets with available data 4.1 Percentage of 15-year old students performing at level 2 or higher on the PISA math scale (threshold 80%) 4.2 Enrolment rate in pre-primary and primary education at age 5 (threshold 95%) 4.3 First-time tertiary entry rates (threshold 60%) 4.4 Percentage of adults with a high degree of skills and readiness to use ICT for problem solving (threshold 60%) 4.5 PISA inclusion index (threshold 75%) 4.6 Percentage of adults with high levels of literacy (threshold 50%) 4.7 Percentage of students at level A, B and C in the PISA environmental science performance index (threshold 70%) 4.a Computers for educational purposes per student, mean index (threshold 0.7) 4.b Difference in scholarships and student costs in donor countries between 2012 and 2014, in millions (threshold USD 0) 4.c Percentage of lower secondary teachers having completed teacher education of training programmes (threshold 95%)

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