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1 
Education at a Glance 
2014 
Presentation - press conference in 
the United Kingdom 
(September 9, 2014)
No country has made a greater effort than the UK to invest more 
current wealth (GDP) into more future wealth (education)…...
Between 2008 and 2011, only six countries cut 
public expenditure on educational institutions 
Impact of the economic cris...
OECD countries spend USD 9 252 per student per 
year from primary through tertiary education 
Annual expenditure per stude...
Chart A9.4 
Relationship between mathematics performance and variation in 
performance explained by students’ socio-econom...
Expenditure on early childhood education accounts 
for 0.6% of GDP, on average 
Expenditure on early childhood educational...
The ratio of pupils to teaching staff also indicates the level 
of resources devoted to pre-primary education 
Ratio of pu...
Countries spend their money differently… 
…and many high-performing school systems prioritise the quality of 
teachers ove...
The salary cost of teachers per student varies widely across 
countries and depends on salary, class size, and teaching ti...
Students in OECD countries receive an average of 7 475 compulsory hours 
of instruction during their primary and lower sec...
The number of students per class tends to increase 
between primary and lower secondary education 
Average class size in e...
Only in 7 countries were relative salaries for teachers 
higher than those of comparably educated workers 
Teachers' salar...
Between 2009 and 2012, teachers’ salaries fell, for the first 
time since 2000, by around 5% at all levels of education 
O...
The UK is one of the few countries that have figured out a 
sustainable approach to higher education finance 
…and the inv...
About 31% of spending on tertiary education comes from 
private sources, on average 
Share of private expenditure on educa...
The share of private expenditure on tertiary institutions 
increased from 25% in 2000 to 31% in 2011 
Share of private exp...
Nearly 22% of public spending on tertiary education is devoted to 
supporting students, households and other private entit...
The net public return on investment for a man in tertiary education is over 
USD 100 000, while the net private return is ...
Qualification levels have risen markedly… 
…but don’t always translate into strong foundation skills 
19 
Close to 40% of ...
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
I...
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
I...
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
I...
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
I...
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
I...
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
I...
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
I...
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
I...
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
I...
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
I...
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
I...
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
I...
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
I...
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
I...
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
I...
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Canada 
Chile 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
I...
More people benefit from education than ever before 
25-34 and 55-64 year-olds, and percentage-point difference between th...
Nearly 60% of young adults are expected to enter 
university programmes 
Entry rates into tertiary-type A education (2012)...
Women are more likely than men to earn a university 
degree, but less likely a doctorate 
Percentage of graduas teawarded ...
Women are under-represented in some fields of 
education 
Percentage of tertiary degrees awarded to women, by field of edu...
Qualification levels have risen markedly… 
…but don’t always translate into strong foundation skills 
40
Literacy proficiency is determined by educational attainment 
but not in the same way across countries 
Mean literacy scor...
The shares of highly literate tertiary graduates are 
very different across countries 
Percentage of adults scoring at lit...
The rising tide has not lifted all boats… 
…and in some countries educational mobility is slowing down 
43
Between 20% and 60% of adults are more educated 
than their parents 
Percentage of 25-64 year-old non-students whose educa...
In most countries, upward educational mobility tends to 
slow down in the younger generations 
Proportion of upward mobili...
Equitable access to tertiary education and 
educational mobility are not the same thing 
Mobility 
Odds A4 
Relationship b...
Those who need lifelong learning most get the least of it 
Adult participation in formal and/or non-formal education, by e...
In 2012, 15% of 15-29 year-olds in OECD countries were 
neither employed nor in education or training, on average 
NEET po...
Education is internationalising rapidily… 
…but not all countries benefit equally from that development. 
49
In 2012, more than 4.5 million students were enrolled in 
tertiary education outside their country of citizenship Chart C4...
In 2012, more than one in two foreign students were enrolled in Australia, 
Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom or...
New players are emerging in the international 
education market 
Trends in international education market shares (2000, 20...
More than half of foreign students in tertiary 
education come from Asia 
Distribution of foreign students in tertiary edu...
Rising benefits for those who are well educated… 
…growing costs for those who are not. 
54
The employment benefit of tertiary education is 
significant, but varies across countries 
Employment rates among 25-64 ye...
Adults with a tertiary degree will earn 75% more than 
those with only upper secondary education 
Relative earnings of wor...
Adults with below upper secondary education will earn around 
22% less than those with upper secondary education 
Relative...
…and its about more than money. 
58
Education and skills both contribute to better social 
outcomes 
Proportion of adults reporting that they are in good heal...
60 
60 Thank you 
Find out more about our work at 
www.oecd.org/eag/eag2014 
– The publication 
– The methodologies 
– The...
Some 80% of current expenditure goes to 
compensating education staff 
Distribution of current expenditure by educational ...
The proportion of young people who work part time 
or full time while studying has increased since 2006 Chart C5.4 
- IE 
...
Among those not in education, full-time employment decreased between 2005 
and 2011, only partially offset by an increase ...
Prevalence of part-time work among young people 
differs significantly among countries 
Proportion of 15-29 year-olds empl...
More than 50% of adults participate in formal and/or 
non-formal education in a given year 
Adult participation in formal ...
About 51% of adults participate in formal and/or 
non-formal education, on average 
Participation in formal and/or non-for...
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Education at a Glance 2014 - United Kingdom

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No country has made a greater effort than the UK to invest more current wealth (GDP) into more future wealth (education) but there is still lots of scope to improve educational outcomes

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Education at a Glance 2014 - United Kingdom

  1. 1. 1 Education at a Glance 2014 Presentation - press conference in the United Kingdom (September 9, 2014)
  2. 2. No country has made a greater effort than the UK to invest more current wealth (GDP) into more future wealth (education)… …but there is still lots of scope to improve educational outcomes 2
  3. 3. Between 2008 and 2011, only six countries cut public expenditure on educational institutions Impact of the economic crisis on public expenditure on education 130 125 120 115 110 105 100 95 90 85 80 United Kingdom Czech Republic New Zealand Change in public expenditure on educational institutions Change in Gross Domestic Product Change in expenditure on education institutions as a percentage of GDP Denmark Slovak Republic Brazil Finland Australia Ireland Netherlands Japan Switzerland Germany Slovenia Chile Canada Portugal Mexico Korea OECD average Austria Spain EU21 average Norway Belgium France Sweden Israel Iceland United States Russian Federation Poland Estonia Italy Hungary Index of change (2008=100) Chart B2.3 - T
  4. 4. OECD countries spend USD 9 252 per student per year from primary through tertiary education Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions, by type of service (2011) 18 000 16 000 14 000 12 000 10 000 8 000 6 000 4 000 2 000 0 Core services Ancillary services (transport, meals, housing provided by institutions) and R&D Total United States Austria Netherlands Belgium Ireland Sweden Germany Australia United Kingdom Finland France Slovenia Spain EU21 average OECD average Italy Korea Portugal Israel Poland Czech Republic Chile Slovak Republic Hungary Mexico Brazil Switzerland Norway Denmark Japan Iceland New Zealand Estonia Latvia Russian Federation Turkey Indonesia In equivalent USD converted using PPPs Chart B1.1
  5. 5. Chart A9.4 Relationship between mathematics performance and variation in performance explained by students’ socio-economic status Student performance and equity Above average mathematics performance Above average impact of socio-economic background Bulgaria Chile Peru Belgium Hungary OECD average Slovak Republic Chinese Taipei Portugal Germany Shanghai-China Singapore Slovenia Switzerland Above average mathematics performance Below average impact of socio-economic Netherlands Japan Canada Latvia Russian Fed. Spain Luxembourg France Uruguay New Zealand Israel Romania Costa Rica UK Serbia Sweden Indonesia Greece Colombia Tunisia Argentina Brazil Malaysia Turkey Lithuania Czech Republic Denmark Ireland Austria Viet Nam Poland United States Croatia Montenegro Hong Kong-China Estonia Finland Thailand Australia Jordan background Macao-China Iceland U.A.E. Kazakhstan Qatar Norway Mexico Liechtenstein Korea Italy 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 OECD average 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Percentage of variance in performance explained by ESCS (r-squared x 100) Mean mathematics performance Below average mathematics performance Below average impact of socio-economic background Below average mathematics performance Above average impact of socio-economic background
  6. 6. Expenditure on early childhood education accounts for 0.6% of GDP, on average Expenditure on early childhood educational institutions (2011) as a percentage of GDP, by funding source 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Denmark Iceland Spain Latvia Russian Federation Slovenia Luxembourg Chile Sweden Poland France Israel Argentina Belgium Mexico New Zealand Austria Germany EU21 average OECD average Norway Czech Republic Colombia Italy Slovak Republic United States Finland Netherlands Estonia United Kingdom Korea Japan Australia Hungary Brazil Portugal Switzerland Private expenditure on educational institutions in percentage of GDP Public expenditure on educational institutions in percentage of GDP % of GDP Chart C2.3
  7. 7. The ratio of pupils to teaching staff also indicates the level of resources devoted to pre-primary education Ratio of pupils to teaching staff in early childhood education (2012). Public and private institutions, calculation based on full-time equivalents 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Israel Indonesia Mexico Chile France Turkey United Kingdom Brazil Poland Belgium Portugal Korea Netherlands Japan OECD average Austria Czech Republic EU21 average Spain Slovak Republic Germany United States Italy Luxembourg Hungary Finland Slovenia Estonia New Zealand Sweden Iceland Student to teaching staff ratio Chart C2.4
  8. 8. Countries spend their money differently… …and many high-performing school systems prioritise the quality of teachers over the size of classes. 8
  9. 9. The salary cost of teachers per student varies widely across countries and depends on salary, class size, and teaching time Chart B7.4 Contribution of various factors to salary cost of teachers per student, in upper secondary education (2012) in USD 3 200 2 200 1 200 200 - 800 -1 800 -2 800 -3 800 Belgium (Fl.) Germany Austria Spain Portugal Australia Norway Canada France Ireland Netherlands United States Korea Italy Finland England Slovenia Israel Poland Czech Republic Turkey Hungary Chile Slovak Republic Estonia USD Contribution of teachers' salary Contribution of instruction time Contribution of teaching time Contribution of estimated class size difference with OECD average
  10. 10. Students in OECD countries receive an average of 7 475 compulsory hours of instruction during their primary and lower secondary education Compulsory instruction time in general education (2014) 0 2 000 4 000 6 000 8 000 10 000 12 000 Hungary 8 Latvia 9 China1 9 Poland 9 Turkey 8 Slovenia 9 Finland 9 Korea 9 Austria 8 Estonia 9 Belgium (Fl.) 8 Sweden 9 Slovak Republic 9 Czech Republic 9 Belgium (Fr.) 8 Greece 9 Germany 9 EU21 average 9 Japan 9 Italy 8 OECD average 9 Portugal 9 Iceland 10 Norway 10 England 9 Denmark 10 Luxembourg 9 Canada 9 France 9 Ireland 9 Mexico 9 Chile 8 Netherlands7 9 Israel 9 United States 9 Spain 10 Colombia1 9 Australia 10 Primary education Lower secondary education Duration of primary and lower secondary education, in years Chart D1.1 Total number of compulsory instruction hours
  11. 11. The number of students per class tends to increase between primary and lower secondary education Average class size in educational institutions, by level of education (2012) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 China Chile Japan Israel Korea United Kingdom Ireland Turkey Brazil Australia Indonesia France Netherlands Spain OECD average Belgium (Fr.) United States Germany Hungary Portugal Denmark EU21 average Czech Republic Mexico Finland Italy Iceland Slovenia Poland Austria Russian Federation Slovak Republic Greece Estonia Luxembourg Number of students per classroom Primary Lower secondary Chart D2.2
  12. 12. Only in 7 countries were relative salaries for teachers higher than those of comparably educated workers Teachers' salaries relative to earnings for tertiary-educated workers aged 25-64 (2012 or latest available year). Lower secondary teachers' salaries, in public institutions 1.5 1 0.5 0 Korea Spain Luxembourg Portugal Turkey New Zealand Canada Finland Germany England Australia Greece Denmark OECD average Belgium (Fl.) France EU21 average Israel Estonia Poland Scotland Sweden Belgium (Fr.) Netherlands Ireland Slovenia Chile Norway United States Italy Austria Czech Republic Hungary Slovak Republic Ratio Chart D3.1
  13. 13. Between 2009 and 2012, teachers’ salaries fell, for the first time since 2000, by around 5% at all levels of education OECD average, for countries with available data for all reference years, of the index of change between 2005 and 2012 (2005 = 100, constant p rices), for teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training. 107 106 105 104 103 102 101 100 99 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Primary education Lower secondary education Upper secondary education Chart Box D.3.2 Equivalent USD converted using PPPs
  14. 14. The UK is one of the few countries that have figured out a sustainable approach to higher education finance …and the investments pay off for individuals and taxpayers 14
  15. 15. About 31% of spending on tertiary education comes from private sources, on average Share of private expenditure on educational institutions (2011) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Chile Korea United Kingdom Japan United States Colombia Australia Israel Canada Latvia Russian Federation New Zealand Italy Mexico Portugal OECD average Indonesia Netherlands Poland Slovak Republic Argentina Spain EU21 average Estonia Ireland France Czech Republic Germany Slovenia Austria Sweden Belgium Iceland Denmark Finland Norway Turkey Switzerland Luxembourg % Primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education Chart B3.1
  16. 16. The share of private expenditure on tertiary institutions increased from 25% in 2000 to 31% in 2011 Share of private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions (2000, 2008 and 2011) % 2011 2008 2000 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Chile Korea United Kingdom Japan United States Australia Israel Canada Russian Federation Italy Mexico Portugal OECD average Netherlands Poland Slovak Republic Spain EU21 average Estonia Ireland France Czech Republic Germany Slovenia Chart B3.3 - T Austria Sweden Belgium Iceland Denmark Finland Norway
  17. 17. Nearly 22% of public spending on tertiary education is devoted to supporting students, households and other private entities Public support for tertiary education (2011) 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 United Kingdom United States Chart B5.3. Public subsidies for education in tertiary Slovenia Denmark Italy Chile Slovak Republic Austria Germany Portugal New Zealand Belgium Latvia Finland Australia OECD average Netherlands Ireland Hungary Poland Norway Israel Sweden Spain France Switzerland Canada Mexico Brazil Turkey Korea Estonia Indonesia Czech Republic Argentina Japan Iceland % of total public expenditure on tertiary education Student loans Transfers and payments to other private entities Scholarships/ other grants to households Chart B5.3
  18. 18. The net public return on investment for a man in tertiary education is over USD 100 000, while the net private return is over USD 180 000 Net private and public returns associated with a man attaining tertiary education (2010) 500 000 450 000 400 000 350 000 300 000 250 000 200 000 150 000 100 000 50 000 0 Turkey Denmark Spain Estonia Sweden New Zealand Greece Korea Japan Canada Slovak Republic Poland Norway Israel Czech Republic France Australia Finland OECD average Portugal EU21 average Austria United Kingdom Netherlands Italy Belgium Slovenia Germany United States Hungary Ireland Equivalent USD Private net returns Public net returns Chart A7.1
  19. 19. Qualification levels have risen markedly… …but don’t always translate into strong foundation skills 19 Close to 40% of a cohort now obtain a university degree And almost 60% of today’s school leavers are entering university-level education
  20. 20. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 1995 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate (%) Cost per student Graduate supply
  21. 21. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 1995 United States 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate (%) Cost per student Graduate supply
  22. 22. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate United Kingdom
  23. 23. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2001 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  24. 24. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2002 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  25. 25. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2003 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  26. 26. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2004 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  27. 27. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2005 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  28. 28. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2006 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  29. 29. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2007 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  30. 30. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2008 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  31. 31. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2009 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  32. 32. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2010 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  33. 33. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2011 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  34. 34. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2011 Australia Poland 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate Iceland UK New Zealand
  35. 35. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2011 US P 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  36. 36. More people benefit from education than ever before 25-34 and 55-64 year-olds, and percentage-point difference between these two groups Difference between the 25-34 and 55-64 year-old population with tertiary education (right axis) Proportion of the 25-34 year-old population with tertiary education (left axis) Proportion of the 55-64 year-old population with tertiary education (left axis) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 - 10 Israel United States Germany Brazil Estonia Austria Russian Federation Finland Chile Turkey Italy Denmark Mexico Switzerland New Zealand Canada Slovak Republic Iceland Australia Greece Sweden EU 21 Average OECD average Norway Hungary Netherlands Czech Republic United Kingdom Latvia Portugal Belgium Slovenia Spain France Luxembourg Ireland Japan Poland Korea % Chart A1.3 Percentage points
  37. 37. Nearly 60% of young adults are expected to enter university programmes Entry rates into tertiary-type A education (2012) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Australia Latvia Iceland Poland New Zealand Norway Slovenia Denmark United States Russian Federation Korea United Kingdom Finland Netherlands Portugal Slovak Republic Sweden Israel Czech Republic Argentina Saudi Arabia OECD average EU21 average Ireland Hungary Germany Austria Spain Japan Chile Italy Switzerland Estonia France Turkey Greece Mexico Belgium Luxembourg Indonesia China % All students Excluding international students Chart C3.1
  38. 38. Women are more likely than men to earn a university degree, but less likely a doctorate Percentage of graduas teawarded to women by level of educatio() 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Latvia Greece Iceland Sweden Slovenia Estonia Slovak Republic Poland Luxembourg Czech Republic Finland Norway Brazil Brazil New Zealand Argentina Denmark Canada Hungary Australia OECD average Portugal Austria Spain Israel United States United Kingdom Ireland Netherlands Chart A3_G ender Chile France Belgium Switzerland Mexico Germany Korea Turkey Advanced research qualifications Tertiary-type A first degree
  39. 39. Women are under-represented in some fields of education Percentage of tertiary degrees awarded to women, by field of education (2012) Chart A.3 - Field Education Health and welfare Science Engineering, manufacturing and construction All fields 100 80 60 40 20 0 Poland Estonia Iceland Slovak Republic Slovenia Brazil Sweden Hungary Italy New Zealand Argentina Czech Republic Finland Norway Luxembourg Portugal Canada Denmark Israel OECD average United States Australia Spain Ireland Netherlands Chile France United Kingdom Austria Belgium Germany Mexico Switzerland Turkey Korea Japan
  40. 40. Qualification levels have risen markedly… …but don’t always translate into strong foundation skills 40
  41. 41. Literacy proficiency is determined by educational attainment but not in the same way across countries Mean literacy score, by educational attainment (2012) 320 300 280 260 240 220 200 Japan Netherlands Finland Sweden Australia Czech Republic Flanders (Belgium) Norway United States Average Poland Austria England/N. Ireland (UK) Slovak Republic France Germany Denmark Ireland Korea Canada Estonia Spain Italy Russian Federation Below upper secondary education Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education Chart A1.4
  42. 42. The shares of highly literate tertiary graduates are very different across countries Percentage of adults scoring at literacy proficiency Level 4/5, by educational attainment (2012) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Japan Finland Netherlands Sweden Australia Norway Flanders (Belgium) England/N. Ireland (UK) United States Czech Republic Average Poland Canada Austria Germany Ireland France Denmark Estonia Slovak Republic Korea Russian Federation Spain Italy Below upper secondary education Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education % Chart A1.5
  43. 43. The rising tide has not lifted all boats… …and in some countries educational mobility is slowing down 43
  44. 44. Between 20% and 60% of adults are more educated than their parents Percentage of 25-64 year-old non-students whose educational attainment is higher than (upward mobility) or lower than (downward mobility) that of their parents 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Czech Republic Germany Austria United States Slovak Republic Italy Norway Denmark England/N. Ireland (UK) Spain Average Australia Japan Sweden Estonia Canada Netherlands Poland Ireland France Flanders (Belgium) Finland Korea Russian Federation Downward mobility Upward mobility % Chart A4.3 - Mob
  45. 45. In most countries, upward educational mobility tends to slow down in the younger generations Proportion of upward mobility across age groups 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 Average France Germany Italy Spain Sweden United States England/N. Ireland (UK) 55-64 45-54 35-44 25-34 Upward Mobility Age groups Graph Mobility A4
  46. 46. Equitable access to tertiary education and educational mobility are not the same thing Mobility Odds A4 Relationship between the share of upward mobility among 25-34 year-olds and the likelihood of participating in tertiary education (values in reverse order) less equitable access high educational mobility Italy Ireland France Finland Australia England/N. Ireland Flanders Average Austria Denmark Canada Estonia Japan Germany Korea Netherlands Norway Poland Spain US Sweden Upward mobility 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Odds ratio less equitable access low educational mobility more equitable access high educational mobility more equitable access low educational mobility
  47. 47. Those who need lifelong learning most get the least of it Adult participation in formal and/or non-formal education, by employment status (2012) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Finland Denmark Netherlands Sweden Norway United States Canada England/N. Ireland (UK) Australia Ireland Estonia Czech Republic Average Germany Korea Flanders (Belgium) Austria Spain Japan Poland Slovak Republic France Italy Russian Federation % Employed Unemployed Inactive Chart C6.3
  48. 48. In 2012, 15% of 15-29 year-olds in OECD countries were neither employed nor in education or training, on average NEET population among 15-29 year-olds (2012) and change between 2011 and 2012 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Netherlands Luxembourg Norway Iceland Switzerland Sweden Austria Germany Slovenia Australia Finland Denmark Canada Czech Republic Greece New Zealand EU21 average Belgium OECD average United States Israel Estonia Poland United Kingdom France Portugal Korea Slovak Republic Hungary Brazil Ireland Mexico Chile Italy Spain Turkey % Chart C5.1
  49. 49. Education is internationalising rapidily… …but not all countries benefit equally from that development. 49
  50. 50. In 2012, more than 4.5 million students were enrolled in tertiary education outside their country of citizenship Chart C4.1 Evolution in the number of students enrolled outside their country of citizenship, by region of destination (2000 to 2012) Million students 5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Worldwide OECD G20 countries Europe North America Oceania 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
  51. 51. In 2012, more than one in two foreign students were enrolled in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom or the United States Distribution of foreign students in tertiary education, by country of destination (2012) United States¹ 16% United Kingdom¹ 13% Germany 6% Other OECD countries 8% Belgium 1% Korea 1% Netherlands 1% Switzerland 1% South Africa 2% New Zealand 2% Austria 2% Italy 2% China 2% Spain 2% Japan 3% Canada² 5% Australia¹,³ 6% France 6% Russian Federation 4% Other non-OECD countries 17% Chart C4.2
  52. 52. New players are emerging in the international education market Trends in international education market shares (2000, 2012). Percentage of all foreign tertiary students enrolled, by destination 25 20 15 10 5 0 United State United Kingdom Germany France Australia Canada Russian Federation Japan Spain China Italy Austria New Zealand South Africa Switzerland Netherlands Korea Belgium Other OECD Other G0 and non-OECD 2000 2012 Market share (%) OECD countries Other G20 and non-OECD countries 2000 2012 Chart C4.3
  53. 53. More than half of foreign students in tertiary education come from Asia Distribution of foreign students in tertiary education, by region of origin (2012) Asia 53% Europe 23% Not specified 3% Oceania 1% North America 3% Latin America and the Caribbean 6% Africa 12% Chart C4.5
  54. 54. Rising benefits for those who are well educated… …growing costs for those who are not. 54
  55. 55. The employment benefit of tertiary education is significant, but varies across countries Employment rates among 25-64 year-olds, by educational attainment (2012) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 Iceland Norway Switzerland Sweden Germany Netherlands Austria Denmark Latvia Brazil Slovenia Israel Luxembourg Poland Belgium Australia France Finland Chile United Kingdom New Zealand Czech Republic OECD average EU 21 average Russian Federation Estonia Portugal Canada Mexico United States Slovak Republic Chart A5.1 Ireland Japan Hungary Italy Spain Korea Turkey Greece % Below upper secondary education Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education
  56. 56. Adults with a tertiary degree will earn 75% more than those with only upper secondary education Relative earnings of workers, by educational attainment and gender (2012); upper secondary education = 100 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 Hungary Greece Slovenia Turkey Ireland Czech Republic Austria Poland United States France Slovak Republic Germany EU 21 average Luxembourg OECD average Portugal Israel Finland Canada Italy Switzerland Netherlands United Kingdom Spain Korea Australia Japan Sweden Denmark Belgium Estonia Norway New Zealand Men Women Tertiary-type A or advanced research programmes Index Chart A6.1 - T
  57. 57. Adults with below upper secondary education will earn around 22% less than those with upper secondary education Relative earnings of workers, by educational attainment and gender (2012); upper secondary education = 100 0 - 10 - 20 - 30 - 40 - 50 - 60 Belgium Finland Estonia France Germany Canada Poland Australia Netherlands Sweden Greece Hungary EU21 average Switzerland Ireland Spain Slovenia Denmark New Zealand Norway OECD average Italy Korea Czech Republic Japan Austria Luxembourg Slovak Republic United Kingdom Portugal Turkey Israel Chile United States Brazil Men Women Below upper secondary education Index Chart A6.1 - B
  58. 58. …and its about more than money. 58
  59. 59. Education and skills both contribute to better social outcomes Proportion of adults reporting that they are in good health 100 90 80 70 60 50 Level 1 or below Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 or 5 Below upper secondary education Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education All Chart A8.1 - H % Proportion of adults reporting that they believe they have a say in government Level 1 % or below Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 or 5 60 50 40 30 20 10 Below upper secondary education Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education All 30 25 20 15 10 5 Level 1 or below Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 or 5 Below upper secondary education Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education All % 30 25 20 15 10 5 Level 1 or below Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 or 5 Below upper secondary education Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education All % Proportion of adults reporting that they volunteer at least once a month Proportion of adults reporting that they can trust others
  60. 60. 60 60 Thank you Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org/eag/eag2014 – The publication – The methodologies – The complete database Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Twitter: SchleicherEDU and remember: Without data, you are just another person with an opinion
  61. 61. Some 80% of current expenditure goes to compensating education staff Distribution of current expenditure by educational institutions for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education (2011) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Mexico Argentina Portugal Colombia Belgium Turkey Japan Luxembourg Israel Switzerland United Kingdom Netherlands Spain Ireland Italy Germany United States France Norway OECD average Slovenia Canada Brazil Australia Austria Iceland Latvia EU21 average Indonesia Hungary Korea Denmark Sweden Slovak Republic Finland Czech Republic Compensation of all staff Other current expenditure % of current expenditure Chart B6.1
  62. 62. The proportion of young people who work part time or full time while studying has increased since 2006 Chart C5.4 - IE OECD average proportion of 15-29 year-olds employed part time or full time, in education (2006-2011) In education, employed PT 7.43 7.66 8.02 7.69 7.73 7.84 8.17 40.0 35.0 30.0 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 In education, employed FT 5.07 5.34 5.44 5.33 5.12 5.24 5.56 40.00 35.00 30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 % %
  63. 63. Among those not in education, full-time employment decreased between 2005 and 2011, only partially offset by an increase in part-time employment Chart C5.4 - NE OECD average proportion of 15-29 year-olds employed part time or full time, not in education (2006-2011) Not in education, employed PT 4.82 4.75 4.69 4.88 5.13 5.24 5.49 40.00 35.00 30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 % Not in education, employed FT 34.34 34.86 35.17 32.85 31.33 31.52 30.22 40.00 35.00 30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 %
  64. 64. Prevalence of part-time work among young people differs significantly among countries Proportion of 15-29 year-olds employed who are employed part time (2012) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Czech Republic Slovak Republic Hungary Estonia Poland Turkey Greece Korea Luxembourg Chile Austria France Switzerland Germany EU21 average Belgium Slovenia Spain Italy OECD average Israel Finland United Kingdom Sweden Ireland Mexico New Zealand United States Norway Canada Australia Iceland Japan Denmark Netherlands Chart C5.4 - PT %
  65. 65. More than 50% of adults participate in formal and/or non-formal education in a given year Adult participation in formal and/or non-formal education (2012) 66 66 66 64 64 59 58 56 56 53 53 51 51 50 50 49 48 47 42 36 35 33 25 20 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Finland Denmark Sweden Norway Netherlands United States Canada England/N. Ireland (UK) Australia Germany Estonia Average Ireland Korea Czech Republic Flanders (Belgium) Austria Spain Japan France Poland Slovak Republic Italy Russian Federation % Chart C6.1
  66. 66. About 51% of adults participate in formal and/or non-formal education, on average Participation in formal and/or non-formal education (2012) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Japan France Korea Czech Republic Italy Slovak Republic Russian Federation Austria Germany Poland Flanders (Belgium) Estonia Average Spain Sweden Denmark Netherlands Canada United States Ireland Finland England/N. Ireland (UK) Norway Australia Formal education only Both formal and non-formal education Non-formal education only No participation % Chart C6.6

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