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ACHIEVING EQUITY AND INCLUSION IN
EDUCATION : AN OECD PERSPECTIVE
Beatriz Pont
OECD Directorate for Education and Skills
E...
Improving equity and reducing school failure is a
policy priority
There is a need for clear policy responses
Countries fac...
3
High performing systems
combine equity with quality
Socially equitable
distribution of learning
opportunities
Strong soc...
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Singapore
ChineseTaipei
HongKong-China
Korea
Japan
Switzerland
Belgium
Netherlands
Germany
Pol...
Likelihoo
d of
positive
social and
economic
outcomes
among
highly
literate
adults
5
Benefits of high literacy
Likelihood o...
Key levers for change and improvement
The Education Policy Outlook : A window into countries’
education systems
Key levers for change and improvement
The Education Policy Outlook: A window into countries’
education systems
Is the syst...
Reducing school failure pays off
Education
failure
imposes
high costs
to individuals
and to
society
It limits capacity of
...
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Korea
Japan
Switzerland
2.5Belgium
3.9Netherlands
-3.9Germany
-7.7Poland
3.7Canada
5.5Finland
7....
The challenge: to reduce dropout rates
% of individuals who have not completed upper secondary education by age group
0
10...
The challenge: to reduce the risk of low achievement
due to personal circumstances (fairness)
Relative risk of scoring bel...
The mathematics gap between immigrant and native students
% of students above baseline level (level 3 or above by immigran...
Policies to achieve more equitable education
systems and reduce dropout
Invest early and through upper
secondary
Support l...
1) Avoid system level policies that hinder equity
More
equitable
system level
policies
ECEC
Australia/Canad
a/Chile/Mexico...
Policy options to postpone tracking to upper
secondary
Comprehensive school to upper
secondary
Suppress low-level tracks
L...
Upper secondary pathways
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Austria
CzechRepublic
Belgium
SlovakRepublic
Finland
Netherlands...
Upper secondary pathways:
promote more work-oriented skills
Academic and
vocational tracks
should be
equivalent
to ensure
...
Manage school choice
Opt for higher
quality
schools, and might
foster efficiency, spur
innovation and raise quality
overal...
Make funding more responsive to needs
Take into
consideration
that the
instructional
costs of
disadvantaged
students may b...
Policies to achieve more equitable education
systems and reduce dropout
Invest early and through upper
secondary
Support l...
Insufficient
systemic
support
Schools’
inadequate
response
to student
needs
Insufficient
support for
staff
Poor
manageme
n...
Students may have different opportunities
depending on schools they attend
22
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
Neth...
2) Support low performing disadvantaged schools
Supporting
disadvantaged
schools
General
strategies
IRL/FIN/AUST/
N. ZEAL/...
Examples of systemic support to disadvantaged
groups/schools
•OFIP targeted support to schools
•2002/03- 2010/11: from 19%...
Quality teaching in disadvantaged schools: a key challenge
Relationship between school average socio-economic background a...
Disadvantaged schools face difficulties
in attracting and retaining staff
• Teachers in schools
with higher
proportions of...
More effective classroom strategies
for disadvantaged students
Effective
classroom
strategies
Diversified
and flexible
ped...
Policies to achieve more equitable education
systems and reduce dropout
Invest early and through upper
secondary
Support l...
Main sources for further information at OECD
Education Policy Outlook
www.oecd.org/edu/policyoutlo
ok.htmwww.oecd.org/edu/...
Context
Reforms
Challenges
Education Policy Outlook: Country Profiles
A comparative OECD insight into a country’s context,...
For further information at OECD Education:
Beatriz Pont, beatriz.pont@oecd.org
www.oecd.org/edu/policyoutlook.htm
www.oecd...
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Achieving Equity and Inclusion in Education: An OECD Perspective

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Invited to present and discuss "Achieving Equity and Inclusion in Public Education Systems", Beatriz Pont gave a keynote speech at the Education International Global Education Conference, Unite for Quality Education, 27-28 May, Montreal, Canada. Beatriz’s presentation builds on the Equity and Quality in Education and the Education Policy Outlook series.
More information at www.oecd.org/edu/policyoutlook.htm

Published in: Education

Achieving Equity and Inclusion in Education: An OECD Perspective

  1. 1. ACHIEVING EQUITY AND INCLUSION IN EDUCATION : AN OECD PERSPECTIVE Beatriz Pont OECD Directorate for Education and Skills Education International Unite for Quality Education Conference Montreal, Canada, 26-27 May, 2014
  2. 2. Improving equity and reducing school failure is a policy priority There is a need for clear policy responses Countries face challenges in adopting and implementing policies to improve equity in education There is increasing evidence that equity and quality can go together and there are many different policies and strategies to improve equity All countries are confronted with equity challenges, and they can be of different types
  3. 3. 3 High performing systems combine equity with quality Socially equitable distribution of learning opportunities Strong socio- economic impact on student performance
  4. 4. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Singapore ChineseTaipei HongKong-China Korea Japan Switzerland Belgium Netherlands Germany Poland Canada Finland NewZealand Australia Austria France CzechRepublic OECDaverage UnitedKingdom Luxembourg Iceland SlovakRepublic Ireland Portugal Denmark Italy Norway Israel Hungary UnitedStates Sweden Spain Russian… Greece Chile Brazil Mexico % Equity does not necessarily hamper qualityTab I.2.1a UK Across OECD, 13% of students are top performers (Level 5 or 6). They can develop and work with models for complex situations, and work strategically with advanced thinking and reasoning skills.
  5. 5. Likelihoo d of positive social and economic outcomes among highly literate adults 5 Benefits of high literacy Likelihood of positive outcomes among highly literate adults, PIAAC 2012
  6. 6. Key levers for change and improvement The Education Policy Outlook : A window into countries’ education systems
  7. 7. Key levers for change and improvement The Education Policy Outlook: A window into countries’ education systems Is the system equitable for its students?
  8. 8. Reducing school failure pays off Education failure imposes high costs to individuals and to society It limits capacity of economies to grow and innovate Damages social cohesion and mobility and is expensive: Higher public health expenditures Higher welfare, increased criminality .. and the crisis has brought equity to the forefront
  9. 9. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Korea Japan Switzerland 2.5Belgium 3.9Netherlands -3.9Germany -7.7Poland 3.7Canada 5.5Finland 7.6NewZealand 5.3Australia Austria 0.7OECDaverage2003 5.7France 4.4CzechRepublic 2.6Luxembourg 6.5Iceland 7.5SlovakRepublic Ireland -5.2Portugal Denmark -7.3Italy Norway 5.1Hungary UnitedStates 9.8Sweden Spain -10.2Turkey Greece -11.2Mexico Proportion of 15 year olds that do not reach a minimum level (below level 2), PISA 2003 and 2012 The challenge: that all students reach a minimum
  10. 10. The challenge: to reduce dropout rates % of individuals who have not completed upper secondary education by age group 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Korea SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic Poland Slovenia Canada Sweden Finland Switzerland Austria UnitedStates Israel Estonia Germany Hungary Ireland Denmark Chile France Luxembourg Norway Belgium Australia Netherlands UnitedKingdom OECDaverage NewZealand Greece Italy Iceland Spain Portugal Mexico Turkey Percentageofpopulation 25-34 25-64
  11. 11. The challenge: to reduce the risk of low achievement due to personal circumstances (fairness) Relative risk of scoring below in bottom quarter depending on personal circumstances, PISA 2012 LowriskHighrisk 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Hungary NewZealand France Israel Belgium Germany Luxembourg Chile Denmark Austria Portugal CzechRepublic Spain Poland OECDaverage Australia Ireland Switzerland Greece Slovenia UnitedStates Netherlands Japan Sweden Italy Finland United… Mexico Canada Norway Turkey Korea Iceland Estonia RelativeriskofscoringinbottomquarterinPISA mathematics2012 Students in the bottom quarter of the ESCS index Immigrant students
  12. 12. The mathematics gap between immigrant and native students % of students above baseline level (level 3 or above by immigrant status, PISA 2012 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 HongKong-China Singapore Liechtenstein Switzerland Netherlands Macao-China Estonia Finland Germany Belgium Canada Austria Luxembourg Denmark France Ireland Slovenia Australia CzechRepublic NewZealand OECDaverage Iceland UnitedKingdom Norway Spain Portugal Latvia Italy Sweden RussianFederation UnitedStates Hungary Israel Croatia Greece Serbia Kazakhstan Malaysia Montenegro Mexico UnitedArabEmirates CostaRica Brazil Argentina Jordan Qatar Percentageofstudentsabovethebaselinelevel (Level3orabove) Non-immigrant students Second-generation students First-generation students
  13. 13. Policies to achieve more equitable education systems and reduce dropout Invest early and through upper secondary Support low performing disadvantaged schools Eliminate system level obstacles to equity
  14. 14. 1) Avoid system level policies that hinder equity More equitable system level policies ECEC Australia/Canad a/Chile/Mexico /Nordic/France/ Spain Comprehensive education and postpone tracking Nordic/Austria/ Germany Equivalent upper secondary pathways Nordic/Alberta Manage school choice to avoid inequities Neths/Chile Make funding responsive to needs Chile/Netherlan ds/Australia/On tario
  15. 15. Policy options to postpone tracking to upper secondary Comprehensive school to upper secondary Suppress low-level tracks Limit selection to specific subjects or flexible settings
  16. 16. Upper secondary pathways 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Austria CzechRepublic Belgium SlovakRepublic Finland Netherlands Switzerland Slovenia Luxembourg Italy Sweden Norway Germany China RussianFederation Australia Denmark Poland OECDaverage France Spain Turkey NewZealand Portugal Israel Ireland Chile Iceland Estonia Greece UnitedKingdom Hungary Korea Japan Brazil Mexico Canada India Percentageofstudents General Vocational Brazil India Enrolment in upper secondary by programme
  17. 17. Upper secondary pathways: promote more work-oriented skills Academic and vocational tracks should be equivalent to ensure transferability and avoid dead ends VET should provide high level generic skills in addition to professional Guidance and counselling services need to engage more fully with the world of work + strategies for those at risk of dropping out
  18. 18. Manage school choice Opt for higher quality schools, and might foster efficiency, spur innovation and raise quality overall. Choice can result in a greater sorting and segregation of students by ability, income and ethnic background. Choice Equity
  19. 19. Make funding more responsive to needs Take into consideration that the instructional costs of disadvantaged students may be higher Targeting resources to areas with a high concentration of low performing disadvantaged students
  20. 20. Policies to achieve more equitable education systems and reduce dropout Invest early and through upper secondary Support low performing disadvantaged schools Eliminate system level obstacles to equity
  21. 21. Insufficient systemic support Schools’ inadequate response to student needs Insufficient support for staff Poor manageme nt Impact of student’s socio- economic backgroun d Wider range of abilities Challengin g school climate Poor school environme nts Disadvantaged schools are confronted to multiple challenges Demanding learning environment Inadequate support systems
  22. 22. Students may have different opportunities depending on schools they attend 22 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 Netherlands Hungary Belgium Luxembourg Germany Slovenia Austria Israel Japan Greece SlovakRepublic Italy Ireland Korea Portugal OECDaverage CzechRepublic NewZealand Chile UnitedStates Mexico UnitedKingdom Australia Spain Turkey Denmark Poland Switzerland Canada Iceland Sweden Estonia Finland Norway Students in socio-economically disadvantaged schools Students in socio-economically average schools Students in socio-economically advantaged schools Relative risk of scoring in the bottom quarter of the performance distribution, PISA 2012
  23. 23. 2) Support low performing disadvantaged schools Supporting disadvantaged schools General strategies IRL/FIN/AUST/ N. ZEAL/GER Supportive school climates/data H. PERF./DK/FR Quality professionals AUSTR/NOR Effective classroom strategies Parental and community engagement MX/NETH
  24. 24. Examples of systemic support to disadvantaged groups/schools •OFIP targeted support to schools •2002/03- 2010/11: from 19% to 6% reduction . Ontario •Smarter schools national partnership for disadvantaged schools •Aboriginal and torres islanders action plan. Australia •Ireland Delivering Equality of Opportunity (DEIS, 2005) •System for identifying levels of disadvantage and providing tailored support •n Schools (DEIS, 2005): Ireland •Maori and pasifika islanders strategy •Cultural competencies for teachers New Zealand •Action programme to promote equal opportunity in education (2013) lower gender differences, impact of SES and disadvantaged. •One year preparatory education for immigrants (2014). Finland •Québec “Act differently”: •Database of effective practices for intervention to develop schools’ expertise (189 schools in 2007/08). •School boards, through resources and coordination, support the school leadership team. Quebec
  25. 25. Quality teaching in disadvantaged schools: a key challenge Relationship between school average socio-economic background and teachers -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 Australia Austria Belgium Canada Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom United States OECD average Disadvantaged schools tend to have higher proportions of full-time teachers… …But a fewer proportion of them have an advanced university degree Students attending more advantaged schools tend to enjoy a higher proportion of high quality, full- time teachers
  26. 26. Disadvantaged schools face difficulties in attracting and retaining staff • Teachers in schools with higher proportions of low- SES or minority students have higher propensity to leave. United States • Rural schools with higher proportions of aboriginal students are seen as less desirable, making it harder to recruit and retain teachers. Australia • School leaders report that it is difficult to recruit and retain teachers to work in schools with children born abroad. Japan • Teachers in schools with higher proportions of low socio-economic status students have higher propensity to leave. New Zealand • Schools with higher levels of minority students harder to staff and teachers are significantly more likely to leave. Norway • Better qualified teachers are less likely to teach in schools containing minority and disadvantaged children. France
  27. 27. More effective classroom strategies for disadvantaged students Effective classroom strategies Diversified and flexible pedagogic strategies Summative and formative assessment Curriculum with high expectations
  28. 28. Policies to achieve more equitable education systems and reduce dropout Invest early and through upper secondary Support low performing disadvantaged schools Eliminate system level obstacles to equity No single model for success in the implementation of education reforms Reforms are specific to country’s education system context. Some factors for effective implementation:  Placing the student and learning at the centre;  Invest in capacity-building;  Leadership and coherence;  Stakeholder engagement;  Clear and actionable plans.
  29. 29. Main sources for further information at OECD Education Policy Outlook www.oecd.org/edu/policyoutlo ok.htmwww.oecd.org/edu/equity
  30. 30. Context Reforms Challenges Education Policy Outlook: Country Profiles A comparative OECD insight into a country’s context, challenges and policy responses
  31. 31. For further information at OECD Education: Beatriz Pont, beatriz.pont@oecd.org www.oecd.org/edu/policyoutlook.htm www.oecd.org/pisa

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