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International Summit on the Teaching Profession - The Future of Teaching and Learning

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This report discusses policies and practices that shape quality and equity in early childhood education and care. It examines how the work environment, including the educational background of staff, and the policies that shape teaching approaches affect the quality of the education provided to our youngest learners. The book concludes with an overview of current thinking about how young children use, and are affected by, information and communication technologies (ICT). Linking the way children interact with ICT inside of school to the way they already use it outside of school could be the key to unlocking technology’s potential for learning.Children learn at a faster rate during the first five years of their life than at any other time, developing cognitive, and social and emotional skills that are fundamental to their future achievements and well-being throughout childhood and as adults. Despite compelling evidence that high quality early childhood education and care programmes can make a crucial difference to children’s progress through school and success in adult life, large differences in access to and the quality of these programmes persist within and across countries.

Published in: Education

International Summit on the Teaching Profession - The Future of Teaching and Learning

  1. 1. ISTP 2019 The future of teaching and learning Andreas Schleicher
  2. 2. Do you remember how many teachers you had through your education? At age 30, people remember the names of an average of 15 teachers Over the past 5 years most had not seen any of them How many of them can you still name? On average, teachers teach 1200 students in their lifetime At the age of their retirement, they accurately remembered the names of an average of almost 200 of their students
  3. 3. Trends in science performance (PISA) 2006 2009 2012 2015 OECD 450 470 490 510 530 550 570 OECD average Studentperformance
  4. 4. Trends in science performance (PISA) 450 470 490 510 530 550 570 2006 2009 2012 2015 OECD average
  5. 5. Luxembourg Switzerland NorwayAustria Singapore United States United Kingdom Malta Sweden Belgium Iceland Denmark Finland NetherlandsCanada Japan Slovenia Australia Germany Ireland France Italy Portugal New Zealand Korea Spain Poland Israel Estonia Czech Rep.Latvia Slovak Rep. Russia CroatiaLithuania Hungary Costa Rica Chinese Taipei Chile Brazil Turkey Uruguay Bulgaria MexicoThailand Montenegro Colombia Dominican Republic PeruGeorgia R² = 0.04 R² = 0.36 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Scienceperformance(scorepoints) Average spending per student from the age of 6 to 15 (in thousands USD, PPP) Money is necessary but not sufficient Spending per student from the age of 6 to 15 and science performance Figure II.6.2
  6. 6. Learning time and science performance (PISA) Figure II.6.23 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Finland Germany Switzerland Japan Estonia Sweden Netherlands NewZealand Australia CzechRepublic Macao(China) UnitedKingdom Canada Belgium France Norway Slovenia Iceland Luxembourg Ireland Latvia HongKong(China) OECDaverage ChineseTaipei Austria Portugal Uruguay Lithuania Singapore Denmark Hungary Poland SlovakRepublic Spain Croatia UnitedStates Israel Bulgaria Korea Russia Italy Greece B-S-J-G(China) Colombia Chile Mexico Brazil CostaRica Turkey Montenegro Peru Qatar Thailand UnitedArabEmirates Tunisia DominicanRepublic Scorepointsinscienceperhouroflearningtime Hours Intended learning time at school (hours) Study time after school (hours) Score points in science per hour of total learning time Time in school Learning out of school Productivity
  7. 7. Changing education can be like moving graveyards • The status quo has many protectors – Everyone supports reform – except for their own children – Even those who promote reforms often change their mind when they understand what change entails for them • The frogs rarely clear the swamp – The loss of privilege is pervasive because of the extent of vested interests • Asymmetry of costs and benefits of educational reform – Costs are certain and immediate, benefits are uncertain and long-term • Lack of supportive ecosystems – Lack of an ‘education industry’ that pushes innovation and absorbs risks – A research sector that is often disengaged from the real needs of real classrooms • You can lose an election but you don’t win one over education – Complexity and length of reform trajectory that extend electoral cycles – A substantial gap between the time when the cost of reform is incurred, and the time when benefits materialise
  8. 8. LEADING TOGETHER Knowledge is only as valuable as our capacity to act on it, and the road of educational reform is littered with good ideas that were poorly implemented
  9. 9. Routine cognitive skills Complex ways of thinking and working Some students learn at high levels All students need to learn at high levels Student inclusion Curriculum, instruction and assessment Standardisation and compliance High-level professional knowledge workers Teacher education ‘Tayloristic’, industrial Flat, collegial, entrepreneurial Work organisation Primarily to authorities Primarily to peers and stakeholders Accountability The past The future When fast gets really fast, being slow to adapt makes education really slow
  10. 10. The rise of the global middle class 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1951 1957 1963 1969 1975 1981 1987 1993 1999 2005 2011 2017 2023 2029 Headcount(billions) %ofworldpopulation World middle class share of world population World middle class World population Within the next decade the majority of the world population will consist of the middle class Estimates of the size of the global middle class, percentage of the world population (left axis) and headcount (right axis) Source: Kharas, H. (2017), The unprecedented expansion of the global middle class, an update, https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/global_20170228_global-middle-class.pdf. Kharas, H. (2010), The emerging middle class in developing countries, https://www.oecd.org/dev/44457738.pdf. Figure 1.2
  11. 11. Growing unequal Income gaps continues to grow Trends in real household incomes by percentile, OECD average, 1985-2015 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Bottom 10% Mean Median Top 10% Source: OECD (2018), A Broken Social Elevator? How to Promote Social Mobility, https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264301085-en. Figure 2.1 Index 1985 = 1
  12. 12. Upward educational mobility varies across countries 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cyprus RussianFederation Singapore Korea Finland Greece Belgium France Ireland Poland Lithuania Canada Netherlands Estonia Sweden Japan PIAACaverage Australia Israel NewZealand Spain NorthernIreland England Slovenia Chile Denmark Norway Italy SlovakRepublic UnitedStates Austria Turkey Germany CzechRepublic % Downward mobility No mobility Upward mobility Adults reported higher educational attainment than their parents
  13. 13. More people on the move -30 20 70 120 170 220 270 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2017 Millionsofpeople Africa Asia Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Northern America Oceania Estimates of international migrant stock by region of destination, 1990-2017 Source: United Nations (2017), "International migrant stock: The 2017 revision" (database), www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/. Figure 1.5
  14. 14. Rising volatility Household savings and debt Household savings (% of disposable income, left axis) and household debt (% of disposable income, right axis), OECD average, 1970-2016 Source: OECD (2018), OECD National Accounts Statistics (database), https://stats.oecd.org/. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 Debtas%ofdisposableincome Savingsas%ofdisposableincome Savings (left axis) Debt (right axis) Figure 3.9
  15. 15. Public matters Declining voter turnout in OECD countries Change in average voting rates per decade in OECD countries, 1990s and 2010s Source: International IDEA (2018), International Voter Turnout Database, www.idea.int. 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Australia Luxembourg Belgium Denmark Sweden Turkey Iceland Norway Austria Netherlands NewZealand Italy Germany Spain Israel OECDaverage Ireland Finland UnitedKingdom Hungary Canada Estonia Greece Latvia CzechRepublic SlovakRepublic Slovenia Portugal Korea Japan UnitedStates Mexico Lithuania Poland France Switzerland Chile %ofvotingturnout 1990s 2010s Figure 2.3
  16. 16. Access to Access Number of mobile broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, OECD average, 2009-2017 Source: OECD (2018), "Mobile broadband subscriptions" (indicator), https://doi.org/10.1787/1277ddc6-en. Figure 5.1 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Numberofsubscriptions
  17. 17. The growth in AI technologies… 0 2 000 4 000 6 000 8 000 10 000 12 000 14 000 16 000 18 000 20 000 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009 2012 2015 Numberofpatents Number of patents in artificial intelligence technologies, 1991-2015 Source: OECD (2017), OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2017: The digital transformation, ht tp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264268821-en. Figure 1.10 …pushes us to think harder about what makes us truly human
  18. 18. 18 Digitalisation Democratizing Concentrating Particularizing Homogenizing Empowering Disempowering
  19. 19. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 ChineseTaipei-2 Sweden-9 France-5 Portugal Greece Singapore-2 Thailand Macao(China)-7 Brazil-2 Spain UnitedKingdom Bulgaria ongKong(China) Korea-7 Belgium-4 Denmark-4 Croatia-5 Israel-10 NewZealand-4 Netherlands-3 Uruguay Hungary4 Australia OECDaverage-3 ominicanRepublic Ireland-7 Poland-3 CostaRica3 Lithuania Japan-5 Mexico Russia-8 CzechRepublic Italy Peru Colombia4 Finland-6 Chile Latvia SlovakRepublic B-S-J-G(China)11 Switzerland Austria-3 Luxembourg Iceland Germany Estonia Slovenia % Boys Girls 15-year-olds feeling bad if not connected to the Internet (PISA)
  20. 20. Students are using more time online outside school on a typical school day (PISA) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Chile39 Sweden56 Uruguay33 CostaRica31 Spain44 Italy40 Australia52 Estonia50 NewZealand51 Hungary43 Russia42 Netherlands48 Denmark55 SlovakRepublic40 CzechRepublic43 Austria42 Latvia46 Singapore45 Belgium44 Poland46 Iceland51 OECDaverage-2743 Ireland48 Croatia40 Portugal42 Finland48 Israel34 Macao(China)45 Switzerland40 Greece41 HongKong(China)39 Mexico30 Slovenia37 Japan31 Korea20 Minutes per day 2015 2012 Figure III.13.3 Percentage of High Internet Users (spending 2 to 6 hours on line per day), during weekdays
  21. 21. • be transparent with teachers and school leaders about where reform is heading and what it means for them • be aware of how organisational policies and practices can either facilitate or inhibit transformation • tackle institutional structures that are built around the interests and habits of educators and administrators rather than learners • recognise emerging trends and patterns and see how these might benefit or obstruct the goals of change • use knowledge about what motivates people to convince others to support change • use understanding of power and influence to build the alliances and coalitions needed to get things done • help rules become practice, and good practice to become culture The real obstacle to education reform is not conservative followers but conservative leaders
  22. 22. Programmes do not scale; it is culture that scales, and culture is the hallmark of effective leadership. Culture is about system learning, system-wide innovation, and purposeful collaboration The real obstacle to education reform is not conservative followers but conservative leaders
  23. 23. Starting strong Wollongong Andreas Schleicher Building strong foundations
  24. 24. Brain sensitivity of highly important developmental areas peak in the first three years of a child’s life Sources: Adapted from Council for Early Childhood Development, (2010), in Naudeau S. et al. (2011).
  25. 25. OECD’s new ‘Baby PISA’ Teacher reports on children literacy development in Estonia 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 Likes to learn new things Understands others’ feelings, like when they are happy, sad or angry Is emotionally moved by the problems of people in books or stories High literacy Source: IELS Main Study Numberoftimesmorelikely
  26. 26. Students who attended early childhood education for less than one year are also less likely to be highly proficient in science at the age of 15 Source: OECD (2017) Starting Strong 2017: Key OECD Indicators on Early Childhood Education and Care 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Estonia Korea Canada Latvia Portugal Slovenia Russia UnitedStates Ireland Japan Croatia Lithuania Australia ChineseTaipei NewZealand Finland Norway Denmark HongKong(China) Singapore Macao(China) UnitedKingdom B-S-J-G(China) Italy Switzerland Germany OECDAverage Turkey Spain Iceland Austria CostaRica Luxembourg Bulgaria Montenegro UnitedArabEmirates CzechRepublic Belgium France Chile Sweden Greece Cyprus* Colombia Qatar Mexico Brazil Uruguay Thailand SlovakRepublic Tunisia Peru Israel Hungary DominicanRepublic Percentage 0 to 1 year 1 to 2 years 2 to 3 years 3 years and more Proportion of low performers among 15-years old students according to the number of years spent in early childhood education (2015)
  27. 27. Enrolment in early childhood education and care 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 % Enrolment rates for children under the age 3 Enrolment rates at age 3 Enrolment rates at age 4 Enrolment rates at age 5 Source: OECD (2018), Education at a Glance 2018: OECD Indicators Enrolment rates in early childhood education and primary education, by age (2016)
  28. 28. Children who need it most are less likely to have access to early childhood education and care 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 B-S-J-G(China) Croatia Lithuania Colombia DominicanRepublic Montenegro Malaysia CostaRica UnitedStates Turkey Peru SlovakRepublic Qatar Slovenia Russia Uruguay Finland Tunisia Canada Australia Norway Mexico Chile Brazil Sweden UnitedArabEmirates Ireland OECDaverage Luxembourg Austria Portugal Estonia France Spain UnitedKingdom Bulgaria Germany ChineseTaipei Israel Greece *Cyprus CzechRepublic Thailand NewZealand Denmark Belgium HongKong(China) Hungary Iceland Latvia Korea Switzerland Singapore Japan Italy Macao(China) Disadvantaged students (bottom quarter) Advantaged students (top quarter) Source: Starting Strong 2017, Key OECD Indicators on Early Childhood Education and Care; PISA online education database Percentage of 15-year-old students who had attended preschool for two years or more, by socio-economic status (2015)
  29. 29. The many sources of inequalities in participation in early childhood education and care 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.4 Bottom quarter Top quarter Public Private Rural area Town City School socio-economic profile Type of school School location In years Differences in duration of attendance at early childhood education and care, by school characteristics Source: OECD, Programme for International Student Assessment database
  30. 30. Policy levers Policy Review: Quality beyond Regulations (Starting Strong VI) Source: Adapted from OECD (2012). Starting Strong III. OECD Publishing, Paris. Engaging young children: Literature review & Meta-analysis Workforce development and working conditions Curriculum and pedagogy Engaging families and communities Data and monitoring Standards and governance
  31. 31. Both structural and process aspects relate to children’s development and learning Process quality dimensions favour higher levels of academic and social-behavioural skills. Structural quality features are less directly associated with these skills, but create the conditions for higher process quality. Source: OECD (2018), Engaging Young Children
  32. 32. Curriculum Pedagogy frameworks and guidelines child and staff centred skills-based cultural traditions play-based holistic free and structured play learning standards specific competencies/ dispositions pedagogical continuity Curriculum design is instrumental in shaping teachers’ and parents’ pedagogical approaches
  33. 33. Good working conditions are needed to attract a qualified workforce Sources: OECD (2018), Education at a Glance 2018: OECD Indicators -10% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Parity of salaries between pre- primary and primary school teachers In almost half of OECD countries, pre-primary teachers are paid less than primary teachers (in % of pre-primary teacher salary) (2016)
  34. 34. Snapshot of children’s media use (UK) Source: adapted from Ofcom, 2019
  35. 35. Trends in children’s media use 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Israel6 Denmark Estonia7 Iceland8 HongKong(China)3 Sweden Finland5 Netherlands-9 Australia3 NewZealand-3 Latvia6 Uruguay7 OECDaverage-27¹3 Singapore Poland9 Macao(China)7 Portugal6 Spain2 Hungary8 Slovenia3 Korea3 Belgium Chile1 CzechRepublic7 Croatia6 CostaRica Switzerland Japan3 Austria1 Greece4 Ireland2 Italy1 SlovakRepublic3 Mexico1 Russia3 6 years or younger (PISA 2015) 6 years or younger (PISA 2012)% Change between 2012 and 2015 in the share of children who used the Internet when they were six years old or younger
  36. 36. The “Goldilocks Effect: time spent online and mental well-being 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mentalwell-being Daily digital-screen engagement (hours) Mental well-being as a function of screen time (computers) Mental well-being Weekday Mental well-being Weekend Source: Adapted from Przybylski & Weinstein, 2017
  37. 37. • Adopt “whole school approach” to resolving safety issues • Develop and enact online safety policies and procedures • Establish coherent (cyber)bullying policies • Incorporate e-safety in the curriculum • Support family-school partnerships • Harness the power of peers What policy can do
  38. 38. TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE SCHOOLS
  39. 39. Consistent quality Variation in science performance between and within schools Figure I.6.11 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 Netherlands114 B-S-J-G(China)119 Bulgaria115 Hungary104 TrinidadandTobago98 Belgium112 Slovenia101 Germany110 SlovakRepublic109 Malta154 UnitedArabEmirates110 Austria106 Israel126 Lebanon91 CzechRepublic101 Qatar109 Japan97 Switzerland110 Singapore120 Italy93 ChineseTaipei111 Luxembourg112 Turkey70 Brazil89 Croatia89 Greece94 Chile83 Lithuania92 OECDaverage100 Uruguay84 CABA(Argentina)82 Romania70 VietNam65 Korea101 Australia117 UnitedKingdom111 Peru66 Colombia72 Thailand69 HongKong(China)72 FYROM80 Portugal94 DominicanRepublic59 Indonesia52 Georgia92 Jordan79 NewZealand121 UnitedStates108 Montenegro81 Tunisia47 Sweden117 Mexico57 Albania69 Kosovo57 Macao(China)74 Algeria54 Estonia88 Moldova83 CostaRica55 Russia76 Canada95 Poland92 Denmark91 Latvia75 Ireland88 Spain86 Norway103 Finland103 Iceland93 Between-school variation Within-school variation Total variation as a proportion of the OECD average OECD average 69% OECD average 30% %
  40. 40. Aligning resources with needs Average class size in <9th grade>, by quarter of school socio-economic profile 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Highly disadvantaged Disadvantaged Advantaged Highly advantaged OECD average Averageclasssize Schools by social background
  41. 41. %scienceteacherswithoutuniversitymajorinscience Science teachers without a university major in science, by school socio-economic profile (OECD Average) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Highly disadvantaged Disadvantaged Advantaged Highly advantaged OECD average Aligning resources with needs Schools by social background
  42. 42. Making teaching not just financially, but intellectually more attractive Public confidence in profession and professionals Professional preparation and learning Collective ownership of professional practice Decisions made in accordance with the body of knowledge o the profession Professional responsibility in the name of the profession and accountability towards the profession
  43. 43. Policy levers to teacher professionalism Knowledge base for teaching (initial education and incentives for professional development) Autonomy: Teachers’ decision- making power over their work (teaching content, course offerings, discipline practices) Peer networks: Opportunities for exchange and support needed to maintain high standards of teaching (participation in induction, mentoring, networks, feedback from direct observations) Teacher professionalism Policy levers to teacher professionalism
  44. 44. Teacher professional collaboration 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 iscussindividualstudents Shareresources Teamconferences Collaborateforcommon standards Teamteaching CollaborativePD Jointactivities Classroomobservations Percentageofteachers Professional collaboration Percentage of lower secondary teachers who report doing the following activities at least once per month Exchange and co-ordination (OECD countries)
  45. 45. 11.40 11.60 11.80 12.00 12.20 12.40 12.60 12.80 13.00 13.20 13.40 Never Onceayearorless 2-4timesayear 5-10timesayear 1-3timesamonth Onceaweekormore Teacherself-efficacy(level) Teach jointly as a team in the same class Observe other teachers’ classes and provide feedback Engage in joint activities across different classes Take part in collaborative professional learning Less frequently More frequently Teachers’ self-efficacy and professional collaboration
  46. 46. Student-teacher ratios and class size Figure II.6.14 CABA (Argentina) Jordan Viet Nam Poland United States Chile Denmark Hungary B-S-G-J (China) Turkey Georgia Chinese Taipei Mexico Russia Albania Hong Kong (China) Japan Belgium Algeria Colombia Peru Macao (China) Switzerland Malta Dominican Republic Netherlands Singapore Brazil Kosovo Finland Thailand R² = 0.25 5 10 15 20 25 30 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Student-teacherratio Class size in language of instruction High student-teacher ratios and small class sizes Low student-teacher ratios and large class sizes OECD average OECDaverage
  47. 47. Teachers’ job satisfaction and class size 10.00 10.50 11.00 11.50 12.00 12.50 13.00 15 or less 16-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36 or more Teachers'jobsatisfaction(level) Class size (number of students)
  48. 48. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Low professionalism High professionalism Fig II.3.3 Perceptions of teachers’ status Satisfaction with the profession Satisfaction with the work environment Teachers’ self-efficacy Teacher job satisfaction and professionalism
  49. 49. Making transformation happen Setting the direction Engaging the profession Building capacity Looking outward People are more likely to accept changes that are not solely in their own interests if they understand the reasons for these changes and can see the role they should play within the broad strategy.
  50. 50. Making transformation happen Setting the direction Engaging the profession Building capacity Looking outward People are more likely to accept changes that are not solely in their own interests if they understand the reasons for these changes and can see the role they should play within the broad strategy. Educational leaders are rarely successful with reform unless they build a shared understanding and collective ownership for change, and unless they build capacity and create the right policy climate, with accountability measures designed to encourage innovation rather than compliance
  51. 51. Making transformation happen Setting the direction Engaging the profession Building capacity Looking outward People are more likely to accept changes that are not solely in their own interests if they understand the reasons for these changes and can see the role they should play within the broad strategy. Educational leaders are rarely successful with reform unless they build a shared understanding and collective ownership for change, and unless they build capacity and create the right policy climate, with accountability measures designed to encourage innovation rather than compliance Often the resource implications of reform are underestimated in scope, nature and timing. The main shortcoming is often not a lack of financial resources, but a dearth of human capacity at every level of the system.
  52. 52. Making transformation happen Setting the direction Engaging the profession Building capacity Looking outward People are more likely to accept changes that are not solely in their own interests if they understand the reasons for these changes and can see the role they should play within the broad strategy. Educational leaders are rarely successful with reform unless they build a shared understanding and collective ownership for change, and unless they build capacity and create the right policy climate, with accountability measures designed to encourage innovation rather than compliance Often the resource implications of reform are underestimated in scope, nature and timing. The main shortcoming is often not a lack of financial resources, but a dearth of human capacity at every level of the system. School systems that feel threatened by alternative ways of thinking get trapped in old practice. The ones that progress are those that are open to the world and ready to learn from and with the world’s education leaders.
  53. 53. Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org/pisa – All publications – The complete micro-level database Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Twitter: SchleicherOECD Wechat: AndreasSchleicher Thank you

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