Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Education at a Glance OECD Indicators 2019

17,830 views

Published on

Education at a Glance is the authoritative source for information on the state of education around the world. It provides data on the structure, finances and performance of education systems across OECD countries and a number of partner economies. More than 100 charts and tables in this publication – as well as links to much more available on the educational database – provides key information on the output of educational institutions; the impact of learning across countries; access, participation and progression in education; the financial resources invested in education; and teachers, the learning environment and the organisation of schools.The 2019 edition includes a focus on tertiary education with new indicators on tertiary completion rates, doctoral graduates and their labour market outcomes, and on tertiary admission systems, as well as a dedicated chapter on the Sustainable Development Goal 4.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Education at a Glance OECD Indicators 2019

  1. 1. OECD Indicators 2019 Education at a Glance Andreas Schleicher, Director for Education and Skills Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org
  2. 2. Tertiary attainment has expanded in the past decade Table A1.2 Trends in tertiary educational attainment of 25-34 year-olds, 2008 and 2018 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 % 2008 2018
  3. 3. A bachelor’s degree is the most common level of tertiary attainment, on average across OECD countries Figure A1.3 Distribution of 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education, by level of tertiary education (2018) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Korea RussianFederation Canada Ireland Lithuania Luxembourg Australia Switzerland UnitedKingdom UnitedStates Norway Israel Netherlands Sweden Belgium Iceland France OECDaverage NewZealand Denmark Spain Estonia Poland EU23Average Greece Latvia Finland Slovenia Austria Argentina SlovakRepublic Portugal Chile CzechRepublic Turkey Germany Hungary Colombia CostaRica Italy Mexico Brazil China Indonesia India SouthAfrica Doctoral or equivalent Master's or equivalent Bachelor's or equivalent Short-cycle tertiary %
  4. 4. The employment value of different qualifications Figure A3.5 Employment rates of tertiary-educated younger adults, by levels of tertiary education (2018) 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Lithuania Norway UnitedKingdom Netherlands Iceland Japan Sweden NewZealand Switzerland Latvia Israel Germany Australia Canada Slovenia Ireland Belgium RussianFederation Brazil UnitedStates Indonesia Chile Finland CostaRica Poland Portugal Denmark SouthAfrica OECDAverage Hungary EU23Average France Colombia Mexico Estonia Luxembourg Austria Spain Argentina CzechRepublic Korea Turkey Greece SlovakRepublic Italy Bachelor's or equivalent Short-cycle tertiary Master's or equivalent Doctoral or equivalent %
  5. 5. The earnings value of different qualifications Figure A4.1 Relative earnings of tertiary-educated adults, by educational attainment (2017) 100 150 200 250 300 350 Bachelor's or equivalent Short-cycle tertiary Master's, doctoral or equivalentIndex 0 50 100 150 200 Short-cycle tertiary Bachelor's or equivalent Master's, doctoral or equivalent Germany United KingdomInde x
  6. 6. Education matters
  7. 7. Those with tertiary education are less likely to be NEET Fig.A2.4 Percentage of NEETs (neither employed nor in education or training) among 25-29 year-olds, by educational attainment (2018) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Below upper secondary Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary Tertiary%
  8. 8. Tertiary-educated adults are more resilient against long-term unemployment Figure A3.2 Percentage of long-term unemployed 25-64 year-olds, by educational attainment (2018) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Tertiary Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary Below upper secondary%
  9. 9. The relative earnings of tertiary-educated adults increases with professional experience Figure A4.2 Relative earnings of tertiary-educated adults compared to those with upper secondary education, by age group (2017) 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 45-54 year-old workers 25-34 year-old workersIndex
  10. 10. In some countries, a significant share of tertiary- educated adults are inactive Figure A3.3 Employment and inactivity rates of tertiary-educated 25-34 year-olds (2018) 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 % Employment Inactivity
  11. 11. Tertiary graduates are more likely to keep improving their skills through continuous adult learning Figure A7.1 Participation of 25-64 year-olds in education and training, by educational attainment(2016) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % Tertiary Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary Below upper secondary Adult Education Survey (AES) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) or national surveys
  12. 12. Facilitating access to tertiary education
  13. 13. Governments fund a varying share of tertiary expenditure in OECD countries Figure C3.2b Distribution of public and private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions, final source of funds (2016) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 All private sources Expenditure from other private entities Household expenditure Public expenditure%
  14. 14. Grants or loans Figure C5.3 Distribution of students benefiting from public/government-guaranteed loans and scholarships/grants in bachelor's and master's long first degrees or equivalent (2017/18) Note: Annual average (or most common) tuition fees charged by public institutions for national students at the bachelor's level are indicated in parenthesis (USD converted using PPPs). The year of reference may differ across countries and economies. Please see Annex 3 for details. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Switzerland (1291) Austria (921) French Comm. (Belgium) (536) Portugal (m) Italy (1926) Spain (1747) Finland (0) Chile (7524) Canada (5286) Denmark (0) Australia (5034) United States (8804) New Zealand (4487) Norway (0) England (UK) (11866) Sweden (0) % Do not benefit from public/government-guaranteed loans or scholarships/grants Benefit from public/government-guaranteed loans only Benefit from scholarships/grants only Benefit from public/government-guaranteed loans and scholarships/grants
  15. 15. Fields in high demand still struggle to find the skilled workers they need
  16. 16. Engineering and ICT graduates have the highest employment rates… Figure A3.1 Employment rates of tertiary-educated adults, by field of study (2018) OECD average Iceland¹ Turkey¹ OECD average Greece Luxembourg Turkey¹ OECD average Iceland¹ Mexico Greece Iceland¹ Turkey¹ OECD average Lithuania OECD average Iceland¹ Luxembourg Turkey¹ Greece Iceland¹ Turkey¹ OECD average Greece Iceland¹ Turkey¹ OECD average Costa Rica 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 % Information and communication technologies Engineering, manufacturing and construction Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics Health and Welfare Business, administration and law Education Arts and humanities, social sciences and information
  17. 17. …and the highest earnings Figure A4.4 Relative earnings of tertiary-educated adults, by field of study (2017) 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Engineering, manufacturing and construction Education Information and communication technologies Business, administration and lawIndex
  18. 18. But the share of graduates from these fields has not grown as fast as others Figure A1.a Distribution of recent tertiary graduates by field of study, compared with fields of study of all tertiary-education 25-64 year-olds (2017 and 2018) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Business, administration and law Arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information Engineering, manufacturing and construction Health and welfare Education Other fields Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics Information and communication technologies % 25-64 year-old adults (2018) Graduates (2017)
  19. 19. …in particular among those studying engineering, manufacturing and construction Figure A1.b Share of engineering, manufacturing and construction graduates among all tertiary-educated 25-64 year-olds and recent graduates (2017 and 2018) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 % 25-64 year-old adults (2018) Graduates (2017)
  20. 20. Despite expanding access, progression through tertiary education is uneven
  21. 21. Only 40% of students entering a bachelor’s programme graduate within the theoretical duration, on average Figure B5.1a Completion rate of full-time students who entered a bachelor's or equivalent programme (2017) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 UnitedKingdom Ireland Lithuania Israel Canada Norway Finland Sweden France Average Switzerland UnitedStates Iceland NewZealand Australia Estonia Brazil FlemishComm.(Belgium) Portugal Netherlands FrenchComm.(Belgium) Austria Slovenia Chile % Completion rate by the theoretical duration Completion rate by the theoretical duration plus three years
  22. 22. More tertiary students are studying abroad
  23. 23. The number of international students has more than doubled in less than 20 years Figure B6.2 Growth in international or foreign enrolment in tertiary education worldwide (1998 to 2017) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 Millions of students OECD Non-OECD Total, 5.3 Non-OECD, 1.6 OECD, 3.7
  24. 24. The share of international students has increased since 2010 in most OECD countries Figure B6.1 Incoming student mobility in tertiary education in 2010 and 2017 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Luxembourg Australia NewZealand UnitedKingdom Switzerland Austria Canada CzechRepublic Netherlands Denmark France Hungary EU23Total Ireland Belgium Germany Estonia Finland Latvia SlovakRepublic Iceland Sweden Portugal OECDTotal Italy UnitedStates SaudiArabia Lithuania SouthAfrica Poland RussianFederation Slovenia Greece Spain Norway Israel Korea Turkey Mexico Chile China Brazil Colombia India % 2017 2010 (or closest available year)=47 =44
  25. 25. The share of international students grows with each successive level of tertiary education Figure B6.3 Incoming student mobility in tertiary education, by level of study (2017) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Luxembourg Australia NewZealand UnitedKingdom Switzerland Austria Canada CzechRepublic Netherlands Denmark France Hungary EU23Total Ireland Belgium Germany Estonia Finland Latvia SlovakRepublic Iceland Sweden Portugal OECDTotal Italy UnitedStates SaudiArabia Lithuania SouthAfrica Japan Poland RussianFederation Slovenia Greece Spain Norway Israel Argentina Korea Turkey CostaRica Mexico Chile China Brazil Colombia India Indonesia % Bachelor’s or equivalent Master’s or equivalent Doctoral or equivalent=85 =76
  26. 26. Increased financial and human resources have sustained the expansion of tertiary education
  27. 27. Spending has increased by 9% since 2010, three times more than the increase in the number of tertiary students, on average Index of change in total expenditure on tertiary educational institutions per full-time equivalent student (2016) Table C1.3 Col. 12,15 & 18 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Index (2010=100) Change in total expenditure Change in number of students Change in expenditure per student
  28. 28. About a third of total spending on tertiary institutions is devoted to research and development, on average Figure C1.2b Total expenditure on educational institutions per full-time equivalent student by types of service (2016)) 0 10 000 20 000 30 000 40 000 50 000 60 000 Total R&D Ancillary services Core servicesEquivalent USD
  29. 29. Gender affects participation in education and employment, but in different ways
  30. 30. Women are over-represented in science at master’s level, but under-represented at doctorate level Figure B7.4 Share of female graduates in natural sciences, mathematics and statistics at master's and doctoral levels (2017) 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Master's Doctorate
  31. 31. The employment advantage of a doctorate over a master’s degree is greater for women than for men Figure B7.5 Relative employment rate of 25-64 year-old doctorate holders compared to master's holders (2018) 95% 100% 105% 110% 115% 120% 125% Women Men
  32. 32. Tertiary-educated women earn less than men, even among those who studied similar fields Figure A4.5 Women's earnings as a percentage of men's earnings, by field of study (2017) 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 All tertiary Education Business, administration and law ICT% Women earn more than men Women earn less than men
  33. 33. Lower earnings for tertiary-educated women results in lower financial returns to their education Figure A5.1 Private net financial returns for a man or a woman attaining tertiary education (2016) 0 100 000 200 000 300 000 400 000 500 000 600 000 700 000 Luxembourg UnitedStates Chile Ireland Switzerland Hungary Israel Poland Austria France Germany OECDAverage Turkey Canada EU23Average CzechRepublic Slovenia Korea Australia UnitedKingdom SlovakRepublic NewZealand Finland Netherlands Denmark Portugal Spain Norway Italy Belgium Latvia Estonia Men WomenIn equivalent USD converted using PPPs
  34. 34. Vocational programmes can provide adults with labour market-relevant skills
  35. 35. In some countries, young adults turn to vocational upper secondary education to improve their skills Figure B3.1 Average age of first-time upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary graduates, by programme orientation (2017) 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Upper secondary vocational programmes Upper secondary general programmes Post-secondary non-tertiary vocational programmesAge
  36. 36. Starting strong
  37. 37. Enrolment of 3-5 year-olds increased by more than 10 percentage points, on average, over the past decade Figure B2.2 Change in enrolment rates of children aged 3 to 5 years (2005, 2010 and 2017) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % 2017 2010 2005
  38. 38. But in many countries, most children under the age of three do not participate in education Figure B2.1 Enrolment rates of children under the age of 3 in all early childhood education and care (ECEC) services, by age (2017) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Under the age of 3 Under the age of 1 Age 1 Age 2 % Note: Figures in parentheses refer to the age when ECEC systems start offering intentional education objectives.
  39. 39. Greater spending on early childhood education and care can improve quality and access Figure B2.3 Expenditure on all children aged 3 to 5 enrolled in early childhood education and care (ISCED 0) and primary education as a percentage of GDP (2016) 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 % of GDP
  40. 40. Children-to-staff ratio in pre-primary education Figure B2.4 Ratio of children to staff in pre-primary (ISCED 02) education (2017) Note: Figures in parentheses show the percentages of teachers' aides among ECEC contact staff (teachers and teachers' aides). 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Number of children per ECEC staff Children to contact staff (teachers and teachers' aides) Children to teaching staff
  41. 41. Allocating adequate resources helps sustain quality learning at all levels of education
  42. 42. Total public expenditure on education increased between 2010 and 2016, on average across OECD countries Figure C4.2 Index of change in total public expenditure on education as a share of total government expenditure (2010 and 2016) 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 Change in public expenditure on education Change in total government expenditure for all services Change in total public expenditure on education as a percentage of total government expenditure Index
  43. 43. Spending on education institutions ranges from 3% of GDP in Russia to 6% in Norway Figure C2.1. Total expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP (2016) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Primary, secondary, and post-secondary non-tertiary All tertiary %
  44. 44. But the share of private spending on primary to tertiary educational institutions has increased in many countries Figure C3.3 Change in the relative share of public, private and international expenditure on primary to tertiary educational institutions (2010, 2016) - 12 - 10 - 8 - 6 - 4 - 2 0 2 4 6 8 Private sources Public sourcesPercentage points
  45. 45. OECD countries spend about USD 90 700 per student on average, in primary and secondary education Figure C1.3. Cumulative expenditure on educational institutions per full-time equivalent student between the age of 6 and 15 (2016) 0 50 000 100 000 150 000 200 000 250 000 Equivalent USD
  46. 46. Yet in many countries teachers’ salaries are still low and the earnings progression is flat Figure D3.2. Lower secondary teachers’ statutory salaries at different points in teachers' careers (2018) 0 20 000 40 000 60 000 80 000 100 000 120 000 140 000 160 000 Starting salary/minimum qualifications Salary after 15 years of experience/most prevalent qualifications Salary at top of scale/maximum qualifications Equivalent USD converted using PPPs
  47. 47. Class size has decreased in most OECD countries Figure D2.3 Average class size in primary education (2005 and 2017) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 2005 2017
  48. 48. School heads earn more than other tertiary-educated workers, while teachers earn less, on average Figure D3.1 Lower secondary teachers' and school heads' salaries relative to earnings for tertiary-educated workers (2017) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 Teachers School heads
  49. 49. Balancing teachers’ salaries and reducing class size Figure C7.3 Index of change in teachers' salaries and in average class size in primary education between 2005 and 2017 Japan Israel Hungary Greece Italy Portugal Austria Mexico Slovenia Spain Turkey Ireland Germany Australia Iceland Korea Czech Republic1 Denmark England (UK) Luxembourg Poland United States 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 Changeinaverageclasssize(2005=100) Change in teachers' statutory salary after 15 years of experience (2005 = 100)
  50. 50. A large share of teachers’ working time is spent on activities other than teaching Figure D4.4 Percentage of lower secondary teachers' working time spent teaching (2018) Chile Latvia United States Colombia Scotland (UK) Netherlands Switzerland Germany Spain Israel France Norway Lithuania Slovak Republic Hungary Iceland Czech Republic Portugal Japan Austria Estonia Korea TurkeyPoland 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 Percentage of total statutory working time spent teaching Countryaverage Country average Net teaching hours
  51. 51. -4 000 -3 000 -2 000 -1 000 0 1 000 2 000 3 000 Germany Switzerland Austria Norway lemishComm.(Belgium) Australia Canada FrenchComm.(Belgium) Ireland UnitedStates Iceland Spain Netherlands Portugal Italy Japan Finland Slovenia Greece Poland Chile Israel France Hungary Lithuania Turkey Estonia Colombia SlovakRepublic Mexico CzechRepublic Latvia Contribution of theoretical class size Contribution of teaching time Contribution of instruction time Contribution of teachers' salary Difference of salary cost of teachers per student from OECD average USD converted using PPPs Contribution of various factors to salary cost of teachers per student in public institutions, primary education (2017) Figure C7.2
  52. 52. The teaching workforce is ageing
  53. 53. The share of teachers under 30 decreases as the level of education taught rises Figure D5.2 Share of teachers less than 30 years old, by level of education (2017) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 % Primary Lower secondary Upper secondary
  54. 54. Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org/edu – All publications – The complete micro-level database Thank you

×