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STARTING STRONG V
Webinar
Andreas Schleicher
Changing demographic landscapes and family structures
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Israel
SaudiArabia¹
Indonesia¹
Peru¹
India¹
SouthAfrica¹
Argentina¹
Mexico
Turkey
France
Ireland
Iceland...
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Turkey
Australia
NewZealand
UnitedKingdom
Hungary
Poland
Germany
Lithuania
CzechRepublic
France
...
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
20 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 44 45 to 49 50 to 54 55 to 59
Age groups
1960 1980 201...
Improving early education can help more
children get ahead and boost social mobility
The short and long term benefits of E...
The brain sensitivity of highly important developmental
areas, such as emotional control, social skills, language
and nume...
Rates of return to one Euro invested in educational
interventions for disadvantaged and well-off children
at different sta...
Attendance at pre-primary school
by schools’ socio-economic profile
0
1
2
3
4
5
Sweden
Estonia
Russia
Latvia
Bulgaria
Icel...
Children who attended early childhood education for
at least two years perform, on average, better than
others at age 15 (...
Denmark
Iceland
Netherlands
Luxembourg
Norway
France
Portugal
Sweden
Slovenia
Spain
Germany
Ireland
United KingdomIsrael
F...
Denmark
Slovenia
Switzerland
Austria
Portugal
Netherlands
Luxembourg
Finland
Belgium
Russian Federation
France
Israel
Latv...
DenmarkSlovenia
Austria
Portugal
Netherlands
LuxembourgFinland
Belgium
France
Latvia
Poland
United Kingdom
Estonia
New Zea...
Most governments have increased their investment
in recent years to expand enrolment and
open more day care centres and sc...
Universal access to at least one year of ECEC is now a reality in
most OECD countries (2014)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
...
Incidence and length of early years participation
vary greatly (2014)
Latvia
IcelandPortugal
Slovenia DenmarkPoland
Norway...
In most countries, expenditure per child on ECEC
settings is higher for very young children (2013)
0
2 500
5 000
7 500
10 ...
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Australia
Japan
Portugal
UnitedKingdom
CostaRica
Colombia
Turkey
UnitedStates
Slovenia
Ar...
0
20
40
60
80
100
NewZealand
Ireland
Chile
Colombia
Netherlands
Australia
Portugal
Luxembourg
Israel
Italy
France
Lithuani...
The ECEC sector is shifting from "more
spending" to "smarter spending".
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
Kazakhstan(ages1to6)
1,2
Slovenia(ages1to5)2
CzechRepublic(age5)
Italy(3to5)
Belgium(...
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Chile
Mexico
France
China
UnitedKingdom
Indonesia
Portugal
Brazil
Turkey
Poland
Netherlands
Switzerland...
In many countries, the curriculum framework in pre-
primary education has been broadened
Proportion of countries and juris...
High quality in ECEC primarily depends on
high quality interactions between staff and
children, which depends on workforce...
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
Greece
England(UK)
Portugal
Scotland(UK)
Italy
Spain
France
Denmark
Korea
Belgium(Fl.)...
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
-10%
-5%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
Scotland(UK)
Finland
Denmark
Iceland
Norway
CzechRepublic
Hungary...
The benefits of ECEC can disappear unless
quality is sustained in primary education.
ECEC benefits can disappear if quality is not
sustained in primary education
Notes: Reference group: No pre-school and Ver...
• Changes include:
– the types of activities they engage in,
– the ways in which adults interact with them,
– their physic...
• Disadvantaged children are more likely to struggle
during the transition
– they tend to attend lower-quality ECEC settin...
Countries are increasingly directing their
policy attention to facilitate a smooth
transition.
• Policy documents are placing greater emphasis on the
need for smooth transitions, specifying the collaboration
between E...
More than half the countries offer a separate
year or class/group the year before
compulsory primary school
56.1%
43.9%
Se...
Compulsory school age is being lowered in some
countries to give children a stronger start at primary
school and to narrow...
Most jurisdictions offer transition activities at the
centre level to prepare children and their parents
for their transit...
Curricula are becoming more aligned between
pre-primary and primary levels.
54 %
24%
22%
Aligned
Integrated
Not aligned or...
Many jurisdictions have included new learning areas in
their pre-primary curricula to ensure a better transition
between p...
Most pre-primary teachers in the OECD spend more
hours in direct contact with children than primary
teachers, with less ti...
Staff-parent collaboration is higher in
preschool than in primary school.
93%
59%
71%
39%
Staff collaborate with parents b...
Challenges still remain for making transitions
child-centred, guided by pedagogical
continuity, managed by trained staff, ...
Some challenges:
• Cross-level understanding of practices and
approaches is still limited in several countries
(e. g. in G...
Good practices in transitions
• Shared views between ECEC settings and schools on
transitioning
• Alignment and balance be...
Five lessons in transitions
• Focus on making schools ready for children, not
children ready for school
• Dispel some comm...
• Reviews: Austria, Denmark, Finland, Japan,
Norway, Slovenia, Sweden and Wales (United
Kingdom)
• Questionnaires: Austria...
45
45 Thank you
Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org
– All publications
– The complete micro-level database
Email:...
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Starting Strong V

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The transition from early childhood education to primary school is a big step for all children, and a step which more and more children are having to take. Quality transitions should be well-prepared and child-centred, managed by trained staff collaborating with one another, and guided by an appropriate and aligned curriculum. Transitions like these enhance the likelihood that the positive impacts of early learning and care will last through primary school and beyond. While transition policies have been on the agenda of many countries over the past decade, little research has been done into how OECD countries design, implement, manage and monitor transitions. Filling these gaps is important for designing early years’ policies that are coherent, equitable and sustainable.

This report takes stock of and compares the situation across 30 OECD and partner countries, drawing on in-depth country reports and a questionnaire on transition policies and practices. It focuses on the organisation and governance of transitions; and the policies and strategies to ensure professional, pedagogical and developmental continuity between early childhood education and care settings and schools. The report describes the main policy challenges highlighted by participating countries, along with a wealth of practical strategies for tackling them. The publication concludes with six “cross-cutting” pointers to guide future policy development.

Published in: Education
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Starting Strong V

  1. 1. STARTING STRONG V Webinar Andreas Schleicher
  2. 2. Changing demographic landscapes and family structures
  3. 3. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Israel SaudiArabia¹ Indonesia¹ Peru¹ India¹ SouthAfrica¹ Argentina¹ Mexico Turkey France Ireland Iceland Colombia¹ NewZealand Sweden UnitedStates CostaRica¹ UnitedKingdom Brazil¹ Australia Chile¹ Norway Belgium Netherlands Finland Russian… Denmark OECDaverage China¹ Canada² Lithuania Luxembourg Slovenia Estonia Switzerland Latvia EU(28) CzechRepublic Austria Japan Germany Italy SlovakRepublic Hungary Greece Spain Poland Portugal Korea Children per woman 2014 1970 Fertility rates have declined in most OECD countries to levels that are well below those needed to secure generation replacement (2014) 1.Year of reference 2013 instead of 2014. 2.Year of reference 2012 instead of 2014.
  4. 4. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Turkey Australia NewZealand UnitedKingdom Hungary Poland Germany Lithuania CzechRepublic France Belgium OECDaverage Netherlands Greece Finland Estonia Portugal Italy UnitedStates Latvia Luxembourg SlovakRepublic Spain Slovenia Austria Japan Denmark Sweden % Proportion of children living in jobless families Proportion of children with a jobless parent in sole-parent families Proportion of children with jobless parents in couple families Children living in households with a sole parent are more likely to be living in a jobless household than children in families with two parents living together (2011)
  5. 5. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 20 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 44 45 to 49 50 to 54 55 to 59 Age groups 1960 1980 2014 Women in employment (%) More women are in paid work during childbearing years than in the past (2014)
  6. 6. Improving early education can help more children get ahead and boost social mobility The short and long term benefits of ECEC are multidimensional
  7. 7. The brain sensitivity of highly important developmental areas, such as emotional control, social skills, language and numeracy, peak in the first three years of a child’s life Sources: Adapted from Council for Early Childhood Development, (2010), in Naudeau S. et al. (2011).
  8. 8. Rates of return to one Euro invested in educational interventions for disadvantaged and well-off children at different stages of the life cycle (2006) Source: Adapted from Cunha et al. (2006) in Wossmann (2008), Efficiency and equity of European education and training policies.
  9. 9. Attendance at pre-primary school by schools’ socio-economic profile 0 1 2 3 4 5 Sweden Estonia Russia Latvia Bulgaria Iceland Norway Hungary Denmark Finland Singapore Israel Belgium HongKong(China) Spain SlovakRepublic Uruguay France Macao(China) Brazil B-S-J-G(China) Japan Germany CzechRepublic Lithuania Slovenia Thailand Austria Croatia Italy ChineseTaipei OECDaverage Poland Peru Korea Mexico Luxembourg Greece Montenegro DominicanRepublic NewZealand UnitedKingdom UnitedStates Switzerland CostaRica Qatar UnitedArabEmirates Colombia Australia Canada Chile Ireland Tunisia Portugal Turkey Years Disadvantaged schools Advantaged schools Number of years in pre-primary education among students attending socio-economically …
  10. 10. Children who attended early childhood education for at least two years perform, on average, better than others at age 15 (57 countries, PISA 2015) The percentage of 15-year-old students who attended early childhood education (ISCED 0) for less than two years are added into brackets next to the country's name.
  11. 11. Denmark Iceland Netherlands Luxembourg Norway France Portugal Sweden Slovenia Spain Germany Ireland United KingdomIsrael Finland Italy Latvia Estonia Austria Hungary Greece Poland Slovak Republic Czech Republic R² = 0.1946 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 %ofboysestimatedto'overweight'or'obese'at age11(2014) Proportion of children under the age of 3 enrolled in formal childcare (2005) Relationship between early enrolment in ECEC settings and rise of obesity at later stages of life Year 2005 is used to measure enrolment of children under the age of 3 in ECEC, while 2014 is used to measure obesity at age 11
  12. 12. Denmark Slovenia Switzerland Austria Portugal Netherlands Luxembourg Finland Belgium Russian Federation France Israel Latvia Germany Poland United Kingdom United States Estonia Japan New Zealand Czech Republic Ireland Spain Hungary Slovak Republic Italy Chile Greece Mexico R² = 0.4801 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Enrolmentratesofchildrenundertheageof3in ISCED0andotherregisteredECECsettings Maternal employment rates, with their youngest child under the age of 3 Relationship between mothers’ labour force participation and enrolment rates in childcare is strong, especially for mothers whose youngest child is under the age of 3 (2014)
  13. 13. DenmarkSlovenia Austria Portugal Netherlands LuxembourgFinland Belgium France Latvia Poland United Kingdom Estonia New Zealand Ireland Spain Hungary Malta Italy Greece R² = 0.7241 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Averagehoursinformalchildcareandpre-school servicesforchildrenunder3yearsofageduringa usualweek Employment rates in part-time (%) for women (15-64 year olds) with at least one child aged 0-14 Hours per week for which children under the age of 3 are enrolled in childcare and part-time employment (2014)
  14. 14. Most governments have increased their investment in recent years to expand enrolment and open more day care centres and schools. More needs to be done to improve the working conditions of teachers
  15. 15. Universal access to at least one year of ECEC is now a reality in most OECD countries (2014) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Ireland Australia France Mexico Germany Netherlands Luxembourg UnitedKingdom Denmark Belgium Switzerland NewZealand Israel Norway Spain Iceland Italy Portugal Japan Austria Latvia Hungary Sweden OECDaverage Korea Chile Brazil Poland Greece UnitedStates Slovenia Estonia CzechRepublic Russian… SlovakRepublic Finland Turkey % Enrolment rates for children under the age 3 Enrolment rates at age 3 Enrolment rates at age 4 Enrolment rates at age 5
  16. 16. Incidence and length of early years participation vary greatly (2014) Latvia IcelandPortugal Slovenia DenmarkPoland Norway LuxembourgFrance Germany Hungary Greece Finland Estonia Sweden BelgiumItaly Ireland Spain Austria New ZealandSwitzerland Netherlands United Kingdom 15 20 25 30 35 40 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Averagehoursduringausualweek Enrolment rates of children under the age of 3 in formal childcare (ISCED 0 and other registered ECEC settings outside ISCED-2011)
  17. 17. In most countries, expenditure per child on ECEC settings is higher for very young children (2013) 0 2 500 5 000 7 500 10 000 12 500 15 000 17 500 20 000 22 500 25 000 27 500 Luxembourg Norway Australia Sweden Iceland Finland NewZealand UnitedStates Germany Austria UnitedKingdom Netherlands Slovenia OECDaverage Belgium France Portugal Ireland1 Chile Japan Italy Korea Spain Poland Switzerland1 Hungary SlovakRepublic Latvia CzechRepublic Israel Turkey Denmark Lithuania Brazil1 Mexico Estonia USD Pre-primary (ISCED 02) Early childhood development (ISCED 01) All early childhood education and care (ISCED 0)
  18. 18. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Australia Japan Portugal UnitedKingdom CostaRica Colombia Turkey UnitedStates Slovenia Argentina Poland Korea Germany Denmark Chile Spain OECDaverage Mexico Iceland SlovakRepublic Lithuania NewZealand Indonesia Austria Netherlands Finland RussianFederation Israel Hungary Italy CzechRepublic Norway France Estonia Sweden Belgium Latvia Luxembourg % All private sources Expenditure of other private entities Household expenditure Public expenditure on educational institutions In most OECD countries, there is substantial public investment in ECEC systems, especially for pre-primary education. Parental fees are also publicly subsidised in an increasing number of countries (2013)
  19. 19. 0 20 40 60 80 100 NewZealand Ireland Chile Colombia Netherlands Australia Portugal Luxembourg Israel Italy France Lithuania OECDaverage Finland Belgium Latvia Poland Brazil SlovakRepublic Spain CzechRepublic UnitedKingdom Slovenia Japan Germany Estonia Austria Iceland Norway Switzerland Initial funds from central level of government Initial funds from regional level of government Initial funds from local level of government % Many governments delegate responsibility for ECEC public funding to local authorities. As a result, public funding is more decentralised in early childhood education (ISCED 0) than at any other level of education (2013)
  20. 20. The ECEC sector is shifting from "more spending" to "smarter spending".
  21. 21. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Kazakhstan(ages1to6) 1,2 Slovenia(ages1to5)2 CzechRepublic(age5) Italy(3to5) Belgium(Fr.)(2.5to5) Luxembourg(3to5) Portugal(3to5) France(3to5) Belgium(Fl.)(2.5to5) Chile(4to5) Finland(6) Japan(3to5)3 Korea(3to5)1 Norway(3to5)3 NewZealand(3to5) Austria(6)1 Ireland(3to5) Mexico(3to5)1 Sweden(3to6) England(UK)(3to4) Scotland(UK)(3to4) Unconditional free access refers to provision free of charge for all children of the concerned age group. Conditional free access, based on certain conditions, such as income, benefit entitlements, etc. Most countries provide free access to all children for at least the last year before entering primary school. But, the time per week covered by the legal entitlements differs greatly (2015)
  22. 22. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Chile Mexico France China UnitedKingdom Indonesia Portugal Brazil Turkey Poland Netherlands Switzerland Belgium Japan Spain Austria OECDaverage CzechRepublic Korea Italy EU22average Hungary SlovakRepublic UnitedStates Greece Norway1 Luxembourg Latvia Finland Germany Denmark Slovenia NewZealand Sweden Australia Child-to-teacher ratios in early childhood education and care (ISCED 0) Pre-primary education (ISCED 02) Early childhood educational development (ISCED 01) At the pre-primary level, there are 14 children for every teacher, on average in OECD countries (2014)
  23. 23. In many countries, the curriculum framework in pre- primary education has been broadened Proportion of countries and jurisdictions which declared in 2011 and 2015 that the following content areas are included in their ECEC curriculum framework
  24. 24. High quality in ECEC primarily depends on high quality interactions between staff and children, which depends on workforce quality.
  25. 25. 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 Greece England(UK) Portugal Scotland(UK) Italy Spain France Denmark Korea Belgium(Fl.) Finland Oecdaverage Belgium(Fr.) Hungary Australia Mexico Norway Turkey Poland Israel Luxembourg Index of change between 2005 and 2010 (2005=100) Index of change between 2010 and 2014 (2010=100) Teachers’ salaries in pre-primary education have been impacted by the economic crisis in one third of OECD countries (2014)
  26. 26. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 -10% -5% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% Scotland(UK) Finland Denmark Iceland Norway CzechRepublic Hungary OECDaverage SlovakRepublic Spain UnitedStates Austria Belgium(Fl.) Belgium(Fr.) Chile England(UK) France Greece Italy Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands Poland Portugal ussianFederation Slovenia Switzerland Australia Israel Duration of pree-service training in years Primary education teacher salaries in percentage of pre-primary education teachers Difference of salary, in percentage of pre-primary teacher salary Number of years of education for teacher in pre-primary schools (right scale) Number of years of education for teachers in primary schools (right scale) Parity of salaries between pre- primary and primary school teachers Countries are increasingly aligned in their salaries and years of education for pre-primary and primary teachers Reception classes only
  27. 27. The benefits of ECEC can disappear unless quality is sustained in primary education.
  28. 28. ECEC benefits can disappear if quality is not sustained in primary education Notes: Reference group: No pre-school and Very Low / Low Effectiveness Source: Sammons, P., Sylva, K., Melhuish, E., Siraj-Blatchford, I., Taggart, B., & Hunt, S. (2008). Effective Pre-school and Primary Education 3-11 Project (EPPE 3-11): Influences on children’s attainment and progress in Key Stage 2: Cognitive outcomes in Year 6. The Combined Impact of Pre-School Quality and Primary School Effectiveness: Mathematics at the end of primary school (United Kingdom)
  29. 29. • Changes include: – the types of activities they engage in, – the ways in which adults interact with them, – their physical surroundings, – the number of peers, – the rules and routines. The transition from early childhood education to primary school is a big step for most children.
  30. 30. • Disadvantaged children are more likely to struggle during the transition – they tend to attend lower-quality ECEC settings and schools • Moreover, they are exposed to risk factors such as – having low teacher expectations for their competence – having poor parent-teacher interactions – being exposed to a low-quality home learning environment Transitions are particularly important for disadvantaged children
  31. 31. Countries are increasingly directing their policy attention to facilitate a smooth transition.
  32. 32. • Policy documents are placing greater emphasis on the need for smooth transitions, specifying the collaboration between ECEC and primary school: – In curriculum frameworks of both levels, such as in Austria, Denmark, Finland, Japan, Norway, Slovenia and Wales (UK), – or in education acts like in Kazakhstan, Slovenia and Sweden • Responsibilities for ECEC are increasingly integrated within the ministry of education, which facilitates collaboration between education levels and can strengthen coherence between ECEC and schools (e.g. in New Zealand, Norway, Slovenia and Sweden). Governance and organisation of transitions are receiving greater attention
  33. 33. More than half the countries offer a separate year or class/group the year before compulsory primary school 56.1% 43.9% Separate year/class in place No separate year/class in place Compulsory transition class: 11 jurisdictions (47.8%) Canada (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island), Chile, Colombia, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, Kazakhstan, Netherlands and Poland
  34. 34. Compulsory school age is being lowered in some countries to give children a stronger start at primary school and to narrow socio-economic gaps. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Hungary Mexico Luxembourg Switzerland Chile Colombia Croatia Greece Netherlands UnitedKingdom Austria Belgium(Flanders) Canada¹ CzechRepublic Denmark Finland Germany Ireland Italy Japan Kazakhstan² NewZealand Norway Poland Portugal SlovakRepublic Slovenia Spain Turkey Sweden³ Age Pre-primary education Primary education Notes: 1. Data refers to the most common compulsory school starting age across provinces and territories. 2. Children can start compulsory education at the age of 6 or 7 years. 3. There are plans to make the preschool class for 6-year olds compulsory. The majority of children start both compulsory and primary education at the age of six (2016) Compulsory school starting age, by level of education
  35. 35. Most jurisdictions offer transition activities at the centre level to prepare children and their parents for their transit to school (2015) 21% 48% 68% 74% 75% 85% 93% 93% Home visits by primary school teacher Information materials for children Exchange days Support from specialists Information materials for parents Taster days Parent information meetings Open house days Percentage of countries Most jurisdictions offer transition practices to prepare children and their parents for their transit to school (2016)
  36. 36. Curricula are becoming more aligned between pre-primary and primary levels. 54 % 24% 22% Aligned Integrated Not aligned or integrated Canada (Manitoba, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Ontario and Prince Edward Island), Chile, Colombia, Germany (all 16 Länders) Finland, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain and Turkey Canada( Alberta, British Columbia, New Brunswick and Quebec), Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland and UK (Wales) Alignment between the last year of ECEC and primary school curriculum (2016)
  37. 37. Many jurisdictions have included new learning areas in their pre-primary curricula to ensure a better transition between pre-primary and primary education. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Literacy Numeracy Physical education Arts Music Science Practical skills Healthand wellbeing Social Sciences Religion Ethicsand citizenship ICT Foreign languages Number of jurisdictions 2011 2015 Content areas are increasing in pre-primary curriculum curricular frameworks education (2011 and 2015)
  38. 38. Most pre-primary teachers in the OECD spend more hours in direct contact with children than primary teachers, with less time for preparation and meetings 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Chile1 Netherlands1 France2 Colombia Spain Scotland(UK)1 Israel2 Slovenia CzechRepublic2 Germany2 OECDaverage Portugal1 Belgium(Fr.)2 England(UK)3 Turkey2 Denmark2,3 Korea4 Poland3 Estonia1 Hungary4 Hours per year Net contact time of teachers with children Pre-primary Primary 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Other duties in pre-primary and primary education settings or schools other than direct contact with children
  39. 39. Staff-parent collaboration is higher in preschool than in primary school. 93% 59% 71% 39% Staff collaborate with parents by sharing child development records with aim to support transitions Staff collaborate with parents in other ways on how to prepare transitions Preschool Primary Percentage of jurisdictions where staff collaborates with parents
  40. 40. Challenges still remain for making transitions child-centred, guided by pedagogical continuity, managed by trained staff, and well-informed parental and community engagement
  41. 41. Some challenges: • Cross-level understanding of practices and approaches is still limited in several countries (e. g. in Germany, Japan or Slovenia) • A tradition of disjoint pre-service training means that boundaries are more difficult to overcome (e.g. Austria, Germany or Japan) • Local autonomy in curriculum implementation challenges the coherence of the delivery of pedagogical continuity (e.g. in Austria, Finland or Wales (UK) ) Pedagogical continuity is critically important when making transition child-centred
  42. 42. Good practices in transitions • Shared views between ECEC settings and schools on transitioning • Alignment and balance between what and how children learn in ECEC and primary school • Shared understandings on how children learn differently • Collaborative practices between preschool and primary school teachers, such as sharing written information on child development and children’s experiences • Alignment of pedagogical understanding of preschool and primary school teachers through training • Alignment of working conditions of preschool and primary school teachers • Flexibility and responsiveness to individual communities, families and children • Collaboration among staff, managers, parents and the community based on reciprocal communication, inclusivity, mutual trust and respect.
  43. 43. Five lessons in transitions • Focus on making schools ready for children, not children ready for school • Dispel some common myths and misconceptions surrounding transitions – Fragmentation and lack of coherence in goals, curriculum, and pedagogical practices between the two sectors; and lack of co-operation and collaboration among actors tend to be rooted in differing perceptions, philosophies and expectations of actors • Overcome structural and informational roadblocks to co-operation and continuity • Encourage local leadership, backed by a clear national policy framework • Mainstream transition into existing equity measures
  44. 44. • Reviews: Austria, Denmark, Finland, Japan, Norway, Slovenia, Sweden and Wales (United Kingdom) • Questionnaires: Austria, Flemish Community of Belgium, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and Wales (United Kingdom) Participants
  45. 45. 45 45 Thank you Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org – All publications – The complete micro-level database Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Twitter: SchleicherOECD and remember: Without data, you are just another person with an opinion

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