Prepared by: Mayflor S. Barile
These are the fact finding
They are the tools for data
They include Questionnaire,
Interview, and Observation.
Characteristics of a Good
1. The Instrument must be valid and
2. It must be based upon the Conceptual
3. It must gather data suitable for and
relevant to the research topic.
4. It must gather data would test the
hypotheses or answer the questions under
Characteristics of a Good
5. It should be free from all kinds of bias.
6. It must contain clear and definite
directions to accomplish it.
7. It must be accompanied by a good
8. It must be accompanied, if possible, by
a letter of recommendation from a
It is an interaction in which oral questions are
posed by the interviewer to elicit oral response
from the interviewee.
a. Structured Interviews
The Structured Interviews are formal because,
sets of questions known as interview questionnaire
are posed to each interviewee visited and the
responses are recorded on a standardized schedule.
b. Unstructured Interview
The Unstructured Interview is the less formal type in which
although sets of questions may be used, the interviewer freely
modifies the sequence of questions, changes the wording and
sometimes explains them or adds to them during the interaction.
c. Non-Directive Interview
The Non-Directive Interview or the unguided gives excessive
freedom for the respondent to express his or her ideas subjectively
and spontaneously as she chooses or is able to.
d. Focus Interview
Focus Interview as the name suggests, focuses on the
respondent’s subjective responses and experience on the subject
matter to elicit more information.
is one of the very important methods for obtaining
comprehensive data in qualitative research especially when a
composite of both oral and visual data become vital to the
a. Participant Observer:
In this type of observation the researcher lives as a
member of the subjects of the study while observing and
keeping notes of the attributes of the subject that is being
researched so that he can directly experience, the phenomenon
b. Non-Participant Observer:
In this approach the researcher does not
live as a member of the subjects of the
study. The researcher watches the subjects
of his or her study, with their knowledge of
his status as a researcher, but without
taking an active part in the situation under
This is a data collection instrument mostly used in normative
surveys. This is a systematically prepared form or document
with a set of questions deliberately designed to elicit responses
from respondents or research informants for the purpose of
collecting data or information.
• It is a form of inquiry document, which contains a
systematically compiled and well organized series of questions
intended to elicit the information which will provide insight into
the nature of the problem under study.
• It is a form that contains a set of questions on a topic or group
of topics designed to be answered by the respondent.
Easy to construct
Distribution is easy and
Responses are easy to tabulate
Respondent’s replies are free
Confidential information may be
Respondents can fill out the
questionnaire at will.
Respondents can give more
Cannot be used to illiterate
Respondents may not return the
filled up copies of the
Respondents give a wrong
Respondents may leave some or
many questions un-answered.
Number of choices may be so
limited that the respondents may
be forced to select responses that
are not his actual choice.
Steps in Preparing a Questionnaire
1. Doing library search.
2. Talking to knowledgeable people.
3. Mastering the guidelines.
4. Writing the questionnaire.
5. Editing the questionnaire.
6. Rewriting the Questionnaire.
7. Pretesting the questionnaire
ASKED IN SURVEY
A. ACCORDING TO FORM
1. THE FREE-ANSWER TYPE – also called the open form, open-
ended, subjective, unrestricted, essay, and unguided response type.
2. THE GUIDED RESPONSE TYPE – This is also called the closed form
or restricted type.
a. Recall Type – the replies are recalled.
b. Recognition Type – the possible responses are given and the
respondents selects his answer.
1. Dichotomous- There are only two questions and one is
2. Multiple Choice – Only one answer is chosen from those given
3. Multiple responses – Two or more options may be chosen
B. ACCORDING TO THE KIND OF DATA ASKED
1. DESCRIPTIVE (VERBAL) DATA
2. QUANTIFIED (NUMERICAL) DATA
3. INTENSITY OF FEELING, EMOTION
4. DEGREE OF JUDGMENT
GUIDELINES IN FORMULATING OF
QUESTIONS FOR A QUESTIONNAIRE
1. Make all directions clear
2. Use correct grammar
3. Make all questions unequivocal
4. Avoid asking biased questions.
5. Objectify the responses.
6. Relate all questions to the topic under
7. Create categories or classes for
8. Word carefully or avoid questions that
deal with confidential or embarrassing
9. Explain and illustrate difficult
10. State all questions affirmatively
11. Make the respondents anonymous.