JOSELITO B. BISENIO
Makati Science High School
Serves as a model and guide
which describes and illustrates
how the variables are treated
in the study.
It is a figure that represents
the interplay of the variables.
BOX – it contains the variables. Normally, it answers a
question in the SOP which needs descriptive analysis.
ONE-HEADED ARROW – illustrates influence on one
variable on the other.
TWO-HEADED ARROW – it represents association or
relationships between variables.
CONNECTOR LINE – connects one variable with
another but does not necessarily mean that the
variables will be subjected to a statistical procedure.
Previous GWA in English
Parents’ educational attainment
Family’s Socioeconomic Status
(Mc Call Crabbs
Reading Strategies to
Sports News Writing
Research Approach Research Methods Examples
Positivism Quantitative Surveys:
experimental and quasi-
ex-post facto research
- Attitude of distance learners towards online
- Relationship between students’ motivation and
their academic achievement.
- Effect of intelligence on the academic
performances of primary school learners
Anti-Positivism Qualitative Biographical
- A study of autobiography of a great statesman.
- A study of dropout among the female students
- A case study of a open distance learning
Institution in a country.
Critical Theory Critical and action-
- A study of development of education during the
British rule in India
- Absenteeism among standard five students of a