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Chapter 2


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Sample chapter 2

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Chapter 2

  1. 1. Writing Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature and Studies As soon as the research problem has been chosen and approved by your teacher, you can now start lookingfor references to determine what materials are available on your topic. This will comprise your workingbibliography, a list of possible sources of data. Aside from the library, computer websites are also a rich sourceof this list of references. Prepare the list and decide which ones you will include in your review. Make sure youhave enough potential sources. A good number to start with would be 10 to 15 references. While preparing yourlist, you can start getting copies of these materials by printout or copy machines, or download them in yourUSB, so that when you’re ready to read them, they are already available. 1.1 The Introductory Paragraph 1.2 Foreign Literature 1.3 Local Literature 1.4 Foreign Studies 1.5 Local Studies Selecting and Reviewing Related Literature and Studies From your working bibliography and stored copies of materials, choose which ones are closelyrelated to your study and read them for your review of related literature and studies. A review of related literature and studies is helpful in knowing the ideas of others interested in theresearch question, similar or related, to the study you are undertaking in order to find out if it is an original workor merely an extension of work done a long time ago. This will enable you to narrow down your study to aspecific well-defined manageable problem. Related literature consists of discussions of facts and principles to which your study is related. Thesematerials are usually found in books, encyclopedias, journals, magazines, and newspapers from printed oronline sources. If printed in the Philippines, they are local; if printed outside of the country, they are foreignregardless of the citizenship of the author. Related studies are inquiries, investigations, researches already conducted to which your proposedstudy is related or has some bearing. They are usually unpublished materials such as manuscripts, theses, anddissertations. They are local if the inquiry was done in the Philippines; foreign, if done outside of the country. Three things must be done in the review. 1. It should make a critical evaluation of the studies and examine the appropriateness of their research designs to the present study. 2. It should show how the methodology of the previous study is replicated, modified, or improved in the present study. 3. It should show how the present study will contribute to existing literature and studies. The review of related literature and studies was mentioned earlier in this lesson—its importance in anyresearch undertaken, the distinction between literature and studies, and between foreign and local ones. In writing Chapter 2, you need to classify your presentation first into literature and studies and sub-classify each into foreign and local. Foreign literature is first discussed, followed by local literature, and thenforeign studies followed by local studies.
  2. 2. At the end of each section, do not forget to show how the materials relate to your study, the differencesas well as the similarities between their work and yours. At the end of the chapter, state how the materialsreviewed contributed to the preparation of your research. Minimum of 10 and maximum of 15 pages are required in undergraduate theses and maximum of 20pages for graduate studies.Sample CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies This chapter includes the review of related literature and studies which the researchers have perused to shed light on the topic under study. Foreign Literature Shiela Allan (2012) in her article “Positive Impact of Internet on Communication Skills,” discussed that the Internet is a powerful tool that is revolutionizing children’s learning, communication and play. If properly used, the Internet can serve as a medium for acceptable social interaction. The Internet allows children to socialize with other children through the use of email, chat rooms, and instant messaging, increasing the development of communication and social skills. As children use the Internet to connect with places around the world and exchange mail with electronic pen pals, they are able to share different cultures and traditions. This literature is closely related to the current study for it directly mentions the role of internet specifically websites to enhance the individuals’ communication and social skills. The present study like the article reviewed aims to establish a connection on the various websites used by the students and their impact on their communication skills.
  3. 3. Local Literature The NNN-AMIC Special Report of Lara P. Lina (2012) revealed that thePhilippines is experiencing 75 per cent mobile penetration. One-fifth of its population canalso be found online. That means more than 24 million Filipinos are able to log into theirFacebook, Twitter, Friendster and Plurk accounts regularly. The Filipino’s familiarity andmastery over the English language could be the reason behind Philippine onlinepopularity. Many Filipinos are active communicators in both SMS and internet. Theresearchers assume that the websites often visited by the users definitely have an impact intheir lives particularly in the way they communicate.Foreign Studies Thitthongkam (2011) conducted a study about the development of English writingskills using communicative exercises on the Internet. The research results indicated thatcommunicative exercises on the internet supported improving students’ writing skills, andassisted 99 percent of the samples to pass the course based on the university criteria.Based on the information from student behavior observation, it indicated that students hadbetter motivation in studying English, and always performed writing skills. The learningeffectiveness is significant at the level of .05. Satisfaction with studying English afterusing communicative exercise was positive. The student satisfaction with learning Englishafter using the communicative exercises on the Internet was at the level of strongsatisfaction (mean=4.319) or 86.38 percent. This is similar to the present study because it both discussed the benefits that thestudents get from using the Internet in their studies. It showed the improvement on thecommunication skills of the students after performing different exercises on the Internet.
  4. 4. Local Studies Opina (2010) developed and validated instructional modules incollege English. She concluded that online learning is a competitivealternative in teaching English 11 for college level. She also mentionedthat the use of online games and exercises is an innovation to teachinglanguage skills. Success in online learning depends on strictcompliance of timetable and schedule and regular interaction withteacher. In addition, students with convenient access to a computerand modem, sound reading and writing skills, and at the same timewith motivation, and self-discipline to participate regularly, are mostlikely to succeed. It was also concluded in her study that although learning isachievable using the most available resources in the module andInternet, the teacher is still the most important component in onlinelearning upon whom the students rely. Her study was relevant to the present research in that it tackledonline teaching. However, she dealt mostly on the comparison of theeffectiveness between virtual teaching and traditional teaching methodsusing her proposed module, while this study concerns more on the useof free websites in enhancing the competencies of the students in oraland written communications.