Related literature is composed of
discussions of facts and principles to
which the present study is related.
The materials are usually printed and
books, encyclopedias, professional
journals, magazines, newspapers, and
Reviewed literature and studies help or guide the
researcher in the following ways:
Help or guide the researcher in searching for or
selecting a better research problem or topic.
Help the investigator understand his topic for
Ensure that there will be no duplication of other
and guide the researcher in locating more
sources of related information.
Help and guide the researcher in making his
research design especially in
a. The formulation of specific questions to
be researched on;
b. The formulation of assumptions and
hypotheses if there should be any;
c. The formulation of conceptual
d. The selection and application of the
methods of research;
e. The selection and application of sampling
f. The selection and/ or preparation and
validation of research instruments for gathering
g. The selection and application of
analysis, organization, presentation, and
interpretation of data;
i. The making of the summary of
findings, conclusions, and recommendations;
Help and guide the researcher in making
comparison between his findings with the
findings of other researchers on similar
studies with the end in view of formulating
generalizations or principles which are the
contributions of the study to the fund of
surveyed materials must be as recent as
A. Treatises that deal on universals or
things of more or less permanent nature may
still be good today.
B. When a comparison or contrast is to
be made between the conditions of today
and those of a remote past, say ten or
twenty years ago.
reviewed must be
objective and unbiased.
Materials surveyed must be relevant
to the study.
Surveyed materials must have been
based upon genuinely original and
true facts or data to make valid and
Reviewed materials must not be too
few or too many.
includes scholarly journals, scholarly
books, authoritative databases and
primary sources. Sometimes it
includes newspapers, magazines,
other books, films, and audio and
video tapes, and other secondary
are the origin
of information under study,
fundamental documents relating to
a particular subject or idea. Often
they are first hand accounts written
by a witness or researcher at the
time of an event or discovery.
E.g. published books, magazines,
encyclopedias, almanacs and etc.
documents or recordings that
relate to or discuss information
originally presented elsewhere.
E.g. Information from the
internet, unpublished thesis and
Generally, the sources of related literature and
studies are located in the following places:
Libraries, either government, school, or private
Government and private offices.
The National Library.
The library of the Department of
Education, Culture and Sports.
The last two are especially rich depositories of
related materials, particularly unpublished
master’s thesis and doctoral dissertations.
Related – means the legal bases, literature
and studies which have direct bearing or
relation to the present study.
It determine the relevance of the study to
the government’s thrusts. The major
sources of related legal bases are laws and
department directives such as
circulars, orders, memoranda, and others
which are related to the present study.
Literature may be defined as “Written
works collectively, especially, those
enduring importance, exhibiting
creative imagination and artistic skill
which in a particular period, language
E.g. The works of Paulo Coelho, Jane
Austen, and Tom Clancy
and unpublished research
studies are sources of materials that
are included in this section. The
research studies which have direct
bearing to the present study are
segregated into foreign and local
Conceptual – also known as
constitutive, is that which is
given in dictionaries. It is the
academic or universal meaning
attributed to a word or group of
works. Moreover, it is mostly
abstract and formal in nature.
Operational – also known as
functional. Operational definition
may be measured and experimental.
The measured operational definition
states the way the concept is
measured in the investigation. In an
experimental operational definition
the researcher may spell out the
details of the manipulation of a