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Basics of Matter

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changing states, atoms, matter

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Basics of Matter

  1. 1. EARTH & SPACE SCIENCEEARTH & SPACE SCIENCE BASICS OF MATTER
  2. 2. • Matter is anything that – takes up space • Has measurable volume – has mass • Measured as weight in a gravitational field • Different than weight (which changes with gravity) • All matter is made up of atoms
  3. 3. AtomsAtoms are The Building Blocks of Matter + + + + + ++ - - - - -- - - +
  4. 4. Atoms • Smallest possible unit into which matter can be divided, while still maintaining its properties. • Made up of: – protons – neutrons – electrons • The solar system is commonly used as an analogy to describe the structure of an atom For example, you can take a book and divide it into chapters, paragraphs, sentences and words. You could even chop up the words into letters, but they wouldn’t work together to make sense any more, and you certainly wouldn’t have a book anymore. Atoms are like words, made up of smaller parts (letters), but not sensibly divisible. + - + + + - - - - +
  5. 5. Atoms are so small that… • You cannot see them, even with a microscope. (Electron scanning microscopes can record digital simulations, but not photographs, because the wavelength of light is too large.) • it would take a stack of about 50,000 aluminum atoms to equal the thickness of a sheet of aluminum foil from your kitchen. • a human hair is about 1 million carbon atoms wide. • a speck of dust might contain 3x1012 (3 trillion) atoms. • it would take you around 500 years to count the number of atoms in a grain C-C-C-C-C-… + 999,995 more . Is made of approximately 3 trillion atoms Just one of these grains Hydrogen atoms
  6. 6. Matter • Anything that has mass and takes up space (volume) – Examples: • A brick has mass and takes up space • A basketball has mass and takes up space • A lake has mass and takes up space What else has mass & takes up space? • Does air have mass and take up space?
  7. 7. OBSERVATION Quest i on: Does ai r have mass?   - Mat t er i s anyt hi ng t hat has and t akes up space.   - Al l mat t er i s made up of .   - Mat t er of di f f er ent el ement s have var yi ng mass dependi ng on t he mat er i al ’ s densi t y and t he at oms’ .   HYPOTHESIS   If ai r i s made of mat t er , t hen an i nf l at ed bal l oon shoul d wei gh an empt y bal l oon, because al l mat t er has mass. EXPERIMENT 1. Fi nd aver age wei ght of bal l oon, sugar , and bal l oon + sugar t o i l l ust r at e t hat t he sum of each t ype of mat t er ’ s mass = i ndi vi dual masses. 2. Fi nd aver age wei ght of bal l oon and bal l oon + ai r , t hen cal cul at e t he mass of j ust t he ai r . CONCLUSION   Our dat a showed t hat t he mass of t he ai r bl own i nt o t he bal l oon wei ghed grams. Theref ore, my hypot hesi s t hat t he i nf l at ed bal l oon woul d wei gh i s ( suppor t ed/ not suppor t ed) by t he dat a and we can concl ude t hat mass at oms at omi c mass
  8. 8. Matter • Anything that has mass and takes up space (volume) – Examples: • A brick has mass and takes up space • A basketball has mass and takes up space • A lake has mass and takes up space • Air has mass and takes up space Can you think of anything that would NOT be considered matter? • Heat, light, sound, thoughts, emotions, time, gravity
  9. 9. Protons (+) • Positively charged particles • Located in the nucleus of the atom • Protons identify the atom – Each element has atoms with a different number of protons – Protons = atomic number • Contribute to the atomic mass • Equal to the number of electrons + + + + + + ++ - - - - -- - - + Interactive Periodic Table
  10. 10. Neutrons • Neutral particles; no electric charge • Located in the nucleus • Contribute to the atomic mass • Number can vary – isotopes have different #’s of neutrons – number calculated by rounding the atomic mass & subtracting protons + + + + + ++ - - - - -- - - +
  11. 11. Electrons (-) • Negatively charged particles • Found outside the nucleus of the atom, in the electron orbits/levels – each orbit/level can hold a maximum number of electrons • 1st = 2, 2nd = 8, 3rd = 8 or 18, etc… • Move so rapidly around the nucleus that they create an “electron cloud” • Mass is insignificant when compared to protons and neutrons • Equal to the number of protons • Involved in the formation of chemical bonds - + + + + + ++ - - - - -- - - +
  12. 12. Hydrogen (H) Atom • Notice the one electron in the first orbital + - Even though there are no neutrons present, Hydrogen is still considered an atom + - = 1 = 0 = 1 How many more electrons can fit in the 1st orbital/ level?
  13. 13. Oxygen (O) Atom • Notice the two electrons in the first orbital/level and the six in the second + + + + + ++ - - - - -- - - + + - = 8 = 8 = 8 How many more electrons can fit in the 2nd orbital/ level?
  14. 14. Sodium (Na) Atom • Notice the two electrons in the first orbital/level, eight in the second, and one in the third + + + + + ++ - - - - -- - - + - - - + - = 11 = 12 = 11 How many more electrons can fit in the 3rd orbital/ level?
  15. 15. Sub-Atomic Particles Weight Comparison (protons, neutrons, electrons) Neutron = 1.6749286 x10-27 kg Proton = 1.6726231 x10-27 kg Electron = 9.1093897 x10-31 kg + - +---- - - - -- -- - - - - - - - ---- - - - -- -- - - - - - - 1836 electrons = 1 proton1839 electrons = 1 neutron How do you think the mass of a neutron compares to that of a proton? 1 neutron ≈ 1 proton
  16. 16. Atomic Number • The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom + ++ - - - What would be the atomic number of this atom?
  17. 17. Mass Number • The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom’s nucleus • Expressed in Atomic Mass Units (amu) – Each proton or neutron has a mass of 1 amu + ++ - - - What would be the mass number of this atom? +  3  4 3 protons + 4 neutrons = a mass number of 7 amu Why did we not account for the electrons when calculating the mass number?
  18. 18. Number of protons determines the element. Number of protons also equals the number of electrons (in a neutral atom). Atomic Math Challenge Atomic Number (protons) Symbol Name of Element Atomic Mass (protons + neutrons) To determine the number of neutrons in the most abundant isotope, first ROUND the Atomic Mass to the nearest whole number and then subtract the number of protons. (15.999 → 16) (16 - 8 = 8 neutrons)
  19. 19. Matter  Atoms of the same kind combine to form a pure elementelement (like a word)(like a word)  Two or more atoms joined together is called a molecule (like a sentence)(like a sentence)  Two or more types of atoms joined together makes a compoundcompound  What makes gold soft and shiny?  What causes salt to form into crystals?  Why is Helium "lighter than air" Interactive Periodic Table
  20. 20. Bonding Sodium - Na Chlorine - Cl+ - Ions
  21. 21. Ionic Bond Sodium Chloride - NaCl -+
  22. 22. Common States of Matter • Elements & compounds can exist in different states
  23. 23. States of Matter States of matter are classifiedStates of matter are classified based on...based on... • particle arrangement • what patterns the atoms or molecules form (bonds) • energy of particles • how fast the atoms/molecules are moving (temperature) • distance between particles • how far apart the atoms or molecules are (density)
  24. 24. Solids • Particles are tightly packed together • Crystal lattice structure • Particle vibrate about a fixed position. • They have a definite shape and a definite volume. • retain their shape regardless of container • cannot be compressed
  25. 25. Liquids • Particles are touching, but can slide around one another. • Have an indefinite shape • Take the shape of whatever container they are placed in • Have a definite volume • Cannot be compressed
  26. 26. Gases • Particles are very far apart and move freely. • Gases have an indefinite shape • conform to whatever container they are place in • Gases have an indefinite volume • can easily be compressed
  27. 27. Plasmas A plasma is an ionized gas. superheated over 1,000o C electrons are stripped of the atoms A plasma is a very good conductor of electricity it is affected by magnetic fields has an overall neutral charge Plasmas, like gases have an indefinite shape and volume.
  28. 28. • Kelvin – No negatives – No degrees • Celsius – Water based • Fahrenheit
  29. 29. Points of Change • Predictable temperatures of phase changes for water (at sea level): – Melting/Freezing Point = 0o C, 32o F or 273K – Boiling/Condensing Point = 100o C, 212o F or 373 K
  30. 30. Bose-Einstein Condensate • Super-cooled matter (near absolute zero or - 273o C) forms another state HigherHigher TemperatureTemperature LowerLower TemperatureTemperature LowerLower PressurePressure HigherHigher PressurePressure
  31. 31. • Atoms no longer move around as individuals. • They all act in exactly the same way – you can no longer tell them apart!  Requires quantum physics to understand BE Condensate
  32. 32. Changes of State • What affects a substance’s physical state? – Temperature • Adding heat (energy) excites the atoms/molecules – Pressure Adding pressure “immobilizes” the atoms/molecules Atomic Interactions Bonding between atoms/molecules

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