Which has the most calories? (Snickers bar) Which has least? (Spinach)
Play as a race with buzzers, or a BINGO-type game, or keep score with the question # being the points awarded. Pay CLOSE ATTENTION to serving size!
Use NOTEBOOKS to keep track of nutrients for meals/food combinations. Meal/sandwich must be something you would eat. Optional: bring several different breads, nut butters, and meats/cheeses, along with some veggies so they can actually MAKE and EAT their team sandwich.
Photo Credit cristal-glass sugar-bowl and white sugar image by Maria Brzostowska from Fotolia.com The human body has an efficient and complex system of storing and preserving energy. Glucose is a type of sugar that the body uses for energy. Glucose is the product of breaking down carbohydrates into their simplest form. Carbohydrates should make up approximately 45 to 65 percent of your daily caloric intake, according to MayoClinic.com. Food Sources of Glucose Glucose is a simple sugar found in carbohydrates. When more complex carbohydrates such as polysaccharides and disaccharides are broken down in the stomach, they break down into the monosaccharide glucose. Carbohydrates serve as the primary energy source for working muscles, help brain and nervous system functioning and help the body use fat more efficiently. Function of Glucose Once carbohydrates are absorbed from food, they are carried to the liver for processing. In the liver, fructose and galactose, the other forms of sugar, are converted into glucose. Some glucose gets sent to the bloodstream while the rest is stored for later energy use. Stored Glucose Once glucose is inside the liver, glucose is phosphorylated into glucose-6-phosphate, or G6P. G6P is further metabolized into triglycerides, fatty acids, glycogen or energy. Glycogen is the form in which the body stores glucose. The liver can only store about 100 g of glucose in the form of glycogen. The muscles also store glycogen. Muscles can store approximately 500 g of glycogen. Because of the limited storage areas, any carbohydrates that are consumed beyond the storage capacity are converted to and stored as fat. There is practically no limit on how many calories the body can store as fat. Liver Glycogen The glucose stored in the liver serves as a buffer for blood glucose levels. Therefore, if the blood glucose levels start to get low because you have not consumed food for a period of time, the liver is able to release glucose into the bloodstream to maintain healthy levels. Blood glucose levels are tightly regulated because glucose is the primary energy source for the central nervous system. Blood glucose also is important for sustaining brain functioning. If the body reserves of glucose deplete, a process called gluconeogenesis will take place. During gluconeogenesis, glucose is synthesized from molecules that are not carbohydrates. Often, this means the body will break down muscle fibers to obtain the molecules to produce glucose. Muscle Glycogen Muscle glycogen reserves are stored energy for the muscles. The glycogen is able to be broken back down into glucose when the muscle contracts and requires energy. The body is able to store 500 g of glycogen, roughly equivalent to 2,000 calories, in the muscles. Therefore, if you did not eat for a day, you will have drastically depleted these stores. After an intense workout, when these glycogen stores have been tapped into, consuming carbohydrates will replenish these reserves. Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/264767-how-is-excess-glucose-stored/#ixzz2NwmNN6e6
Tridecylic Acid, C12H25COOH
Human Body Systems
1. Name the organs of the alimentary canal (digestive tract), in the order which
food travels through them.
• Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
1. What organ in the body produces bile?
1. True or False? The churning movement in the stomach called peristalsis is an
example of chemical digestion.
• False (peristalsis is a physical/mechanical form of digestion)
1. What does bile do?
• Helps break down fat molecules
1. Where do most of the nutrients in your food get absorbed into the
• Small Intestine
In your lab notebook, please answer as best you can:
Bonus: If a person has their colon (large intestine) surgically
removed, what part of the digestive process will be lost?
- Resorption of water and vitamin K production
Digestive System Review
– gall bladder & liver
– small intestine
– large intestine
– to extract nutrients and water from
ingested food and beverages
– to conveniently store and eliminate all
leftover waste products
Your Are What You Eat
By mass, your body is made of
•Mostly water, then protein & lipids
– Less than 5% is made up of carbohydrates and minerals
• 3 Types of Nutrients
– Carbohydrates – fuel for all
• 60% of calories
– Lipids (fats) – stored
energy, insulation &
• 30% of calories
– Proteins – many cell
• 10% of calories
What Are Calories?
• Calories measure the thermal energy required to heat water
– 1 Calorie (capital) = 1,000 calories = 1 kcal
– 1 gram of water = 1 cubic centimeter (cc)
– 1 kg water = 1,000 cc = a 10x10x10 cm cube of water
Calories are a unit of
thermal energy (heat)
Food Calories measure
the amount of energy
food gives your body
The average adult needs ~
RDA - Recommended Daily Allowance
% of Diet Nutrient Needed Amount Needed Food with This Nutritional Value
Calories 2000 calories
•11 Taco Bell Tacos (or 5½ beef Chalupas)
•8 Pancakes with butter & syrup
•1 Little Caesar’s cheese pizza
30% Total FAT
(1 g = 9 calories)
•1 ¼ cups of Trail Mix (with chocolate chips)
•1 ½ McDonald's sausage egg biscuit
•6 Fried Chicken Wings
Sodium 2400 milligrams
•1 teaspoon of table salt
•3 dill pickles
(1 g = 4 calories)
•2 cups of White Rice
•3 cups of Grape Juice
Dietary Fiber 25 grams
•1 ½ cups of Refried Beans
•3 ½ cups of Raisin Bran cereal
10% Total PROTEIN
(1 g = 4 calories)
•1 ½ cups of Cottage Cheese
•3 Chicken Drumsticks
•1 Cup of Peanuts
Vitamin C 60 mg
•1 Kiwi Fruit
•1 Apple or Orange
1200 mg •1 glass of Skim Milk
•10 cups of Beans
Iron 12 mg
•2 cups of Spinach
•450 g of Beef
Find the Food Game
Which team can find the following values?
1.Any food with less than 50 Total Calories
2.A food with over 70 grams of carbohydrate.
3.A grain with more than 3 grams of fiber.
4.A grain with 5 or more grams of protein.
5.A protein with less than 400 g sodium.
6.A protein with less than 5 grams of fat.
7.A dessert with no total fat.
8.A dessert with more than 25%DV saturated fat.
9.Two foods that together offer 100%DV vitamin C.
10. A food with at least 100 mg of potassium.
Find the Food Game
11. A snack with less than 20 g carbohydrates.
12. A snack with 50% or more of any one vitamin or mineral.
13. A collection of foods that together offer 100%DV of iron.
14. A food rich in vitamin D (more than 20%DV).
15. A food rich in vitamin A (more than 20%DV).
16. A complete breakfast (fruit or veggie/protein/grain) under
550 calories that provides at least 35%DV of calcium.
17. A complete lunch or dinner (veggie/protein/grain) that is
under 650 calories and has 25%DV or less of sodium.
18. Make a sandwich with the highest %DV for fiber, iron, and
calcium, AND the least saturated fat, sodium, and sugars.
**What you make is what you will get to EAT!
Nutrients your body needs
in large amounts:
– Quick fuel for cell functions
– Stored energy, insulation &
cushioning, vitamin storage,
and cell membrane structure
– many cell functions (reactions
& building cell structures)
• Fast fuel for cell functions
• In fruits, vegetables & grains
• Building block = saccharides
• All carbs are
– some are better
for you than others
Carbohydrate Digestion, 1g = 4cal
1. Saliva begins to break down sugars
– simple sugars break down quickly
– complex carbohydrates take longer to digest
(fiber & starch)
2. In stomach, most carbs have already been
digested into single or double sugars (mono- or
– some glucose diffuses into bloodstream here
3. Intestines absorb remaining carbohydrates
– most sugars are first sent to the liver for
conversion to into glucose and release into the
– excess glucose is stored in the liver (up to 100g)
or muscles (up to 500g) as glycogen
– with the help of insulin, blood glucose is
transported into cells for ATP production
4. Carbs that cannot be used by cells or stored as
glycogen are converted into fat
• Slow/stored fuel for cell functions
– also for insulation, cell structure,
hormone production & vitamin storage
• In animal fats (butter/lard) &
vegetable oils (olive/canola/corn)
• Building block = fatty acids
• NOT all fats are equal!
– some are better for you than others
– our bodies can make some kinds of fats
– others, we can only get through food
Fat Digestion, 1g = 9cal
mechanical digestion & bile salts chop up
big molecules in intestines
emulsifiers & smooth muscle peristalsis
break down big lipids into smaller droplets
pancreatic juices then surround fats as
they are further broken up
monoglycerides and fatty acids diffuse into
smooth ER & Golgi process molecules
before sending them into bloodstream
fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, & K) tag along
with fats as they cross membranes
body uses or stores for energy, to produce
hormones, & to replace cell structures
Protein Digestion, 1g = 4cal
• Stomach acid and enzymes (pepsin) break
long chains into short segments
• Pancreatic juices break bonds further in
• Amino acids enter intestinal wall cells via
active transport or endocytosis
– bloodstream carries to cells
– DNA provides instructions to build
antibodies & hemoglobin, muscle fibers,
collagen in skin, & other cell structures
Good vs. Bad Nutrients
Unprocessed, high in fiber,
"whole" natural foods
Refined, processed, artificial
additives - empty calories
Fruits, vegetables, beans, whole grain
candy, baked goods with refined white
flour, white pastas, soda pop, sugary juice
Mono- and Poly-unsaturated
fats, Omega fatty acids
Saturated and Trans fats
nuts, seeds, avocado, canola, olive, &
safflower oils, fish, corn, soy (small bits)
meat, dairy, egg yolks, seafood, coconut
& palm kernel oils, packaged & fried foods
Protein Low or good fat, unprocessed High fat, additives, salty
Nuts, seeds, lean beef/chicken/pork, egg
whites, fish, grain burgers, hummus,
lentils, beans, mozzarella cheese, yogurt
bacon, hot dogs, fried shrimp, chicken
nuggets, beef jerky, sausage, whole milk,
Virtually all foods contain some of each type of nutrient
1 cup cooked rice has 5g protein & spaghetti has about 7g protein
1 cup cooked pinto beans has almost 16 g protein AND 45 g carbohydrate
2 tablespoons of peanut butter has 8 g protein, 7 g carbohydrate and 16 g fat