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Human Nutrition


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protein, carbs, fats, vitamins, minerals & water
We are what we eat!

Published in: Education
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Human Nutrition

  1. 1. Life Science Human Body Systems Nutrition
  2. 2. 1. Name the organs of the alimentary canal (digestive tract), in the order which food travels through them. • Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine 1. What organ in the body produces bile? • Liver 1. True or False? The churning movement in the stomach called peristalsis is an example of chemical digestion. • False (peristalsis is a physical/mechanical form of digestion) 1. What does bile do? • Helps break down fat molecules 1. Where do most of the nutrients in your food get absorbed into the bloodstream? • Small Intestine In your lab notebook, please answer as best you can: Bonus: If a person has their colon (large intestine) surgically removed, what part of the digestive process will be lost? - Resorption of water and vitamin K production Week 20 Review Quiz
  3. 3. Digestive System Review • Organs – mouth – esophagus – stomach – gall bladder & liver – pancreas – small intestine – large intestine • Role – to extract nutrients and water from ingested food and beverages – to conveniently store and eliminate all leftover waste products
  4. 4. Your Are What You Eat By mass, your body is made of •Mostly water, then protein & lipids – Less than 5% is made up of carbohydrates and minerals
  5. 5. Food Basics • Non-food additives in processed foods: – artificial colors & sweeteners (dyes, aspartame, HFCS) – chemical preservatives (nitrates, BHT/BHA) – flavor enhancers (MSG) Organic molecules  Basic components of food:  Carbohydrates (simple & complex)  Proteins  Fats  Vitamins  Minerals  Fiber  Water
  6. 6. Nutrients • 3 Types of Nutrients – Carbohydrates – fuel for all cell functions • 60% of calories – Lipids (fats) – stored energy, insulation & membrane structure • 30% of calories – Proteins – many cell functions • 10% of calories
  7. 7. What Are Calories? • Calories measure the thermal energy required to heat water – 1 Calorie (capital) = 1,000 calories = 1 kcal – 1 gram of water = 1 cubic centimeter (cc) – 1 kg water = 1,000 cc = a 10x10x10 cm cube of water  Calories are a unit of thermal energy (heat)  Food Calories measure the amount of energy food gives your body The average adult needs ~ 2,000 Cal per day.
  8. 8. Calories (kcal) 110 150 160 13 280 210 210 70 105 220 35 150
  9. 9. Understanding Nutrition Labels
  10. 10. RDA - Recommended Daily Allowance % of Diet Nutrient Needed Amount Needed Food with This Nutritional Value Calories 2000 calories •11 Taco Bell Tacos (or 5½ beef Chalupas) •8 Pancakes with butter & syrup •1 Little Caesar’s cheese pizza 30% Total FAT 65 grams (1 g = 9 calories) •1 ¼ cups of Trail Mix (with chocolate chips) •1 ½ McDonald's sausage egg biscuit •6 Fried Chicken Wings Sodium 2400 milligrams •1 teaspoon of table salt •3 dill pickles 60% Total CARBOHYDRATE 300 grams (1 g = 4 calories) •2 cups of White Rice •3 cups of Grape Juice Dietary Fiber 25 grams •1 ½ cups of Refried Beans •3 ½ cups of Raisin Bran cereal 10% Total PROTEIN 50 grams (1 g = 4 calories) •1 ½ cups of Cottage Cheese •3 Chicken Drumsticks •1 Cup of Peanuts Vitamin C 60 mg •1 Kiwi Fruit •1 Apple or Orange Calcium 1200 mg •1 glass of Skim Milk •10 cups of Beans Iron 12 mg •2 cups of Spinach •450 g of Beef
  11. 11. Find the Food Game Which team can find the following values? 1.Any food with less than 50 Total Calories 2.A food with over 70 grams of carbohydrate. 3.A grain with more than 3 grams of fiber. 4.A grain with 5 or more grams of protein. 5.A protein with less than 400 g sodium. 6.A protein with less than 5 grams of fat. 7.A dessert with no total fat. 8.A dessert with more than 25%DV saturated fat. 9.Two foods that together offer 100%DV vitamin C. 10. A food with at least 100 mg of potassium.
  12. 12. Find the Food Game 11. A snack with less than 20 g carbohydrates. 12. A snack with 50% or more of any one vitamin or mineral. 13. A collection of foods that together offer 100%DV of iron. 14. A food rich in vitamin D (more than 20%DV). 15. A food rich in vitamin A (more than 20%DV). 16. A complete breakfast (fruit or veggie/protein/grain) under 550 calories that provides at least 35%DV of calcium. 17. A complete lunch or dinner (veggie/protein/grain) that is under 650 calories and has 25%DV or less of sodium. 18. Make a sandwich with the highest %DV for fiber, iron, and calcium, AND the least saturated fat, sodium, and sugars. **What you make is what you will get to EAT!
  13. 13. A Well-Balanced Diet
  14. 14. Macronutrients Nutrient Function Food Source Building Block Examples Carbohydrate Fast (easy-access) energy Fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy & starchy foods Saccharides (sugars) Glucose, Dextrose, Maltose, Lactose, Fructose, Cellulose Fat Stored energy, insulation, vitamin storage, hormone- building, cell membranes Animal fats & vegetable oils Fatty Acids Saturated & Unsaturated fats Protein Building cell structures, oxygen transport, immune defenses, & chemical reactions Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, nuts, dairy, legumes Amino Acids Membrane receptors, hemoglobin, antibodies, enzymes
  15. 15. Macronutrients Nutrients your body needs in large amounts: •Carbohydrates – Quick fuel for cell functions •Lipids – Stored energy, insulation & cushioning, vitamin storage, and cell membrane structure •Proteins – many cell functions (reactions & building cell structures)
  16. 16. Carbohydrates • Fast fuel for cell functions • In fruits, vegetables & grains • Building block = saccharides (sugars) • All carbs are NOT equal! – some are better for you than others C6H12O6
  17. 17. Carbohydrate Digestion, 1g = 4cal Polysaccharide Chain Monosaccharides 1. Saliva begins to break down sugars – simple sugars break down quickly – complex carbohydrates take longer to digest (fiber & starch) 2. In stomach, most carbs have already been digested into single or double sugars (mono- or disaccharides) – some glucose diffuses into bloodstream here (active transport) 3. Intestines absorb remaining carbohydrates – most sugars are first sent to the liver for conversion to into glucose and release into the bloodstream – excess glucose is stored in the liver (up to 100g) or muscles (up to 500g) as glycogen – with the help of insulin, blood glucose is transported into cells for ATP production 4. Carbs that cannot be used by cells or stored as glycogen are converted into fat Disaccharide s i.e. galactose, fructose glucose  ATP
  18. 18. Lipids (Fats) • Slow/stored fuel for cell functions – also for insulation, cell structure, hormone production & vitamin storage • In animal fats (butter/lard) & vegetable oils (olive/canola/corn) • Building block = fatty acids • NOT all fats are equal! – some are better for you than others – our bodies can make some kinds of fats – others, we can only get through food C12H25COOH
  19. 19. Fat Digestion, 1g = 9cal Fatty Acids  mechanical digestion & bile salts chop up big molecules in intestines  emulsifiers & smooth muscle peristalsis break down big lipids into smaller droplets  pancreatic juices then surround fats as they are further broken up  monoglycerides and fatty acids diffuse into microvilli cells  smooth ER & Golgi process molecules before sending them into bloodstream  fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, & K) tag along with fats as they cross membranes  body uses or stores for energy, to produce hormones, & to replace cell structures Monoglycerides Big Lipid Molecule
  20. 20. Protein Digestion, 1g = 4cal Whole Protein Chain Amino Acids • Stomach acid and enzymes (pepsin) break long chains into short segments • Pancreatic juices break bonds further in the intestine • Amino acids enter intestinal wall cells via active transport or endocytosis – bloodstream carries to cells – DNA provides instructions to build antibodies & hemoglobin, muscle fibers, collagen in skin, & other cell structures Peptide Fragments
  21. 21. Good vs. Bad Nutrients Good Bad Carbohydrates Unprocessed, high in fiber, "whole" natural foods Refined, processed, artificial additives - empty calories examples: Fruits, vegetables, beans, whole grain breads/cereals/pastas candy, baked goods with refined white flour, white pastas, soda pop, sugary juice Fats Mono- and Poly-unsaturated fats, Omega fatty acids Saturated and Trans fats examples: nuts, seeds, avocado, canola, olive, & safflower oils, fish, corn, soy (small bits) meat, dairy, egg yolks, seafood, coconut & palm kernel oils, packaged & fried foods Protein Low or good fat, unprocessed High fat, additives, salty examples: Nuts, seeds, lean beef/chicken/pork, egg whites, fish, grain burgers, hummus, lentils, beans, mozzarella cheese, yogurt bacon, hot dogs, fried shrimp, chicken nuggets, beef jerky, sausage, whole milk, cheddar cheese  Virtually all foods contain some of each type of nutrient  1 cup cooked rice has 5g protein & spaghetti has about 7g protein  1 cup cooked pinto beans has almost 16 g protein AND 45 g carbohydrate  2 tablespoons of peanut butter has 8 g protein, 7 g carbohydrate and 16 g fat