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ECGS Module 12

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Energy in Living Things

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ECGS Module 12

  1. 1. Science is Organized Knowledge Energy and Life Energy Cycles of Living Things Exploring Creation with General ScienceExploring Creation with General Science
  2. 2. Note-Taking 101 • Tip # 3: – Resist distractions. • talking, texting • doodling • day-dreaming (spacing out) • Note-Taking Methods: – Cornell Method – Outlining – Charting – Mind Mapping – Full Sentences
  3. 3. • Use charts WITHIN outline or Cornell notes – especially if presented in a chart/table
  4. 4. Charting Example Kingdom Cell Type Organization Energy Source Examples Monera Prokaryote Photosynthesis or decaying stuff Bacteria & Archaea Protista Single or multi- cellular Photosynthesis or other organisms Protozoa, algae, slime mold Fungi Eukaryote Dead & decaying organisms Plantae Eukaryote Ferns, moss, trees, flowers Animalia Multi-cellular Cow, fish, wasp, bear
  5. 5. Metabolism • METABOLISM: the chemical reactions organisms use to get and use energy. – Every organism needs energy to fuel all the cell functions. – How do organisms GET food? – How do organisms turn that food into ENERGY?
  6. 6. Metabolic Rates • METABOLIC Rate = total energy used per day – BMR: basal metabolic rate • minimum energy required to survive each day – activities beyond surviving require more energy – Endothermic = "warm-blooded" • internal control of body temperature • Higher BMR – takes more energy/food to fuel the mechanisms of homeostasis – Ectothermic = "cold-blooded" • no internal mechanism to maintain a stable body temperature – requires less food/energy
  7. 7. How Organisms GET Energy • All living things need energy to live & grow. – Producers • Make own food (autotrophs) – Consumers • Get food from other living things (heterotrophs) – Decomposers • Get food from dead organisms & break it down
  8. 8. Producers • Autotroph = “self-nourishment” • In cells with chloroplasts – organelles where photosynthesis occurs • Sun's energy powers the chemical reaction: – CO2 & H2O IN – Sugar molecules OUT • Producers get their energy by producing (making) their own food. – Plants, Algae, some Bacteria Chloroplast - Oxygen waste out
  9. 9. Consumers • Consumers get their energy from consuming (eating) other living things. – Animals, Protozoa • Heterotroph = "other-nourishment" • Food must be broken down into tiny molecules – Digestion • Once inside a cell, food molecules are “burned” for energy
  10. 10. Types of Consumers • Herbivores (plant eaters) • sheep, horses, caterpillars eat ONLY plants • Carnivores (animal eaters) • fish eat insects, lions eat giraffe, hawks eat owls – Scavengers (eat dead animals) • wolves, hyenas & vultures eat dead animals • Omnivores (eat both animals and plants) • bears eat fish and berries, people eat steak & salad
  11. 11. Decomposers • Decomposers get their energy from breaking down dead organisms. – Fungi, most Bacteria, & some insects • worms, pill bugs, centipedes, flies, etc. – Break down dead matter by releasing enzymes • Absorb molecules as “food” • recycle nutrients back into soil
  12. 12. Experiments 12.1 & 12.2 Combustion Reactions
  13. 13. Cellular Respiration Your Cell’s Combustion Reaction Sugar Oxygen Carbon dioxide Water
  14. 14. How Organisms USE Energy • Once “food” (a sugar molecule) is obtained, it must be “burned” to release the energy. • This is a type of combustion – Sugar (glucose) & Oxygen (O2) IN – ATP Energy OUT • Water & Carbon Dioxide waste out • Takes place mostly in cell mitochondria Mitochondria Glucose O2 CO2 H2O ATP
  15. 15. Ecosystem Roles Role How it gets Energy Energy Source Kingdoms Examples Producer Autotroph – makes own food The sun – photosyn thesis Plantae, Protista, Monera Trees, flowers, algae, euglena, seaweed, & some bacteria Consumers - Herbivores - Carnivores - Omnivores Heterotroph – has to eat Other living organism s Animalia, Protista Cow, squirrel, humans, birds, protozoa (amoeba) Decomposer Heterotroph – has to eat Dead & decaying organism s Fungi, Monera, Animalia Mold, yeast, mushrooms, most bacteria, worms, flies
  16. 16. Macronutrients Nutrients your body needs in large amounts: •Carbohydrates – Quick fuel for cell functions •Lipids – Stored energy, insulation & cushioning, vitamin storage, and cell membrane structure •Proteins – many cell functions (reactions & building cell structures)
  17. 17. Carbohydrates • Fast fuel for cell functions • Building block = saccharides (sugars) • All carbs are NOT equal! – some are better for you than others C6H12O6
  18. 18. Monosaccharides • Immediately absorbed into blood • Taste very sweet –Glucose –Fructose –Dextrose MonoMonosaccharides aresaccharides are singlesingle saccharides.saccharides.
  19. 19. Disaccharides DiDisaccharides aresaccharides are twotwo linked monosaccharides.linked monosaccharides. •Very quickly absorbed into blood •Less sweet than monosaccharides –Sucrose (table sugar) –Lactose (in milk) –Maltose (from starch) Table Sugar
  20. 20. Polysaccharides Amylose often has 300 – 600 linked glucose molecules. PolyPolysaccharides aresaccharides are manymany linked saccharides.linked saccharides. •Must be broken down before being absorbed into blood •Stringy and only slightly sweet –Amylose (starch) –Cellulose • the stringy/tough fibers in plant roots, stems & fruit/vegetable skins • provides dietary fiber –Glycogen • in animals (in the liver)
  21. 21. Fats • Slow/stored fuel for cell functions – also for insulation, cell structure, hormone production & vitamin storage • Building block = fatty acids • NOT all fats are equal! – some are better for you than others – our bodies can make some kinds of fats – others, we can only get through food C12H25COOH
  22. 22. Fatty Acids • SATURATED FATS: every carbon atom is joined to another carbon atom by a single bond (and 2 hydrogen atoms). • found in animals • "bad" fat • UNSATURATED FATS: carbon atoms are joined by double bonds (w/o H's). • found in vegetables and fish • "good" fat
  23. 23. Proteins • Not used for energy – building cell structures (membrane receptors, collagen in hair/nails), – O2 transport (hemoglobin) – immune defense (antibodies) – enzymes speed chemical reactions • Building blocks = amino acids
  24. 24. Proteins • Proteins have many different jobsProteins have many different jobs • function is often dictated by shapefunction is often dictated by shape • shape is determined by the aminoshape is determined by the amino acid sequence that affects foldingacid sequence that affects folding • Examples: hemoglobin, flagella,Examples: hemoglobin, flagella, membrane receptors, hair, antibodiesmembrane receptors, hair, antibodies
  25. 25. Macronutrients Nutrient Function Building Block Examples Carbohydrate Fast (easy-access) energy Saccharides (sugars) Glucose, Sucrose, Dextrose, Maltose, Lactose, Fructose, Cellulose, Amylose Fat Stored energy, insulation, vitamin storage, hormone- building, cell membranes Fatty Acids Saturated & Unsaturated fats Protein Building cell structures, oxygen transport, immune defenses, & chemical reactions Amino Acids Membrane receptors, hemoglobin, antibodies, enzymes
  26. 26. Metabolism Lab Calculating your BMR & Total Calorie Need Diabetes Website

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