There are billions of sucrose molecules in a single grain of refined granulated sugar.
Producers make more food than they need to live. They store excess sugar (glucose/starch) in fruits/vegetables and fat in seeds.
Where does the sugar go? Mitochondria burn it to fuel cell processes. Producers store excess sugar (glucose/starch) in fruits/vegetables and fat in seeds.
Soft, moist, warm = prime environment for decomposers to live & for enzymes to work. Different decomposers often work together, breaking matter down in different ways/stages of the decomposition process.
Candle flame = combustion reaction. - If I place a jar over the flame, it goes out – why? Yes, oxygen is used up in the chemical reaction and it cannot continue. ***Also notice any “fog” or condensation on the inside of the jar. - If I make CO2 (baking soda + vinegar), the flame also goes out – why? CO2 is a gas that is heavier than the mix of gasses that make up the air in this room. It fills the bottom of the bowl, pushing out the room air that contains oxygen. Mirror/breath/condensation: when I exhale, I see water vapor collect on the mirror – why? Where did the water come from? Water is one of the products of a combustion reaction. CO2 in cabbage water, compared to exhaling (through straw) into cabbage water. (Cabbage water is a pH indicator) When carbon dioxide is bubbled through water, a chemical reaction occurs which makes an acid (carbonic acid). In the presence of acid, the chemical in red cabbage turns pink/red. So, when you bubbled carbon dioxide through the cabbage water, the carbon dioxide reacted with the water to make an acid. That acid caused the chemical from the red cabbage to turn pink/red.
CALLED CELLULAR RESPIRATION
Cellulose is the woody part of logs that you burn in your fireplace. You can now see why burning a pine log releases so much heat – there are a lot of energy-releasing covalent bonds there!
Tridecylic Acid, C12H25COOH
ECGS Module 12
Science is Organized Knowledge
Energy and Life
Energy Cycles of Living Things
Exploring Creation with General ScienceExploring Creation with General Science
• Use charts
or Cornell notes
– especially if
presented in a
Kingdom Cell Type Organization Energy Source Examples
Monera Prokaryote Photosynthesis
or decaying stuff
Protista Single or multi-
Fungi Eukaryote Dead & decaying
Plantae Eukaryote Ferns, moss,
Animalia Multi-cellular Cow, fish,
• METABOLISM: the chemical reactions organisms use
to get and use energy.
– Every organism needs energy to
fuel all the cell functions.
– How do organisms GET food?
– How do organisms turn that food into
• METABOLIC Rate = total energy used per day
– BMR: basal metabolic rate
• minimum energy required to survive each day
– activities beyond surviving require more energy
– Endothermic = "warm-blooded"
• internal control of body
• Higher BMR
– takes more energy/food to fuel
the mechanisms of homeostasis
– Ectothermic = "cold-blooded"
• no internal mechanism to maintain
a stable body temperature
– requires less food/energy
How Organisms GET Energy
• All living things need energy to live & grow.
• Make own food (autotrophs)
• Get food from other living
• Get food from dead organisms
& break it down
• Autotroph =
• In cells with chloroplasts
– organelles where
• Sun's energy powers the
– CO2 & H2O IN
– Sugar molecules OUT
• Producers get their energy by
producing (making) their own food.
– Plants, Algae, some Bacteria
- Oxygen waste out
• Consumers get their energy from
consuming (eating) other living things.
– Animals, Protozoa
• Heterotroph =
• Food must be broken down
into tiny molecules
• Once inside a cell, food
molecules are “burned”
Types of Consumers
• Herbivores (plant eaters)
• sheep, horses, caterpillars eat ONLY plants
• Carnivores (animal eaters)
• fish eat insects, lions eat giraffe, hawks eat owls
– Scavengers (eat dead animals)
• wolves, hyenas & vultures eat dead animals
• Omnivores (eat both animals and plants)
• bears eat fish and berries, people eat steak & salad
• Decomposers get their energy
from breaking down dead
– Fungi, most Bacteria, &
• worms, pill bugs, centipedes, flies, etc.
– Break down dead matter by
• Absorb molecules as “food”
• recycle nutrients back into soil
Your Cell’s Combustion Reaction
How Organisms USE Energy
• Once “food” (a sugar molecule) is obtained,
it must be “burned” to release the energy.
• This is a type of
– Sugar (glucose) & Oxygen
– ATP Energy OUT
• Water & Carbon
Dioxide waste out
• Takes place mostly in
Role How it gets
Producer Autotroph –
The sun –
has to eat
Decomposer Heterotroph –
has to eat
Nutrients your body needs
in large amounts:
– Quick fuel for cell functions
– Stored energy, insulation &
cushioning, vitamin storage,
and cell membrane structure
– many cell functions (reactions
& building cell structures)
• Fast fuel for cell functions
• Building block = saccharides
• All carbs are
– some are better
for you than others
• Immediately absorbed into blood
• Taste very sweet
MonoMonosaccharides aresaccharides are singlesingle saccharides.saccharides.
DiDisaccharides aresaccharides are twotwo linked monosaccharides.linked monosaccharides.
•Very quickly absorbed into blood
•Less sweet than monosaccharides
–Sucrose (table sugar)
–Lactose (in milk)
–Maltose (from starch)
has 300 – 600
PolyPolysaccharides aresaccharides are manymany linked saccharides.linked saccharides.
•Must be broken down before being absorbed into blood
•Stringy and only slightly sweet
• the stringy/tough fibers in plant roots, stems & fruit/vegetable skins
• provides dietary fiber
• in animals (in the liver)
• Slow/stored fuel for cell functions
– also for insulation, cell structure,
hormone production & vitamin storage
• Building block = fatty acids
• NOT all fats are equal!
– some are better
for you than others
– our bodies can make some kinds of fats
– others, we can only get through food
• SATURATED FATS: every carbon atom is joined to another carbon atom by
a single bond (and 2 hydrogen atoms).
• found in animals
• "bad" fat
• UNSATURATED FATS: carbon atoms are joined by double bonds (w/o
• found in vegetables and fish
• "good" fat
• Not used for energy
– building cell structures
collagen in hair/nails),
– O2 transport (hemoglobin)
– immune defense (antibodies)
– enzymes speed chemical
• Building blocks = amino acids
• Proteins have many different jobsProteins have many different jobs
• function is often dictated by shapefunction is often dictated by shape
• shape is determined by the aminoshape is determined by the amino
acid sequence that affects foldingacid sequence that affects folding
• Examples: hemoglobin, flagella,Examples: hemoglobin, flagella,
membrane receptors, hair, antibodiesmembrane receptors, hair, antibodies
Nutrient Function Building Block Examples
Fat Stored energy,
Protein Building cell
Calculating your BMR &
Total Calorie Need