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The Musculoskeletal System

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Muscles and bones

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The Musculoskeletal System

  1. 1. Life Science Human Body Systems Bones & Muscles
  2. 2. In your lab notebook, please answer as best you can: Week 18 Review Quiz Bonus: List the hierarchy of life from atoms to organism. - atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organism 1. What does skin protect against? • Damage, disease, dehydration, and temperature extremes 2. Name the three skin layers. • Hypodermis, Dermis, Epidermis 3. True or False? Sebaceous glands in the epidermis produce sweat that helps regulate body temperature. • False (sebaceous glands are located in the dermis and produce oils) 4. Name three environmental factors that contribute to skin problems such as dermatitis, acne, excessive wrinkling, and skin cancer. • hormones, grease from cosmetics or environment, contact, stress, soaps, dryness, allergens, sunlight, fair-skinned, radiation 5. What fills the cells of the hypodermis, helping to insulate and cushion different parts of the body? • Fat
  3. 3. Quick Review: Skin  What does skin protect against?  Name the 3 skin layers.  What is found in each layer?  How does skin regulate body temperature?  List some environmental factors that can cause dermatitis, acne, or skin cancer? Epidermis, Dermis, Hypodermis damage, disease, dehydration, heat & cold sweat glands & hair/pili hormones, grease from cosmetics or environment, contact, stress, soaps, dryness, allergens, sunlight, fair-skinned, radiation Epidermis - tight, thin sheets, melanocytes, touch/pain/heat receptors Dermis - hair, sweat & oil glands, nerves, blood vessels, collagen/elastin Hypodermis - fat
  4. 4. Week 18 Lab Chicken Wing Dissection Homologous Human Features: • Upper Wing: humerus (upper arm and shoulder) • Lower Wing: radius & ulna (forearm) • Wingtip: carpals & metacarpals (hand - wrist/fingers)
  5. 5. Chicken Wing Dissection
  6. 6. Skeletal System • Can you name any? • What do they do? 1 - skull 2 - mandible 3 - clavicle 4 - scapula 5 - ribs 6 - ulna 7 - radius 8 - ilium 9 - coccyx 10 - metacarpals 11 - femur 12 - fibula 13 - tibia 14 - metatarsals 15 - phalanges of foot 16 - tarsals 17 - patella 18 - phalanges of hand 19 - carpals 20 - sacrum 21 - lumbar vertebrae 22 - thoracic vertebrae 23 - humerus 24 - sternum 25 - cervical vertebrae
  7. 7. Adult Human Skeleton - 206 bones • Appendicular Skeleton – 126 bones  Axial Skeleton  80 bones "Appendages" "Axis"
  8. 8. What Your Bones Do For You • Provide support – otherwise we'd all be like slugs • Protect fragile organs – rib cage, skull, pelvis • Allow for body movement – muscles attach and move by contracting • Produce blood cells – white & red blood cells made in marrow • Store important minerals – calcium and phosphorus
  9. 9. Bone Shapes  Long Bone  Head – Body - Head  Femur, Tibia  Humerus  Radius, Ulna  Phalanges  Short Bone  As wide as they are long  wrist  ankles  Flat Bone  Provides Protection  Skull  Ribs  Scapula  Irregular Bone  don't fit in any other category  facial bones  ear bones
  10. 10. Specialized Bone Tissues • Compact Bone – solid/dense, hard, outer portion • Spongy Bone – filled with tiny holes, lighter weight • Bone Marrow – In central medullary cavity of bones • Red bone marrow – red & white blood cells produced here – 200 billion new blood cells are made by the bone marrow every day • Yellow bone marrow – Some fats stored here Medullary Cavity Spongy Bone Compact Bone
  11. 11. Compact Bone Tissue • Bone Matrix – Special cells produce/deposit: – Minerals for strength » calcium & phosphate – Collagen for flexibility » long, stringy proteins
  12. 12. Experiment 11.1 Strength vs. Flexibility Osteoporosis Brittle Bone Disease
  13. 13. Bone Cells matrix Secrete matrix (build bone) Destroy matrix (bone resorption) Maintain matrix
  14. 14. Joints – Where Bone Meets Bone • Hinge – elbow, knee, fingers • moves in only one direction • Gliding (Planar) – Vertebrae, wrist, ankle • Slides across planar surface • Ball & Socket – hip, shoulder • Rotates nearly 360o • Saddle – Thumb
  15. 15. Levers in the Body What type of lever is formed when the biceps contract? Class 3 Lever Class 1 Lever What type of lever is formed when the triceps contract?
  16. 16. Human Machine What type of simple machine is a tooth?
  17. 17. Connective Tissues • Cartilage – Allows joints to slide – cushions between bones – supports soft tissue • Synovial fluid – Lubricates & cushions • Ligament – Hold bones together • Tendon – attach muscles • To bone or other muscles
  18. 18. Chicken Leg Dissection Skin, Muscles, & Bones
  19. 19. • Can you name any? • What do they do? Muscular System 1 Platysma 2 Pectoralis major 3 Deltoid 4 Latissimus dorsi 5 Triceps brachii 6 Biceps brachii 7 Brachialis 8 Brachioradialis 9 Pronator teres 10 Flexor carpi radialis 11 Palmaris longus 12 Tensor fasciae latae 13 Pectineus 14 Adductor longus 15 Sartorius 16 Quadriceps femoris 17 Vastus lateralis 18 Vastus medialis 19 Gastrocnemius 20 Tibialis anterior 21 Extensor digitorum longus 22 Peroneus longus 23 Soleus 24 Gracilis 25 Vastus intermedius 26 Pectineus 27 Iliopsoas 28 Flexor carpi ulnaris 29 Flexor digitorum profundus 30 Rectus abdominis 31 Internal abodminal oblique 32 External abdominal oblique 33 Rectus sheath 34 Serratus anterior 35 Pectoralis minor 36 Intercostal m. 37 Trapezius 38 Sternocleidomastoid
  20. 20. What are Muscles For? • Your body has almost 650 different muscles • muscles comprise 40 - 50% of total body weight • What do they enable you to do? – run, walk, jump, sit, sing, wave – smile, chew, cough, blink, pee – heart to beat, lungs to breathe – food to move through body
  21. 21. Muscle Tissues • 3 types of muscle cells: – Cardiac (myocardium - heart muscle pumps blood) – Skeletal (attach to bones for movement) – Smooth (line stomach, intestines, & blood vessels)
  22. 22. Muscles you Don't Control • Involuntary Muscles – control via autonomic nerve signals (not aware of or in conscious control) – smooth muscle • digestive system (esophagus, stomach, intestines) – peristalsis (wave-like motion) • respiratory system (bronchi) – cardiac muscle • heart (myocardium)
  23. 23. Muscles You Control • Voluntary Muscles – conscious control (I choose to run, smile, wave, etc.) – skeletal muscle anchored to bone • appendages (arms, legs, fingers, toes) – biceps, triceps, deltoid, quadriceps, gluteals • trunk (chest, back, abdomen) – abdominals, pectorals, latissimus dorsi, trapezius, sphincters • head (face, cranium) – jaw, eyes, tongue, facial expression
  24. 24. Skeletal Muscles • ONLY pull (cannot push) • Work in pairs – example: biceps & triceps – one pulls (contracts/shortens) while it's pair relaxes (lengthens)  Each muscle moves one bone which it is anchored to by a tendon
  25. 25. Well Connected Muscles • Every single muscle cell is connected to a nerve that signals it to contract – seizures occur when the brain sends signals to all skeletal muscles at once, causing opposing muscles to contract at the same time • Every muscle cell has blood vessels supplying it with oxygen & nutrients

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