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Unit 2 Review


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Matter, Earth's Resources, & Hydrosphere

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Unit 2 Review

  1. 1. Hydrosphere Review Water's Special Properties & The Water Cycle  
  2. 2. In your lab notebook, please answer as best you can: 1. Where do glaciers form?  • High elevations & latitudes (polar regions) where more snow falls than  melts each year. 1. Where do icebergs come from?  • Glaciers (chunks of ice break off into the sea from tidewater glaciers) 3.  True or False: glacial ice moves out in all directions from the center of  greatest accumulation of a confined glacier. • False– confined glaciers move downhill in one direction  4. Chunks of ice breaking off into the sea from tidewater glaciers is called: • Calving 4. What does “permeable” mean?  • Contains pores (tiny pockets or spaces) that water can run through. Bonus Question: How is sea ice different than icebergs? -Sea ice = thin sheets from frozen ocean water -Icebergs = big chunks of glacier ice Week 15 Review Quiz 
  3. 3. The Wat er Cycl e & Gl aci ers 1. The amount of Earth’s FRESH water which can be found flowing in lakes, streams, rivers, and wetlands. 0.3% 2. Percentage of Earth’s FRESH water stored underground in aquifers and in the soil? 30.1% 3. Earth’s fresh water trapped in glaciers & sea ice? 68.7% 4. A region surrounded by higher ground from which precipitation drains into a river system: watershed 5. An aquifer is an underground layer of permeable rock, sediment, or soil that contains water. 6. The top of the saturated zone of underground water levels in an area is referred to as the water table 7. What happens when soil becomes fully saturated with precipitation? Puddles, ponding, and flooding can occur
  4. 4. Wat er Cycl e & Gl aci ers worksheet 8. What affect do homes and farms using well water (pumped from aquifers) have on the water table if they pull water out faster than precipitation can fill it back up? The water table is lowered in that area. 9. WHY will precipitation percolate down into an aquifer more quickly if the surface layer is rocky rather than composed of fine clay particles? Larger rock and soil particles have more spaces between them for water to fill and flow through. 10. Describe how a snowflake becomes part of a glacier. After about a year, a snowflake that gets buried and pressed down below layers of snow above becomes firn (rounded ice globs). With more pressure, all the air is pushed out an solid glacier ice is formed.
  5. 5. Wat er Cycl e & Gl aci ers worksheet 11. Explain the difference between these types of glaciers: Confined: form at high elevations on the sides of mountains and flow downhill Unconfined: form in polar regions, cover entire mountain ranges, islands, or continents, & flow out from the center 12. Alpine glaciers move in part due to basal sliding as the heavy ice is pulled by gravity downhill. 13. Three factors affect the speed of glacial movement: Thickness of the ice Temperature of the ice. Steepness of the glacial slope 14. What direction does the ice flow in polar ice caps and ice sheets? - ice flows out in all directions from the point of greatest accumulation (snowfall) 15. Give a short definition for each of the following: Piedmont glacier: spreads out at the bottom of a valley Tidewater glacier: a glacier that runs down into the ocean
  6. 6. Wat er Cycl e & Gl aci ers worksheet Tidewater glacier: a glacier that meets the ocean Cirque: bowl-shaped depression left by an alpine glacier Moraine: line of debris (deposited rock & soil) left by glacier Crevasse: deep cracks in a glacier Glacial fl­­­our:­­­ fine-ground rocks (silt) made by glacial erosion- Tarn: small mountain lake left behind by a glacier 16. The process of solid matter (such as ice) changing directly into a gas (water vapor) is called: sublimation 17. Explain how glaciers erode Earth’s surface: Glacial quarrying (plucking): rocks are frozen into the glacier & then carried away Abrasion: rock debris frozen into the glacier scrapes & grinds away the bedrock below 18. What two factors determine whether a glacier grows bigger or retreat? Precipitation & temperature 19. Explain where the water frozen in icebergs comes from. Snowfall is compacted into glaciers, which break off into the ocean to form icebergs
  7. 7. Wat er Cycl e & Gl aci ers worksheet Precipitation Transport Condensation Evaporation Ocean Storage Transpiration Infiltration Runoff Aquifer Groundwater Surface Storage Absorption Surface Flow Percolation
  8. 8. • NATURAL RESOURCE: – Anything naturally occurring on our planet that is necessary or useful to humans Earth’s Resources • Renewable Resource: Resources that can be replenished by natural processes at least as quickly as they are used. • Sunlight • Fresh Water, Hydroelectric energy • Clean Air, Wind energy • Land (for agriculture) • Plants & Animals (Biomass Fuels) • Geothermal energy • Nonrenewable Resource: Resources being used up faster than they can be replaced by natural processes. • Fossil Fuels • Coal, oil, natural gas • Minerals • Metals, gems, & nonmetals • Land (for building/mining) • Radioactive Elements  •Nuclear energy
  9. 9. Law of Conservation of Energy • Energy cannot be created or destroyed (1st Law of Thermodynamics) – it can only be converted from one form to another – the total energy in a system must remain constant
  10. 10. Fossil Fuels • Formed when plant material is heated & compressed underground for many years. • Chemical energy in plant molecules is concentrated into a combustible fuel. • Coal – mined out of the ground – Forms from woody plant material • Natural gas – flammable methane gas – found near petroleum, underground • Oil (petroleum) – liquid found underground between folds of rock – Forms from slimy plant material
  11. 11. Fossil Fuels • Coal – burned for electricity, heat, and in factories • Natural gas – used to heat homes, generate electricity, & for manufacturing • Oil – Gasoline & Diesel fuel • for transportation (cars, trucks, airplanes, ships, trains) – Lubricants • petroleum jelly, grease, engine oil – Plastics – Asphalt • paved roads, parking lots, etc. – Kerosene, propane, butane • burned for light/heat
  12. 12. Matter  Atoms of the same kind combine to form a pure elementelement  i.e. gold (Au), oxygen (O), sodium (Na), or argon (Ar)i.e. gold (Au), oxygen (O), sodium (Na), or argon (Ar)  Two or more atoms joined together is called a molecule  i.e. water (H2O), ozone (O3), or carbon dioxide (CO2)  Two or more types of atoms joined together = a compoundcompound  Of the molecules listed above, water and CO2 are compounds  Ozone is not a compound because it is made of only oxygen atoms. Interactive Periodic Table
  13. 13. Atoms • Smallest possible unit into which matter can be divided, while still maintaining its properties. • Made up of: – protons – neutrons – electrons For example, you can take a book and divide it into chapters, paragraphs, sentences and words. You could even chop up the words into letters, but they wouldn’t work together to make sense any more, and you certainly wouldn’t have a book anymore. Atoms are like words, made up of smaller parts (letters), but not sensibly divisible. Atoms join together to form molecules (sentences). Even different molecules can be combined to form unique mixtures (paragraphs). + - + + + - - - - +
  14. 14. Changes of State • What affects a substance’s physical state? – Temperature • Adding heat (energy) excites the atoms/molecules, causing them to move faster and more randomly (entropy) – Pressure • Adding pressure “immobilizes” or constrains the atoms/molecules – i.e. Earth’s inner core is solid even though temperatures are high • Gases are the only state of matter than can be compressed (made denser with pressure) – Atomic Interactions • Bonding between atoms and/or molecules • i.e. Water’s H-bonding gives it a high boiling point
  15. 15. The Carbon Cycle C6H12O6 CO2 (dissolved) CO2 CO2 Carbon compounds Geosphere Hydrosphere
  16. 16. Chemical Formulas • CO2, H2O, C6H12O6 • Show how many and which type of atoms make a single molecule • How many atoms form one water molecule? • 3: 1 oxygen and 2 O H H Chemical bond
  17. 17. Polarity • Oxygen hogs the electrons • Hydrogen atoms don't get their fair share of "shared electron time" • Water is a polar molecule – Oxygen end of molecule = slight negative charge – H end = slightly positive • NOT an ion (no net charge)
  18. 18. Hydrogen Bonding • Attraction between oppositely charged regions of water molecules • Each molecule can have H-bonds with four other water molecules • Weak bonds continually break & reform
  19. 19. Frozen Water's Density • Water freezes at 0° C (32o F) • H2O is most dense at 4° C (as a liquid) – In most other substances, the solid phase is most dense • Crystal lattice formation the result of water's polarity • Density of solid H2O is 9% less than liquid H2O
  20. 20. Cohesion & Adhesion • Cohesion: attraction between particles of the same substance (i.e. water molecules) – Results in Surface Tension • molecules at the surface cling together • Adhesion: Attraction between particles of different substances (i.e. water and glass) – Explains capillary action • water molecules “tow” each other along in a thin tube
  21. 21. Water Resists Temperature Changes • Heat = how fast molecules are moving • Water's polarity makes the molecules both "sticky" and "slippery" (like magnets that attract & repel) – stickiness: resistant to vaporizing because of cohesion – slipperiness: resistant to freezing because they keep sliding around • Specific Heat = energy needed to raise or lower 1g of anything by 1° C – Water has a very high specific heat • Water stabilizes air temperatures – Absorbs/releases large amounts of heat with only a slight change in its own temperature
  22. 22. Water Vapor • Water boils at 100°C (212o F) – LOTS of energy to break hydrogen bonds • Evaporation can occur at much lower temperatures, when molecules at the surface of a liquid change to their gas state • Water vapor in atmosphere resists temperature changes • Evaporation absorbs lots of heat energy – Evaporative cooling (sweat, panting, seashore)
  23. 23. Groundwater • Precipitation seeps down through soil & rock • Layers act as filters that trap contaminants • Water table: imaginary line between the water-logged soil and the soil not saturated with water – varies with seasonal precipitation, pumping, & geography • Two types of aquifers: – unconfined: water supply which has a solid layer of rock under it, but a permeable layer of rocks above it – confined: water supply sandwiched between two solid rock layers through which water cannot pass • pressure builds up and can form an artesian well
  24. 24. Earth's Water Distribution • 97% in oceans (salt water) • 2% trapped in glaciers, icebergs and polar ice caps • .7% groundwater and soil moisture • .01 % surface fresh water (lakes, rivers, wetlands) • .001% atmospheric moisture (rain, dew, water vapor)
  25. 25. Glaciers – Confined valley glaciers move down mountainsides – Unconfined polar ice caps & ice sheets flow outward in all directions from a central point – Typically move 1 - 3 meters each day but can have “surges” of faster • Years of continual snows compress layers below – Firn (hard-packed ice) – Polar or high-elevation areas • Thick layers get heavy/dense • Insulated bottom layer melts & gravity pulls downhill
  26. 26. Glacial Erosion • Plucking: rocks are picked up & carried • Abrasion: frozen debris grinds away bedrock below as glacier flows down • Rocks & soil are deposited into lines of debris called moraines • Crevasses form when glaciers move quickly (up to 30 m/day) • Retreat: melting occurs faster than snow accumulates
  27. 27. animation
  28. 28. Icebergs • Tidewater glaciers reach the ocean or lake. • Calving occurs as big chunks of the glacier fall off into the ocean to become icebergs – Ice Shelf = portion of connected glacier floating on water (may be miles wide/long) – 90% of iceberg remains below water surface
  29. 29. Humidity • Absolute humidity: tells the amount of moisture in the air – warm air holds more water vapor than cool air – example: absolute humidity of 8.7 mg/m3 at 20o C • Relative humidity - tells how much water the air is holding compared to its saturation point (the most it could hold) at a certain temperature – 50% humidity means the air is holding half of the moisture it is able to hold at that temperature 8.7
  30. 30. Dew • Ground-level condensation – vapor condenses into liquid droplets as it touches cooler ground surfaces • Dew Point = temp. at which atmospheric vapor condenses – varies depending on the humidity (how much vapor is in the air)
  31. 31. Frost • Frozen dew – water vapor skips liquid form and freezes as it touches below 0o C ground surfaces