Like a control tower The brain is made up of many specialized areas that work together:• The cortex is the outermost layer of brain cells. Thinking and voluntary movements begin in the cortex.(outer gray matter = cell bodies of neurons, deeper white matter = axons w/ myelin) • The brain stem is between the spinal cord and the rest of the brain. Basic functions like breathing and sleep are controlled here.• The basal ganglia are a cluster of structures in the center of the brain. The basal ganglia coordinate messages between multiple other brain areas.• The cerebellum is at the base and the back of the brain. The cerebellum is responsible for coordination and balance.The brain is also divided into several lobes:• The frontal lobes are responsible for problem solving and judgment and motor function.• The parietal lobes manage sensation, handwriting, and body position.• The temporal lobes are involved with memory and hearing.• The occipital lobes contain the brain&apos;s visual processing system. The brain is surrounded by a layer of tissue called the meninges. The skull (cranium) helps protect the brain from injury.
CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) fills the subarachnoid space 3 layers of the meninges: dura, pia, and arachnoid Meningitis = infection or inflammation of the meninges
Some theorize that frontal lobe size/density denotes higher thinking. Others have concocted an &quot;encephalization quotient,&quot; which is the ratio of actual brain mass relative to the predicted brain mass for an animal’s size (based off the assumption that larger animals require slightly less brain matter relative to their size compared to very small animals). By this metric, at least, humans come out on top, with an EQ of 7.5 far surpassing the dolphin’s 5.3 and the mouse’s measly 0.5.
The hippocampus is the part of the brain that is involved in memory forming, organizing, and storing. It is a limbic system structure that is particularly important in forming new memories and connecting emotions and senses, such as smell and sound, to memories. The hippocampus is a horseshoe shaped paired structure, with one hippocampus located in the left brain hemisphere and the other in the right hemisphere. The hippocampus acts as a memory indexer by sending memories out to the appropriate part of the cerebral hemisphere for long-term storage and retrieving them when necessary.
33 vertebrae in the human spine spinal cord injuries are permanent and result in paralysis to all muscles below the injured area connects peripheral nerves with brain control
Autonomic: Sympathetic revs up (fight or flight) and Parasympathetic calms down (rest and digest)
Example is autonomic - you don&apos;t process in cerebrum nor consciously control Sensory nerve: carotid body to brain stem Motor nerve: brain stem to ribs/diaphragm
There are approximately 100 billion (100,000,000,000) neurons in the human brain. To get an idea of how many 100 billion is, think of this: Assume that you were going to count all 100 billion cells at a rate of 1 cell per second. How long would it take you to count all 100 billion cells? My calculations say it would take about 3,171 years!. Do the math yourself. (Here is a hint on the math: there are 60 seconds in a minute; 60 minutes in an hour; 24 hours in a day; 365 days in a year.) By the way, my calculations did NOT take &quot;leap years&quot; into account. Actually, it would probably take a lot longer than 3,171 years because it takes more than 1 second to say the large numbers. Here is another way to think of 100 billion: Assume the cell body of one neuron is 10 microns wide (this is just an assumption because neurons come in many different sizes. However, 10 microns is small; smaller than the period at the end of this sentence). Ok...if you were able to line up all 100 billion neurons in a straight line, how long would your line be? Check my math!! 1 neuron = 10 microns wide10 neurons = 100 microns wide100 neurons = 1000 microns wide = 1 mm wide1,000 neurons = 10 mm wide = 1 cm wide100,000 neurons = 100 cm wide = 1 m wide100,000,000 neurons = 1000 m = 1 km10,000,000,000 neurons = 100 km 100,000,000,000 neurons = 1000 km (approximately 600 miles) Although all the neurons lined up side by side would stretch 1000 km, the line would be only 10 microns wide...invisible to the naked eye!!! To get an idea of how small a neuron is, let&apos;s do some more math: The dot on top of this &quot;i&quot; is approximately 0.5 mm (500 microns or 0.02 in) in diameter. Therefore, if you assume a neuron is 10 microns in diameter, you could squeeze in 50 neurons side-by-side across the dot. However, you could squeeze in only 5 large (100 micron diameter) neurons.
Motor neurons are multipolar, with dendrites near the cell body, so ask some students to hold their left hand close to their body. Each person should be about arms length away from the next person. When the leader says &quot;GO,&quot; the person at the beginning of the line (an afferent sensory receptor neuron of the PNS) starts the signal transmission by placing his or her &quot;neurotransmitter&quot; into the hand of the adjacent person. Once this message is received, this second neuron (perhaps a spinal cord neuron of the CNS) places its neurotransmitter into the dendrite of the next neuron and lets go of the “giving “ neuron’s transmitters. (Each person’s “terminal button” hand must retrieve their neurotransmitters, which takes energy, just like the re-uptake of an actual neuron.) The third neuron (a brain cell) then places its neurotransmitters into the dendrites of the next neuron (another spinal neuron) and the &quot;signal&quot; travels to the end of the line through an efferent PNS somatic nerve. The transmission is complete when the &quot;signal&quot; goes all the way to the end of the line and an action (contraction of a muscle) occurs. Remember that each &quot;neuron&quot; will pass its own transmitter to the next neuron in line. Each neuron HAS ITS OWN neurotransmitter. What are the parts of a neuron? Measure how long it takes the message to get from the first neuron to the last. Also, measure the distance from the first to the last neuron. Now calculate the speed. How fast did the message travel from first to last neuron? Why do you think the speed of transmission of the model is so slow?
Side effects of marijuana: addictive, lung irritation, increased risk of heart attack (elevates heart rate), anxiety/depression & mental illness, impaired judgment, decreased memory/IQ/learning ability, cancer, (?fertility)
The Nervous System: CNS & PNS
Human Body Systems
Peripheral & Central Nervous System
Bonus: Name as many innate immune defenses as you can.
- Skin barrier, mucus membranes, coughing/sneezing, phagocytes,
inflammation (histamines/mast cells), fever, vomiting, anti-microbial
saliva & tears, stomach acid, competing beneficial microbes
1. What do endocrine glands produce?
1. Name at least 3 endocrine glands.
• pituitary, hypothalamus, pineal, ovaries, adrenal, thyroid, pancreas, testes, placenta
1. A clear, watery fluid that comes from plasma which has seeped into the
spaces between cells near capillaries is called
1. True or False? Lymph nodes contain immune cells which filter pathogens
from blood before returning the fluid back to the circulatory system.
• True (lymph nodes filter interstitial plasma)
1. Which type of white blood cell (WBC) makes antibodies that fight off
• B cells
In your lab notebook, please answer as best you can:
The Nervous System
• Central Nervous System (CNS)
– Spinal Cord
• Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
– Nerves that connect all your body
parts to the spinal cord
• Somatic nerves (voluntary)
– Motor (muscle) & sensory (senses)
• Autonomic nerves
– heart, respiration, digestion (involuntary)
Mr. Egghead Demo
Meninges surrounding the Brain
Does Brain Size Matter?
pig dolphin human
• Men have bigger
brains than women
– Does brain size/volume
Wk 24 Experiment
Brain Dominance Quiz
• Right hemisphere
– controls left side of body
– art, writing
– creativity, intuition,
• Left hemisphere
– controls right side of body
– math, science
– organization, sense of
Inside the Brain
– directs incoming
sensory messages to
proper area of brain
– regulates hunger, thirst,
and body temperature
• Corpus Callosum
– connection between
hemispheres of the
cerebrum that allows
signals to go between
CNS - Spinal Cord
• Information Superhighway
– Carries brain messages out to
• muscles, glands, organs, etc.
– Takes sensory information
from body up to brain
• touch, heat, pain
• blood oxygen & sugar levels
• stomach contents, taste
Peripheral Nervous System
• Afferent Nerves (arrives in the brain)
– Sensory neurons conduct messages from
skin & sense organs to the brain
– Visceral sensory neurons bring info from
visceral organs (muscle stretch, blood O2 &
sugar levels, arterial pressure and what's
in the stomach) up to the brain
• Efferent (exits the brain)
– Somatic motor nerves take commands
from spinal cord to muscles
– Autonomic nerves convey signals from the
brainstem & hypothalamus to the heart,
diaphragm/ribs, digestive tract, glands,
blood vessels, etc.
PNS & CNS Work Together
blood O2 levels
new message out
Ribs & Diaphragm
and breathing rate
Is this SOMATIC or AUTONOMIC?
Which are sensory nerves? Motor nerves?
• Sometimes quick action is needed
– No time to "think" about moving
– CNS is bypassed, so reaction time quickened
– Realization of pain reaches brain after movement occurs
Test Your Reflexes
- The nervous system’s main job is:
1. collecting SENSORY INPUT
2. taking sensory info to the brain for INTEGRATION
3. sending instructions that result in MOTOR OUTPUT
- The central nervous system (CNS) =
the BRAIN & SPINAL CORD
- The peripheral nervous system (PNS) =
SENSORY & MOTOR neurons
- A REFLEX ARC is when a sensory nerve triggers a
motor nerve to react before the brain has a chance to
What is a Nerve?
• There are over 100 billion neurons in the brain alone.
– This doesn't even count "helper" nerve cells (neuroglia)
• Bundles of neurons form each nerve in your body
• Neurons can only send info one way
Synapses - where neurons meet
current to run
length of the
Let’s make a neural pathway!
• Left hand = the dendrites of a neuron
• Your body is the cell body (soma)
• Right arm = an axon (R hand holds neurotransmitters)
• Your right hand is the terminal button which releases
neurotransmitters into the synapse.
• Your “neurotransmitters” should be unique. (Different neurons
use many different types of neurotransmitters.)
Drugs & Alcohol on the Brain
• Illegal drugs have many harmful
affects on the brain:
– Distortion of reality
– Worsening of existing mental or medical
– Damaged brain cells
• Alcohol slows the transmission of
nerve signals, resulting in:
– Uncoordinated muscle control (slurred
speech is caused by inability to correctly
control the muscles used in forming
– Sedation (slowed neural response, loss of
self-control & reasoning)
– False sense of confidence