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Intro to Human Anatomy


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hierarchy of life, integumentary system

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Intro to Human Anatomy

  1. 1. Life Science Human Body Systems Intro to Anatomy & Skin
  2. 2. What is a System in Science? system sys·tem (sĭs'təm) n. • A group of interacting, interdependent elements that work together to form a complex whole. Skeletal System Muscular System Cardiovascular System Digestive System Endocrine System Nervous System Lymphatic System Respiratory System Integumentary System Excretory System
  3. 3. Hierarchy of Life • Atom • Molecule • Cell • Tissue • Organ • System • Organism • Population • Community • Ecosystem • Biosphere
  4. 4. Atoms to Organism
  5. 5. Atoms: the Building Blocks of Matter • Protons (+) & Neutrons (0) in the nucleus • Electrons (-) around the outside in energy “shells” • Atoms link together to form moleculesBeryllium Atom
  6. 6. Molecules: Building Blocks of Cell Structures Nutrient Function Food Source Building Block Examples Carbohydrate Fast (easy-access) energy, converted to ATP Fruits, veggies, grains, dairy & starchy foods Saccharides (sugars) Glucose, Dextrose, Lactose, Fructose, Cellulose Lipid Stored energy, insulation, vitamin storage, hormone- building, cell membranes Animal fats & vegetable oils Fatty Acids Saturated & Unsaturated fats Protein Building cell structures, oxygen transport, immune defenses, & chemical reactions Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, nuts, dairy, legumes Amino Acids Membrane receptors, hemoglobin, antibodies, enzymes Nucleic Acids Cary instructions for protein-building ALL living cells (all foods) contain DNA Nucleotides DNA & RNA H O OH H OHH OH CH2OH H -D-glucose OH H H O OH H OHH OH CH2OH H H OH -D-glucose 23 4 5 6 1 1 6 5 4 3 2
  7. 7. • All living things are made up of cells. – All cells have DNA, cytoplasm, & a cell membrane – There are two major cell types: PROKARYOTIC Cells – Bacteria and archaea – Tiny – Single loop of DNA in a nucleoid region EUKARYOTIC Cells – Plants, animals, fungi and protists – Have an enclosed nucleus – Have membrane-bound organelles Cells: the Basic Unit of Life
  8. 8. Tissues: Groups of Similar Cells
  9. 9. Organs Perform Specific Tasks • Made of different tissues that interact to accomplish a certain job
  10. 10. Human Body Systems • Groups of organs working together to carry out specific functions in the body.
  11. 11. Skin: Your Personal Force-Field • Biggest organ in your body • With sunlight, makes vitamin D – helps with calcium absorption • Protects against: – physical damage to internal organs (dirt, scrapes, bumps) – disease (fungi, virus and bacteria) – dehydration (water-proof barrier) – overheating (heat stroke) and freezing (hypothermia) Integumentary System
  12. 12. Layers of the Skin • Epidermis – outermost layer, with nerve receptors – thin, tightly packed layers of waxy, “keratinized” cells – melanocytes produce skin pigments • Dermis – sweat & sebaceous (oil) glands – collagen & elastin (connective tissue) – hair follicles (with pili muscles) – nerves & blood vessels • Hypodermis – subcutaneous fat
  13. 13. Heat Regulation • Sweat cools body by evaporation • Goose bumps warm by trapping air – arrector pili muscles contract to raise hair
  14. 14. Can You Identify the Following? • Epidermis • Dermis – sweat gland – sebaceous gland – hair follicle – pili muscles – nerves – blood vessels • Hypodermis
  15. 15. Skin Problems • Acne – plugged/infected sebaceous gland - hair follicle – causes: hormones, grease from cosmetics or environment, contact (from sports equipment, glasses, touching or harsh scrubbing), stress • Dermatitis – dry, itchy, red skin – environmental factors: • soaps, allergens – hereditary factors • linked to asthma & hay fever • Skin Cancer – exposure to sunlight • especially fair-skinned – radiation • Burns
  16. 16. Name the Parts