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Formation of Ions

Board works discussion of the Formation of Ions and Ionic Bonding

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1 of 11 © Boardworks Ltd 2012
Ions
2 of 11 © Boardworks Ltd 2012
3 of 11 © Boardworks Ltd 2012
Compounds are formed when different
elements chemically react and form bonds
with each other, e.g. water (H2O).
Elements are made up of just one type of atom, sometimes
joined to other atoms of the same element by chemical
bonds. This forms molecules such as chlorine (Cl2).
What are bonds?
Different types of bonds are formed depending on the types
of atoms involved:
 ionic bonding occurs between metal and non-metal atoms.
 covalent bonding occurs between non-metals atoms only.
All bonding involves changes to the number of electrons in
the outer shells of atoms.
4 of 11 © Boardworks Ltd 2012
Why do atoms form bonds?
5 of 11 © Boardworks Ltd 2012
An ion is an atom or group of atoms that has
an electrical charge, either positive or negative.
Atoms have an equal number of protons and electrons and
so do not have an overall charge.
Atoms with incomplete outer electron
shells are unstable. By either gaining or
losing electrons, atoms can obtain full
outer electron shells and become stable,
just like the noble gases.
When this happens, atoms have an unequal number of
protons and electrons and so have an overall charge.
This is how atoms become ions.
How do atoms form ions?
6 of 11 © Boardworks Ltd 2012
Positive and negative ions

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Formation of Ions

  • 1. 1 of 11 © Boardworks Ltd 2012 Ions
  • 2. 2 of 11 © Boardworks Ltd 2012
  • 3. 3 of 11 © Boardworks Ltd 2012 Compounds are formed when different elements chemically react and form bonds with each other, e.g. water (H2O). Elements are made up of just one type of atom, sometimes joined to other atoms of the same element by chemical bonds. This forms molecules such as chlorine (Cl2). What are bonds? Different types of bonds are formed depending on the types of atoms involved:  ionic bonding occurs between metal and non-metal atoms.  covalent bonding occurs between non-metals atoms only. All bonding involves changes to the number of electrons in the outer shells of atoms.
  • 4. 4 of 11 © Boardworks Ltd 2012 Why do atoms form bonds?
  • 5. 5 of 11 © Boardworks Ltd 2012 An ion is an atom or group of atoms that has an electrical charge, either positive or negative. Atoms have an equal number of protons and electrons and so do not have an overall charge. Atoms with incomplete outer electron shells are unstable. By either gaining or losing electrons, atoms can obtain full outer electron shells and become stable, just like the noble gases. When this happens, atoms have an unequal number of protons and electrons and so have an overall charge. This is how atoms become ions. How do atoms form ions?
  • 6. 6 of 11 © Boardworks Ltd 2012 Positive and negative ions
  • 7. 7 of 11 © Boardworks Ltd 2012 Building an ion
  • 8. 8 of 11 © Boardworks Ltd 2012 Calculating ion charges
  • 9. 9 of 11 © Boardworks Ltd 2012 What is a compound ion? Ions can be made up of a single atom or a group of atoms. An ion made up of a group of atoms is called a compound ion. hydroxide sulfate nitrate carbonate ammonium -1 -2 -1 -2 +1 Ion Formula Charge Atoms present NH4 + CO3 2- NO3 - SO4 2- OH- O O OO O O O O OOO H H H HH C N N S What atoms are present in the following compound ions?
  • 10. 10 of 11 © Boardworks Ltd 2012 Comparing positive and negative ions
  • 11. 11 of 11 © Boardworks Ltd 2012 Naming ions and compound ions There are two common types of ions: –ide ions and –ate ions. What is the difference? Generally, –ide ions are negatively-charged ions of an element, e.g. sulfide (S2- ), fluoride (F- ), oxide (O2- ). The exception to this rule is the hydroxide ion, which contains both hydrogen and oxygen (OH- ). –ate ions are negatively-charged compound ions that include oxygen, e.g. sulfate (SO4 2- ), nitrate (NO3 - ), carbonate (CO3 2- ).

Editor's Notes

  1. Teacher notes It should be pointed out that the lithium ion is represented by Li+ not Li1+, etc.
  2. Teacher notes This activity could be used to check students’ understanding of electron arrangement and how this changes during the formation of ions. It will also check their understanding of the charges on ions.
  3. Teacher notes This drag and drop activity provides the opportunity for informal assessment of students’ understanding of the differences between positive and negative ions. Appropriately coloured voting cards could be used with this activity to increase class participation.