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  1. 1. Life Science Human Body Systems Respiration
  2. 2. 1. What is the name for the tiny web of tubes, only one cell thick, which allow gasses dissolved in plasma to diffuse into and out of body tissues? • Capillaries 1. Where is the first place blood flows to after reaching the left ventricle? • Aorta (and coronary artery) 1. True or False? The Superior and Inferior Vena Cavae, which bring blood back to the heart from all parts of the body (except lungs), carry deoxygenated blood. • True (the pulmonary artery brings oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart) 1. What part of the blood contains dissolved nutrients picked up from digested food in the small intestines? 1.Plasma 2. Why is the contraction of the ventricles able to move blood so far? • Blood pressure (produced with the help of heart valves) In your lab notebook, please answer as best you can: Week 22 Review Quiz Bonus: Oxygenated blood from the lungs returns to the heart via what vessel? - The Pulmonary Vein
  3. 3. Respiratory System • Nose (& mouth) – nasal/sinus cavities • Larynx (voice box) • Trachea – epiglottis closes to swallow • Lungs – lobes: 3 right, 2 left • Bronchi ("branches") – bronchioles (smaller) • Alveoli (air sacs) • Diaphragm
  4. 4. Breathing - a Negative Thing
  5. 5. Week 22 Experiments Air Capacity of the Lungs Model of Human Lung
  6. 6. Mucus Elevator Defense • Mucus – lines the paranasal sinuses, trachea & bronchi – trap pollen, dust, germs – produced by goblet cells • Cilia – line the sinuses, trachea & bronchi – move mucus up and out by continual waving motion • Sneezing/Coughing – forceful contractions of abdominal muscles – expel mucus containing germs & allergens
  7. 7. Larynx & Vocal Chords Low Pitch High Pitch • Air flowing over tightened vocal folds in the larynx (voice box) produce sound
  8. 8. Gas Exchange • Alveoli - thin air sacs – increase surface area  Capillaries surround alveoli  Red blood cells drop off CO2 & pick up O2 in plasma
  9. 9. Composition of Air Inhaled Air Exhaled Air 79% Nitrogen20% Oxygen 4% Carbon Dioxide 79% Nitrogen 16% Oxygen 1% Other Gasses
  10. 10. Affects of Smoking • Nicotine – stimulant – highly addictive – leads to other drug use • Disease - shortens life by 10 + years – Heart & Lung Disease • COPD, bronchitis, Emphysema • High blood pressure, Heart attack – Cancer, Infertility, Depression – Weakened immune system • Disfigurement – Wrinkles – Yellow teeth – Halitosis (chronic bad breath) – Osteoporosis 9 out of 10 smokers start before the age of 18...WHY?
  11. 11. Smoking Lung Demo • 4,000 chemicals in tobacco smoke • at least 69 of those chemicals are known to cause cancer
  12. 12. Affects of Smoking Smoker’s Lungs •lung tissue blackened by tar •enlarged heart Healthy Lungs