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Introduction To and Arcaeological Apps of GIS

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Introduction To and Arcaeological Apps of GIS

  1. 1. Introduction to and the Archaeological Applications of GIS Jo Dyson GIS and Mapping Technician Room MB 25 j.dyson@worc.ac.uk
  2. 2. Aims of Session • What is GIS (Geographical Information Systems)? • General Applications of GIS • Applications of GIS in Archaeology • GIS Software – ESRI ArcGIS 9.3 • Practical – making a map using GIS for use on site and in your final excavation/survey report
  3. 3. GIS - Geographic Information System In GIS the term “Geographic” (relating to geography) means that it deals with…. Locations, interactions and distribution of people, places and/or things.
  4. 4. GIS - Geographic Information System In a GIS the term “Information” usually means a data base. Lists of people, places, or things. This information can come from…. Spreadsheets Databases Air Photos Satellite images GPS units Internet searches
  5. 5. GIS - Geographic Information System In a GIS the term “System” refers to the GIS Operator, the computer, the data, and the software working together. .
  6. 6. GIS is…a Map!
  7. 7. GIS is…able to display elevation data
  8. 8. GIS is…able to analyst data
  9. 9. GIS is…able to display aerial imagery and geophysical data
  10. 10. GIS is…able to do 3D (actually it is 2.5D)
  11. 11. General GIS Applications • Local Authorities – LLPG (Local Land and Property Gazetteer), planning applications and ecological record • Retail/Business – working out where your customers/competitors are to find store locations and delivery route planning • Environment – flood mapping, climate change mapping and monitoring animal movement • Police – crime location mapping and geographical profiling of suspects • Other applications: Satellite Navigation Systems, computer gaming, Multimap and Google Earth
  12. 12. General GIS Applications: Store Location Analysis
  13. 13. General GIS Applications: Route Planning
  14. 14. General GIS Applications: Environmental Mapping
  15. 15. General GIS Applications: Environmental Mapping
  16. 16. General GIS Applications: Crime and Forensics
  17. 17. Archaeological Applications of GIS Introduction • GIS offers archaeologists an exciting and powerful research tool • The data is both spatial and temporal and is therefore suited to the basic principles of GIS • Main applications • Cultural Resource Management • Historic Environment Record (HER) • Landscape Analysis
  18. 18. First Use of GIS in Archaeology • Gaffney and Stančič (1991) Work based on Island of Hvar, Croatia • Created a DEM from topographic map at scale of 1:50,000
  19. 19. First Use of GIS in Archaeology • Used Site Catchment Analysis (SCA) on hillforts • Hillforts functioned as a central place for large numbers of inhabitants due to location in landscape and labour required • Hillforts were situated on hilltops and surrounded by large stone ramparts
  20. 20. First Use of GIS in Archaeology • Used Visibility Analysis on the Greek Towers of Hvar • Built to allow town of Pharos to be alerted of any danger approaching them • Towers would have used fire or smoke signals to send message – assumes clear line of sight between them - can be tested with GIS • Discovered that tower at Maslinovik would have been able to see tower at Tor and pass message back to Pharos
  21. 21. Wroxeter Hinterland Project • Gaffney et al (2007) • First use of GIS in archaeology as database for all information relating to project : geophysics, aerial imagery, field walking, OS mapping and find spots etc
  22. 22. Wroxeter Hinterland Project
  23. 23. Stonehenge Landscapes • Exon et al (2000) • Aim of the project was to digitally explore the relationships of the monuments around Stonehenge and how these relationships have changed over time • Groundbreaking to the extent that the readers were able to see and question the data on a CD, provided with book
  24. 24. Stonehenge Landscapes • Discovered that there was a key relationship between the monuments and the topography • First to study the Stonehenge landscape using GIS. It transformed archaeologist’s views on the Stonehenge landscape as the GIS showed the already well-studied area in a new light • The project demonstrates GIS ability to interpret data as opposed to just a data storage tool
  25. 25. Laxton Castle, Nottinghamshire • Combined use of GPS, GIS, Geophysics and historical mapping to understand castle and its environs • C12th Motte and Bailey Castle
  26. 26. Laxton Castle, Nottinghamshire
  27. 27. Tutbury Castle, Staffordshire • C11th Motte and Bailey castle • Similar techniques used as Laxton Castle
  28. 28. Tutbury Castle, Staffordshire
  29. 29. King Edward I Castles in North Wales • My BA and MA dissertation work • BA: Viewshed (Visibility) Analysis and Cost Surface Analysis (CSA) • MA: Sensuous Viewsheds or 3D Visibility Analysis and used GIS in conjunction with Autodesk 3D Studio Max to create castle models
  30. 30. King Edward I Castles in North Wales
  31. 31. What is CSA? First you need to know the ‘cost’ over all types of terrain Normally this means calculating cost from for example the slope grid… 4 miles/hr 3 miles/hr 2 miles/hr Slope distance Not forgetting the effect of slope distance Distance shown on map
  32. 32. King Edward I Castles in North Wales
  33. 33. Historic Environment Record (HER) • Gloucestershire County Council • HER holds 24,000 records and is constantly updated • Uses an Oracle database linked to ArcGIS
  34. 34. Historic Landscape Characterisation (HLC) • HLC is concerned with mapping our entire historic landscape • Work usually done by Local Authorities • To build a HLC database, using a GIS and digital mapping, vector polygons are created to give a particular landscape type to a block of land • A landscape type could be woodland, military, or residential • Each type is given its own colour and displayed in the GIS as an additional layer. Changes to the landscape can be shown over time by switching the layers on and off
  35. 35. Wolverhampton in 1880 Legend Blue is Extractive Pink is Settlement Red is Commercial Yellow is Recreational
  36. 36. Wolverhampton in 1910 Legend Blue is Extractive Pink is Settlement Red is Commercial Yellow is Recreational
  37. 37. Wolverhampton in 2000 Legend Blue is Extractive Pink is Settlement Red is Commercial Yellow is Recreational
  38. 38. Wolverhampton: Surviving Terrace Houses Legend Green is Circa 1910 Blue is Circa 1900 Purple is Circa 1880 Green is Wolverhampton City Boundary Red is Main Roads (Modern Roads)
  39. 39. What is CSA? First you need to know the ‘cost’ over all types of terrain Normally this means calculating cost from for example the slope grid… 4 miles/hr 3 miles/hr 2 miles/hr Slope distance Not forgetting the effect of slope distance Distance shown on map
  40. 40. Issues Surrounding the use of GIS • The information is only as good as the original data source and is dependent upon the expertise and experience of the researcher • Bias to regional landscape based studies • GIS is atemporal and only able to deal with spatial phenomena in a single instant of time – although this has been accommodated by use of time slices
  41. 41. What is CSA? First you need to know the ‘cost’ over all types of terrain Normally this means calculating cost from for example the slope grid… 4 miles/hr 3 miles/hr 2 miles/hr Slope distance Not forgetting the effect of slope distance Distance shown on map
  42. 42. Issues Surrounding the use of GIS • The information is only as good as the original data source and is dependent upon the expertise and experience of the researcher • Bias to regional landscape based studies • GIS is atemporal and only able to deal with spatial phenomena in a single instant of time – although this has been accommodated by use of time slices
  43. 43. Issues Surrounding the use of GIS • Gives ‘a picture of past landscapes which the inhabitant would hardly recognise’ (Thomas 1993) • GIS has a positivist and scientific bias • Some data does not lend itself to digital capture (e.g. soil types rarely change as abruptly as the lines demarking the distribution on a map will show) • GIS does not take into account the seasonal variation of vegetation cover or how a landscape may have been vegetated • GIS is ocular-centric – you only ‘see’ the landscape, not experience it in any other way Is it just pretty pictures?
  44. 44. Summary • know what a GIS is • Know GIS applications in real world • Know GIS applications in archaeology • Know problems with GIS in archaeology • Now it is time for the practical….

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