Archaeological Applications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

3,534 views

Published on

Presentation designed as an introduction for archaeological students to the various applications of GIS. Most of the examples come from my own work.

Published in: Technology

Archaeological Applications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

  1. 1. Joshua S. Campbell University of Kansas March 5, 2008 KSU Archaeological Field Methods: Survey Archaeological Applications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
  2. 2. What is a GIS? <ul><li>Geographic Information System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot; automated systems for the capture , storage, retrieval, analysis , and display of spatial data .&quot; (Clarke, 1995, p. 13) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of hardware, software, and people </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Where did GIS come from? <ul><li>GIS is built upon knowledge from geography, cartography, computer science and mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic Information Science is a new interdisciplinary field built out of the use and theory of GIS </li></ul>
  4. 4. Defining GIS <ul><li>Geography is the organizing principle! </li></ul><ul><li>All GIS definitions recognize that spatial data are unique because they are linked to maps </li></ul><ul><li>A GIS at least consists of a database, map information, and a computer-based link between them </li></ul>
  5. 5. GIS as an information system <ul><li>&quot; An information system that is designed to work with data referenced by spatial or geographic coordinates . In other words, a GIS is both a database system with specific capabilities for spatially-referenced data, as well as a set of operations for working with the data &quot; (Star and Estes, 1990, p. 2). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Spatial and non-spatial data
  7. 7. Map Overlay
  8. 8. What do archaeologists study? <ul><li>Archaeologists are interested in culture and human behavior th rough time and space </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on material culture remains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All artifacts are located somewhere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All artifacts can be described using attributes </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. How can GIS help? <ul><li>Integrate vector data (point plotted artifacts, features, excavation units, sites) with raster data (feature and level photographs, geophysical data, remote-sensing images, i nterpolated artifact density surfaces). </li></ul><ul><li>Scalable – works at the site level, local level, regional, and global levels. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Capture / Data Acquisition <ul><li>Begins the geospatial workflow </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain data in a digital format </li></ul><ul><li>Digital acquisition will facilitate analysis and visualization components </li></ul>
  11. 11. Survey and Excavation <ul><li>Cataloging and Mapping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration of GPS derived info </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital record keeping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visualize spatial relationships among artifacts or other geophysical measurements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical Analysis (cluster analysis, …) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic Susceptibility, Sediment Texture, Organic Content, … </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Survey and Excavation <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kirwin Reservoir Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fort Hood Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scott Site </li></ul></ul>
  13. 16. Archival <ul><li>Construction of a digital database containing spatial data of all site locations with associated attribute data </li></ul><ul><li>Required for Regional-level analysis </li></ul><ul><li>KSHS site database and DASC data viewer </li></ul>
  14. 17. Analysis <ul><li>Predictive Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Surface Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Least-Cost Paths </li></ul><ul><li>Viewshed Analysis </li></ul>
  15. 18. Specific Applications <ul><li>Fort Hood, Texas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2D and 3D archaeological model integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penetrometer survey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kirwin Reservoir, Kansas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geoarchaeological survey and hydrological predictions </li></ul></ul>
  16. 19. Specific Applications <ul><li>Stranger Creek / Scott Site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic susceptibility metrics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trail Rut mapping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Penetrometer survey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SW Kansas Predictive Model </li></ul>
  17. 26. Display / Visualization <ul><li>70% of the human brain is associated with vision </li></ul><ul><li>GIS data can produce graphical outputs which greatly enhance the understanding of complex datasets </li></ul>
  18. 27. Display / Visualization <ul><li>Predictive Model Surfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Morton County </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydrological Predictions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kirwin Reservoir </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analytical Surfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scott Site, Trail Ruts, and Ft. Hood survey </li></ul></ul>
  19. 33. Future Directions <ul><li>Google Earth / Sketchup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapidly becoming the primary vehicle for the display of spatial data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration with Open Source software to provide analytical functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also does not contain the high price tag! </li></ul></ul>
  20. 34. Resources <ul><li>Computing, GIS and Archaeology in the UK </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.archaeogeek.com/blog/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GIS for Archaeology and CRM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.gisarch.com </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digging Digitally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.alexandriaarchive.org/blog/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spatial Technology and Archaeology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheatley and Gillings, 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kansas Geospatial Commons (DASC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.kansasgis.org </li></ul></ul>
  21. 35. Joshua S. Campbell – jsc1@ku.edu

×