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Open science, transdisciplinary research, and the future of archaeology

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Slides used for the presentation in Session T04A "Inclusive data management and sharing in archaeology" at WAC-8 Kyoto 2016.

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Open science, transdisciplinary research, and the future of archaeology

  1. 1. T04A: Inclusive Data Management and Sharing in Archaeology Chairs Yasuhisa Kondo & Eric Kansa 1 Tuesday, August 30, 14:20 to 16:20, at RY301
  2. 2. Inclusive Data Management & Sharing: Scope • Inclusive = ‘not excluding any section of society or any party involved in something’ (Oxford Dictionary of English) • How do we reconcile opportunities for data sharing to make interpretation more public and inclusive while recognizing that archaeological data can also be misused and appropriated? • What kinds of archaeological practice need to be developed to make data management more inclusive and not a new form of colonialism? 2
  3. 3. Presentation Line-up 1 Poster • Takata & Morimoto: Publishing the Comprehensive Database of Archaeological Site Reports in Japan for the Purpose of Increasing Information Accessibility 4 Orals • Kondo: Open science, transdisciplinary research, and the future of archaeology • Miki et al.: Toward inclusive data sharing using Bat Digital Heritage Inventory: a comparison of inventories for the World Heritage sites at Bat, Oman 3
  4. 4. Presentation Line-up 4 Orals (cont.) • Aspöck: Digitizing early farming cultures: sharing data on Neolithic sites and finds in Greece and Anatolia • Kikuchi: Open-access and application of 3D Bone Atlas Database ‘Inclusive’ talks and discussions up to 16:20 4
  5. 5. transdisciplinary research, and the future of archaeology Yasuhisa Kondo WAC-8 Kyoto 2016 Session T04A Inclusive Data Sharing in Archarology 5
  6. 6. Today’s talk • Current trends in open science – Open research data – Citizen science • Societal issue-driven research – Participatory research – Action research – Transdisciplinary research • Foresight: how can we bind open science and transdisciplinary approaches to promote inclusive data sharing in archaeology? 6
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. Open Definition “Open means anyone can freely access, use, modify, and share for any purpose (subject, at most, to requirements that preserve provenance and openness).” http://opendefinition.org/ 8
  9. 9. Open Science at dawn G8 Open Data Charter (June 2013) 8. We therefore agree to follow a set of principles that will be the foundation for access to, and the release and re- use of, data made available by G8 governments. They are:  Open Data by Default  Quality and Quantity  Useable by All  Releasing Data for Improved Governance  Releasing Data for Innovation 10. We also recognise the benefits of open data can and should be enjoyed by citizens of all nations. 9
  10. 10. Making Open Science a Reality OECD Report, October 2015 “Open science commonly refers to efforts to make the output of publicly funded research more widely accessible in digital format to the scientific community, the business sector, or society more generally.” (p.9) 10 doi: 10.1787/5jrs2f963zs1-en
  11. 11. Open science includes various concepts: 11 Open Research Data Open Access Citizen Science Data Papers & Journals Data Citation
  12. 12. Open Access (OA) “Free, immediate, online availability of research articles, coupled with the rights to use these articles fully in the digital environment.” http://www.sparc.arl.org/issues/open-access • Gold OA: Authors pay OA fee to publishers to make their articles open access. • Green OA: Institutional repositories make articles of affiliated members open access. Time delay (embargo) may apply. 13
  13. 13. Open Data “Open data and content can be freely used, modified, and shared by anyone for any purpose.” http://opendefinition.org • Open Government Data >> advanced! • Open Research Data >> to be accomplished 14
  14. 14. Data Citation as a gateway to open science Data Journals Data Repositories 15 https://www.datacite.orghttp:///www.nature.com/sdata
  15. 15. Workflow of open research data 16 Cabinet Office of Japan (2015.3) Promoting open science in Japan. Executive summary. http://www8.cao.go.jp/cstp/sonota/openscience
  16. 16. Research Data Alliance (RDA) 17http://rd-alliance.org
  17. 17. Debate: Are data easily shared in your field?  Rather easy in: • Astronomy • Geomagnetics where “big data” have internationally been shared over decades.  Rather difficult in: • Human ecology • Cultural anthropology where human right issues may remain to be solved. 18 Archaeology is somewhere in-between.
  18. 18. Some negative feedbacks 19 I don’t want other people to use and interpret my data beyond my control. I’m reluctant to publish the data until I write and publish a scientific paper using it because the data itself has an original value to be securely kept. Illustration: http://www.irasutoya.com/
  19. 19. How can we make them willing to give data? 20 Illustration: http://www.irasutoya.com/ OK, I will give my data to those whom want. ‘Trust’ is most important for inclusive data sharing. Dialogue (50-50 relationship) may grow the trust.
  20. 20. 23
  21. 21. My experience: digital heritage inventory development at Bat, Oman 24 Bat Heritage Management This map shows location of monuments and buffer zones at Bat, Al-Khutum, and Al-Ayn. Online version is available at http://goo.gl/QvhR71 UNESCO zone (2000) All items Bat Digital Heritage Inventory cairn tomb stone alignment house unidentified mound tower stone accumulation cobble accumulation lithic scatter soil sampling well cairn or tomb ? tombcemetery built stone accumulation dam wall falaj platform stone enclosure Charlotte's survey All items Malakiya 2015 All items Malakiya 2015 (nodes) All items Malakiya 2015 buffer (200m wide) All items (Kondo et al. 2016. doi:10.1108/JCHMSD-01-2016-0005) Miki et al. this session
  22. 22. Town meeting with local residents 25
  23. 23. Typology of societal issue-driven research 1. Participatory Research 2. Action Research 3. Transdisciplinary Research 26
  24. 24. Researchers Stakeholders 1. Participatory Research 27 Research outputs Methods: questionnaire, interview, ideathon, etc. Initiative (Adapted from Scholz 2014)
  25. 25. 2. Action Research 28 Researchers Stakeholders solution Research outputs Initiative (Adapted from Scholz 2014)
  26. 26. 3. Transdisciplinary Research “Science with Society” • Co-design of research agenda, • Co-production of knowledge, and • Co-dissemination of the results with societal stakeholders such as governmental agencies, funders, industries, NPOs and civil society. (Mauser et al. 2013. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2013.07.001) 29
  27. 27. 3. Transdisciplinary Research in sensu stricto 30 Researchers Residents Decision for solutionDecision makers “Co-x” Co-plan Co-product Co-delivery Co-leadership Mutual trust through dialogue & mutual learning Solution └Societalstakeholers┘ Research outputs (Adapted from Scholz 2014)
  28. 28. Tacit-explicit cycle of knowledge 31(Adapted from Nonaka & Takeuchi 1995) Tacit Knowledge Explicit Knowledge Research Publication Education, Outreach
  29. 29. A foresight How can we bind open science and transdisciplinary approaches to promote inclusive data sharing in archaeology? • Open research data with sharing the attached tacit knowledge. • Promote engagements of pro bonos who have skills to bridge different knowledge systems. • Establish mutual trust with potential stakeholders through dialogue. 32Thank you for listening. Contact: kondo@chikyu.ac.jp

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