Application of gis and gps in civil engineering


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seminar on application of gps and gis in civil engg

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Application of gis and gps in civil engineering

  1. 1. Submitted by :- AVINASH ANAND (1413300042)
  2. 2. A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data. The key word to this technology is Geography – this means that some portion of the data is spatial. In other words, data that is in some way referenced to locations on the earth. Coupled with this data is usually tabular data known as attribute data. Attribute data can be generally defined as additional information about each of the spatial features. It is the partnership of these two data types that enables GIS to be such an effective problem solving tool through spatial analysis. GIS is more than just software. People and methods are combined with geospatial software and tools, to enable spatial analysis, management large datasets, and the display of information in a map/graphical form.
  3. 3. What can we do with GIS ?? GIS can be used as tool in both problem solving and decision making processes, as well as for visualization of data in a spatial environment.
  4. 4. Spatial data, also known as geospatial data, is information about a physical object that can be represented by numerical values in a geographic coordinate system. Geospatial data can be analyzed to determine (1) the location of features and relationships to other features (2) where the most and/or least of some feature exists (3) the density of features in a given space (4) what is happening inside an area of interest (AOI) (5) what is happening nearby some feature or phenomenon (6) and how a specific area has changed over time (and in what way)
  5. 5. We can map the spatial location of real-world features and visualize the spatial relationships among them. Example: below we see a map of agricultural districts (in green) layered over soil types. We can see visual patterns in the data by determining what soil types are best suited for ag districts.
  6. 6. We can map quantities, such as where the most and least are, to find places that meet their criteria or to see the relationships between places. Example: below is a map of cemetery locations . The map shows the cemetery locations as dots (dot density) and each county is color coded to show where the most and least are (lighter blue means fewer cemeteries).
  7. 7. Sometimes it is more important to map concentrations, or a quantity normalized by area or total number. Example: Below we have mapped the population density of an area.
  8. 8. We can use GIS to determine what is happening or what features are located inside a specific area/region. We can determine the characteristics of "inside" by creating specific criteria to define an area of interest (AOI). Example: below is a map showing noise 'pollution' near an airport in a city. If we add demographic data from the Census to this map we can determine the socioeconomic characteristics of people that live within the defined 'noise pollution' area of interest.
  9. 9. We can find out what is happening within a set distance of a feature or event by mapping what is nearby using geo processing tools like BUFFER. Example: below we see the effects on features within specified radii of a simulated explosion. Use of buffering tools to generate set distances can aid in emergency response to disasters like these.
  10. 10. We can map the change in a specific geographic area to anticipate future conditions, decide on a course of action, or to evaluate the results of an action or policy. Example: below we see land use maps of an area showing changes in residential development from 1951 to 1999. The dark green shows forest, while bright yellow shows residential development.
  12. 12. PLANNING • Involves surveys, review of exiting infrastructure. • GIS- integrates, manage, analyze and visualize the wide range of data sets. DESIGN • GIS- data management tools to manage and share data between GIS and CAD soln. MAINTENANCE • Detailed understanding of the location of assets for transport infrastructure. INFORMATION • Up to date information systems for travellers. • The wide choice of travel options require true multi-modal solutions.
  13. 13. Watershed management is a term used to describe the process of implementing land use practices and water management practices to protect and improve the quality of the water and other natural resources within a watershed by managing the use of those land and water resources in a comprehensive manner. GIS map water resources and link them to a database Data – land use & land cover, geology, soils, hydrography & topography Planners/Engineers link their modelling system to the attribute data
  14. 14. FLOOD CONTROL –  Determine flood zones. Estimate the magnitude of high-flow events, the probability of low flow events.  Identify high-potential erosion areas.  Derive physical characteristics area, perimeter, soil data etc. Plot the flood hazard zoning map. Plot the food shelter suitability map.
  15. 15. Mapping of flood and shelter zone using GIS
  16. 16. Zoning , subdivision planning Land acquisition Urban land use mapping Economic development Code enforcement Housing renovation programs Emergency response Crime analysis Tax assessment Environmental monitoring Encroaching urban problems of even small magnitude
  17. 17. GPS or Global Positioning System is a network of orbiting satellites that send precise details of their position in space back to earth. The signals are obtained by GPS receivers, such as navigation devices and are used to calculate the exact position, speed and time at the vehicles location. The very first GPS system was developed in the 1960’s to allow ships in the US Navy to navigate the oceans more accurately.
  18. 18. There are three parts to a GPS system: a constellation of between 24 and 32 solar-powered satellites ( including three backup satellites ) orbiting the earth in orbits at an altitude of approximately 20000 kilometers, a master control station and four control and monitoring stations and GPS receivers such as the one in a car. Each of the satellites is in an orbit that allows a receiver to detect at least four of the operational satellites. The satellites send out microwave signals to a receiver where the built-in computer uses these signals to work out your precise distance from each of the four satellites and then triangulates your exact position on the planet to the nearest few meters based on these distances.
  19. 19. SURVEYING-Many companies in India and abroad uses GPS to locate different points, preparing contour maps, giving alignments of roads, bridges where precision is very essential. This system gives us the accurate geographic position required for land surveying. NAVIGATION-It is used for navigation purposes in aircraft, ships, submarines etc. MILITARY-It is now exceedingly used to locate the enemy targets and subsequently hitting them by GPS information guided missiles. PUBLIC USES-For public use simpler version are available for locating the vehicles, the individuals and the places, in hiking and mountaineering expeditions and other number of applications.
  20. 20. It helps to survey with many times greater Precision. This system is fast replacing with conventional methods of surveying like Triangulation, Traversing, etc. It helps to complete a Survey with lesser time and thus helps to cut down the Completion Period. It Reduces the Difficulty of taking manual measurements to great extent. With GPS there is a very less chances of error. And this error may come only due to the instrument malfunction.