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USP 797 CSP Risk Categories

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Basic presentation covering the CSP Risk Categories found in USP <797>

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USP 797 CSP Risk Categories

  1. 1. CSP Risk Categories PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOUNDING - STERILE PREPARATIONS
  2. 2. Definitions: Term Definition Compounded Sterile Preparation (CSP) a sterile drug product that has been prepared by compounding by a qualified individual in a sterile environment. CSPs are not explicitly defined in USP <797>. However, USP <797> does state that certain dosage forms must be sterile when administered to patients. Primary Engineering Control (PEC) Primary Engineering Control - A device or room that provides an ISO Class 5 environment for the exposure of critical sites when compounding CSPs. Such devices include, but may not be limited to, laminar airflow workbenches (LAFWs), biological safety cabinets (BSCs), compounding aseptic isolators (CAIs), and compounding aseptic containment isolators (CACIs). Beyond Use Date (BUD) The date or time after which a CSP shall not be stored or transported. The date is determined from the date or time the CSPs preparation is compounded.
  3. 3. There are THREE contamination categories for CSPs described in USP Chapter <797>: low-risk level, medium-risk level, high-risk level
  4. 4. In addition to the THREE CSP contamination categories, Chapter <797> provides an immediate-use provision for emergent situations
  5. 5. CSPs are assigned primarily according to the potential for microbial contamination during the compounding of low-risk level CSPs and medium-risk level CSPs or the potential for not sterilizing high-risk level CSPs
  6. 6. Appropriate risk levels are assigned according to the corresponding probability of: Microbial contamination (e.g., microbial organisms, spores, endotoxins) Chemical and physical contamination (e.g., foreign chemicals, physical matter)
  7. 7. Risk levels apply to the quality of CSPs immediately after the final aseptic mixing or filling or immediately after the final sterilization
  8. 8. Increased risk of chemical degradation of ingredients, contamination from physical damage to packaging, and permeability of plastic and elastomeric packaging is expected when freshly prepared CSPs are stored and shipped. In such cases, compounding personnel are responsible for considering the potential additional risks to the integrity of CSPs when assigning BUDs.
  9. 9. IMMEDIATE-USE CSPs
  10. 10. Immediate-use provision - intended only for those situations where there is a need for emergency or immediate patient administration of a CSP where preparation under low-risk conditions would subject the patient to risk due to delays in therapy IMMEDIATE-USE CSPs
  11. 11. Immediate-use CSPs are not intended for storage for anticipated needs or batch compounding. Cannot be used for medium-risk and high-risk level CSPs IMMEDIATE-USE CSPs
  12. 12. Aseptic technique is followed Simple transfers of nonhazardous or diagnostic radiopharmaceutical products Continuous compounding procedure not to exceed 1 hour Administration begins not later than 1 hour following the start of preparation. If not, preparation is safely discarded. If not immediately administered, finished CSP is under continuous supervision to minimize potential contact with nonsterile surfaces, introduction of particulate matter, mix-ups, and direct contact of outside surfaces Must be labeled unless immediately and completely administered, or administration is witnessed, by the person who prepared it. IMMEDIATE-USE CSPs
  13. 13. LOW-RISK LEVEL CSPs
  14. 14. Compounded within ISO Class 5 or better air Compounding involves only transfer, measuring, and mixing manipulations using not more than 3 commercially manufactured packages of sterile products and not more than 2 entries into any one sterile container or package (e.g., bag, vial) of sterile product or administration container/device to prepare the CSP. Manipulations are limited to aseptically opening ampuls, penetrating disinfected stoppers on vials with sterile needles and syringes, and transferring sterile liquids in sterile syringes to sterile administration devices, package containers of other sterile products, and containers for storage and dispensing. LOW-RISK CSPs
  15. 15. In the absence of passing a sterility test, the storage periods for low-risk preparations cannot exceed the following time periods: before administration, the CSPs are properly stored and are exposed for not more than 48 hours at controlled room temperature 14 days at a cold temperature 45 days in solid frozen state between −25° and −10° LOW-RISK CSPs
  16. 16. Low-Risk Compounding examples reconstitution of single-dose vials of antibiotics or other small-volume parenterals, or preparation of hydration solutions LOW-RISK CSPs
  17. 17. Low-Risk Level CSPs with 12-Hour or Less BUD – If the PEC is a CAI or CACI that does not meet the requirements described in Placement of PECs or is a laminar airflow workbench (LAFW) or a biological safety cabinet (BSC) that cannot be located within an ISO Class 7 buffer area, then only low-risk level nonhazardous and radiopharmaceutical CSPs pursuant to a physician's order for a specific patient may be prepared, and administration of such CSPs shall commence within 12 hours of preparation or as recommended in the manufacturers' package insert, whichever is less. LOW-RISK CSPs
  18. 18. Low-Risk Level CSPs with 12-Hour or Less BUD— PECs (LAFWs, BSCs, CAIs, CACIs,) shall be ISO Class 5 Compounding area is segregated from non-compounding areas. Personnel shall follow the procedures described in Personnel Cleansing and Garbing and Additional Personnel Requirements prior to compounding. Sinks should not be located adjacent to the ISO Class 5 PEC, and separated from immediate area of the ISO Class 5 PEC device. Follow all specifications for cleaning and disinfecting, personnel training and competency, aseptic work practices, and environmental sampling. LOW-RISK CSPs
  19. 19. All clear on Low-Risk Level CSPs with 12-Hour or Less BUD?
  20. 20. Suppose you have a satellite pharmacy that has no ISO Class 7 area, but contains an ISO Class 5 PEC. You may still prepare Low-Risk CSPs in the PEC, but they would could only have a 12-Hour or less BUD.
  21. 21. MEDIUM-RISK LEVEL CSPs
  22. 22. When CSPs are compounded aseptically under Low-Risk Conditions and one or more of the following conditions exists, such CSPs are at a medium risk of contamination. 1. Multiple individual or small doses of sterile products are combined or pooled to prepare a CSP that will be administered either to multiple patients or to one patient on multiple occasions. 2. The compounding process includes complex aseptic manipulations other than the single-volume transfer. 3. The compounding process requires unusually long duration, such as that required to complete dissolution or homogeneous mixing. MEDIUM-RISK CSPs
  23. 23. In the absence of passing a sterility test, the storage periods for medium-risk preparations cannot exceed the following time periods: before administration, the CSPs are properly stored and are exposed for not more than: 30 hours at controlled room temperature 9 days at a cold temperature 45 days in solid frozen state between −25° and −10° MEDIUM-RISK CSPs
  24. 24. Medium-Risk Compounding examples Complex manipulations (e.g., TPN) Batch preparations (e.g., syringes) MEDIUM-RISK CSPs
  25. 25. HIGH-RISK LEVEL CSPs
  26. 26. High-risk level compounding: 1. Prepared from non-sterile ingredients. 2. Any of the following are exposed to air quality worse than ISO Class 5 for more than 1 hour: • sterile contents of commercially manufactured products, • CSPs that lack effective antimicrobial preservatives, and • sterile surfaces of devices and containers for the preparation, transfer, sterilization, and packaging of CSPs. 3. Compounding personnel are improperly garbed and gloved (see Personnel Cleansing and Use of Barrier Protective Equipment). 4. More than 6 hour delay from compounding to sterilization. 5. It is assumed, and not verified by examination of labeling and documentation from suppliers or by direct determination, that the chemical purity and content strength of ingredients meet their original or compendial specifications in unopened or in opened packages of bulk ingredients. HIGH-RISK CSPs
  27. 27. In the absence of passing a sterility test, the storage periods for high-risk preparations cannot exceed the following time periods: before administration, the CSPs are properly stored and are exposed for not more than: 24 hours at controlled room temperature 3 days at a cold temperature 45 days in solid frozen state between −25° and −10° HIGH-RISK CSPs
  28. 28. High-Risk Compounding examples Dissolving nonsterile bulk drug and nutrient powders to make solutions that will be terminally sterilized. Exposing sterile ingredients and components used to prepare CSPs to room air quality worse than ISO Class 5 for more than 1 hour (see Immediate-Use CSPs). Measuring and mixing sterile ingredients in nonsterile devices before sterilization is performed. Assuming, without appropriate evidence or direct determination, that packages of bulk ingredients contain at least 95% by weight of their active chemical moiety and have not been contaminated or adulterated between uses. HIGH-RISK CSPs
  29. 29. JERRY FAHRNI, PHARM.D.

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