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What explains pockets of success in fodder development?


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Presented by Ranjitha Puskur at the Workshop on Feed Technology Screening and Prioritisation, Dehra Dun, India, 19-22 September 2011

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What explains pockets of success in fodder development?

  1. 1. What explains pockets of success in fodder development? Ranjitha Puskur Workshop on Feed Technology Screening and Prioritisation, Dehra Dun, India, 19-22 September 2011
  2. 2. Some lessons from fodder-focused projects <ul><li>Based on 3 studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fodder Positive Deviance study in Ethiopia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Case studies (4) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Household survey (603 HH in 8 districts in 3 regions) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fodder Innovation Project – 5 sites in India and Nigeria </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Fodder Positive Deviance (or Bright spots!) study in Ethiopia <ul><li>What is Positive Deviance? </li></ul><ul><li>Positive deviance refers to cases that diverge from the general trend and the presence of certain individuals or groups whose behaviours and strategies enable them to find better solutions to fodder problems than their peers, while having access to the same resources and facing similar or worse challenges </li></ul>
  4. 4. Fodder Positive Deviance (or Bright spots!) study in Ethiopia <ul><li>If fodder and feed technologies are not widely adopted and used, are there places where they have been used relatively successfully and if so what is it that could be learned from those few places? </li></ul><ul><li>Can a focus on the positives, as opposed to deficiencies, help to reframe current assumptions and expectations of adoption and use? </li></ul><ul><li>Can that help to refocus the debate on what is realistically possible given the challenges faced in enhancing fodder production and use? </li></ul>
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  7. 7. Fodder Positive Deviance <ul><li>attributed to the interplay of factors and ways of working usually not well attended to in typical feed technology transfer arrangements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>facilitation by local actors – with adequate support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>private sector involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>functional partnerships with early adopters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>destocking of less productive livestock breeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conditional access to improved breeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>introduction of improved and strategic ways of managing feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new forms of improved smallholder organization to facilitate various forms of joint action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an improved enabling environment and support system </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Fodder PD <ul><li>pockets of success were mostly found in intensifying crop-livestock systems </li></ul><ul><li>pockets of successful users tend to be highly concentrated in a few locations around urban centers (markets), research centers and, urban based district offices of agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>feed technologies have the greatest chance of being used productively either because of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>geographical suitability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ecological imperatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sense of urgency (pressure of intensification) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>potential for tapping into livestock value chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good history of risk-taking and associated local capability in the area </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. What influences uptake at household level? <ul><li>Proximity to district and market centers </li></ul><ul><li>Higher family size and active labour force in the household </li></ul><ul><li>Higher land and livestock holdings </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement in intensive or semi-intensive enterprises – dairy, cattle fattening </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge and skills </li></ul><ul><li>Access to seed and planting material </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional support – follow up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation in GO and NGO programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Membership of co-operatives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Link to markets (traders) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Household selection criteria for fodder technologies <ul><li>Multipurpose in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of planting material </li></ul><ul><li>Income generating capacity </li></ul>
  11. 11. Fodder Innovation Project – India and Nigeria ( <ul><li>Fodder Innovation Project Phases 1 and 2 – evolution from technology transfer to experimenting with innovation capacity building for proactive rather than reactive innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>5 sites in 2 countries –different livestock systems context – livestock dependent communities - fodder scarcity a common problem </li></ul>
  12. 12. FIP2 <ul><li>In each site, action was based on context-specific themes ranging from fodder focus to commercialization of smallholder goat farming </li></ul><ul><li>This led to very context and theme-specific network building process, with different entry points (ranging from forest seeding with fodder species to animal vaccination camps) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Some immediate outcomes.. <ul><ul><li>changing collaborative habits and practices of actors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changing institutional arrangements and policy bottlenecks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evidence of demand being generated for fodder- breed and other livestock-related knowledge and technologies (interestingly, technologies which were disseminated earlier but with no uptake) – good examples of research being put into use emerging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>institutional arrangements being designed to take care of equity issues </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Some lessons.. <ul><li>fodder is too narrow a theme for building networks and it is more relevant to talk about livestock development </li></ul><ul><li>building networks around crop- livestock value chains and building innovation capacity at that level seems more appropriate </li></ul>
  15. 15. ILRI is creating and integrating knowledge to enable diverse partners to find innovative solutions to make livestock a sustainable pathway out of poverty