feed and fodder status in india

16,060 views

Published on

feed and fodder, types of feed---, possible ways to bridge the gap
P K Malik----NAU, Navsari

Published in: Education, Business, Travel
13 Comments
28 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
16,060
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
25
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
13
Likes
28
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

feed and fodder status in india

  1. 2. Facts about feed and fodder Dr. Pradeep Kumar Malik Assistant Professor (Animal Nutrition) Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari
  2. 3. Introduction <ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><li>Indian economy is fastest growing </li></ul><ul><li>India is the 12 th largest economy of the world </li></ul><ul><li>GDP growth was 9.0% and 9.2% during 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 </li></ul><ul><li>The share of agriculture in GDP is declining continuously From 24 to 18.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Second largest producer of fruit &vegetables (150 MT) </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><li>Third largest producer of food grain </li></ul><ul><li>3rd largest country in fish production </li></ul><ul><li>Largest population of livestock (20%) and its contribution to Ag GDP is @ 24% </li></ul><ul><li>Largest producer of milk in the world (100 MT) </li></ul><ul><li>Milk alone contribute >18% of TO from agriculture </li></ul>Introduction
  4. 5. Livestock population in India (Million) FAO, 2004 4.71 0.9 19.1 Camel 2.34 0.3 12.8 Mules 1.44 0.8 55.5 Horse 1.93 18.5 956 Pig 16.21 124 767.9 Goat 5.76 59 1024.0 Sheep 56.77 95 170.7 Buffalo 16.49 222 1371 Cattle % of world India World Livestock
  5. 6. Status of feed and fodder (DM basis) in India NIANP (2005) 19 652 526 Total 35 193 126 Green fodder 28 47 34 Concentrate 11 412 365 Dry fodder Deficit(%) Required (MT) Available (MT) Feeds
  6. 7. Feeds or Feedstuffs <ul><li>Any material included in a diet or ration because of its nutritional properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cereal Grains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By-product feeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forages and roughages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein feeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mineral supplements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin supplements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed Additives </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Roughages <ul><li>Contains > 18% CF and <20%CP on DM basis </li></ul>Hulls Straw Silage Roughage Hay Legume Pasture
  8. 9. Concentrates <ul><li>Contains < 18% crude fiber and >20%CP on DM basis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meat scraps, fish, and blood meal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cottonseed meal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soybean meal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peanut meal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grains-corn, oats, barley, wheat (Basal feed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By-products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat bran </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cottonseed hulls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid supplements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Molasses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urea </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. BIS specifications for cattle feed 0.5 0.5 Available P 5000 5000 Vit A (IU/kg) 0.5 0.5 Ca (Min.) 2.0 2.0 Salt (Max.) 4.0 3.0 AIA (Max.) 12.0 7.0 CF (Max.) 2.5 3.0 EE (Min.) 20 22 CP (Min.) 11 11 Moisture (Max.) Type-II Type-I Attributes
  10. 11. BIS specifications for mineral mixture 0.38 0.3 Zn 0.5 0.4 S 0.12 0.10 Mn 0.012 0.009 Co 0.07 0.05 F (Max.) 0.07 0.06 Copper 2.5 3 AIA 0.026 0.02 Iodine 0.5 0.4 Iron 0 22 Salt (%) 6.5 5 Mg (%) 12 9 P (%,Min.) 23 18 Ca (%,Min.) 5 5 Moisture (%, Max.) Type-II Type-I Characteristics
  11. 12. Digestive system
  12. 13. Non Conventional Feed Resources <ul><li>Non competitive unconventional feedstuffs may bridge the gap between demand and supply of nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding at higher level and for longtime can cause adverse effect on animal performance </li></ul><ul><li>They can be converted into wholesome animal feeds after suitable processing </li></ul><ul><li>Besides annually cultivated, 86 different oil bearings perennial trees are present in India </li></ul>
  13. 14. Availability and their nutritional value of some non conventional feeds resources Alkali treatment Tannins 11.00 MT (6% DCP and 50% TDN) Mango seed kernel Solvent extraction, alkali treatment Karanjin 1.30 lakh tones (28-30% oil) Karanj cake Dry/moist heating, boiling Ricin haemoagglutinization 30-40% CP Castor bean meal Acid treatment, ethanol extraction, alkali treatment Saponin (Mowrin) Heamolytic activity 0.12 MT (15-24% CP) Mahua seed cake Water washing, soaking (2% NaOH) Bitter taste (limonoids), Azadirachtin, Nimbin and Nimidol 0.9 MT (35-40%CP) Neem seed cake Detoxification Toxic factor Availability & Nutritive value Name
  14. 15. Potential of horticultural crop residues as animal feed <ul><li>India is second largest producer of the vegetables and fruits </li></ul><ul><li>About 33% is wasted during harvesting, marketing and processing (Gangadhar et al. , 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Gap between demand and supply could be lessened </li></ul><ul><li>High moisture content is one major problem (Datt et al ., 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize efficiently after processing </li></ul>
  15. 16. Proximate composition of some important horticultural crop residues <ul><li>Vegetable crop residues </li></ul>Datt et al .(2008) 9.67 9.34 3.40 12.75 90.33 Potato skin 14.30 9.98 2.10 12.80 85.70 Reddish 7.59 15.69 2.55 16.05 92.14 Bottle gourd waste 5.42 14.79 3.98 15.12 94.58 Pumpkin waste 7.82 22.55 3.10 17.42 91.74 Brinjal waste 10.38 14.50 4.92 18.12 89.62 Cauliflower waste 12.40 13.82 2.91 10.12 87.60 Cabbage waste Ash CF EE CP OM % Composition (DM basis) Name
  16. 17. Contd.. Fruit crop residues Datt et al. (2008) 6.75 21.83 1.82 16.05 93.25 Papaya leaves 3.92 31.22 3.65 6.89 96.08 Orange leaves 8.06 18.03 2.64 7.99 93.56 Mango peels 14.75 10.09 3.23 6.45 85.25 Banana peals 10.16 24.30 2.78 8.50 89.84 Banana leaves Ash CF EE CP OM % Composition (DM basis) Name
  17. 18. Improvement of poor quality roughages Treatment Physical Chopping Grinding Soaking Steaming Chemical NaOH Ca(OH)2 Ammonia Urea Rot fungi Enzymes Biological
  18. 19. Procedure of dip treatment --------- --------- - ------- 1.5% NaOH - - - - - Soaking-2 ½-1 h Solution-1 ----------- ----------- Dripping-3 ½-2 h ------------- ------------- 0.6 kg NaOH 30 l H 2 O Replenishment/10 kg straw Straw Straw Straw Straw Ripening 3-6 days Feeding
  19. 20. Mode of Action CHO C O CO Lignin Alkali Ester linkage Carbohydrates C OH + COOH Lignin
  20. 21. Non Protein Nitrogen (NPN) <ul><li>Nitrogen supplied to the animal in a non-protein state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urea or Biuret </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requires microbial synthesis (Ruminants) </li></ul><ul><li>Crude Protein Equivalent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>% Nitrogen from NPN times a factor of 6.25 </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Urea Supplementation Treatment Feeding of NPN has become a focal point and needs C Skeleton for AA synthesis NH 2 NH 2 + H 2 O Urease O=C CO 2 + 2NH 3
  22. 23. Factors affecting urea utilization <ul><li>Source of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Level and source of protein </li></ul><ul><li>N:S Ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency of feeding </li></ul><ul><li>Level of urea in feed </li></ul>
  23. 24. Urea Toxicity (NH 3 Toxicity) <ul><li>Mechanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rumen [NH 3 ]  Rumen pH  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As pH  , shift from NH 4 + to NH 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NH 3 absorbed faster than NH 4 + </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver capacity to convert NH 3 to urea is exceeded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NH 3 goes to blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 mg NH 3 /100 ml plasma is toxic </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Urea Toxicity (NH 3 Toxicity) <ul><li>Signs of toxicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appear 20-30 min after urea ingestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive salivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid and labored breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tremors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incoordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to stand & tetany </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Treatment <ul><ul><li>Orally dose with 5% acetic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(~1 gal. for 1,000 lb cow) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shift equilibrium from NH 3 to NH 4 + </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> rate of absorption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vinegar drenching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drench with cold water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> rumen temp. which  rate of urea hydrolysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dilutes NH 3 concentration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Takes 6-12 gal.; not practical when several sick </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Prevention <ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix feeds well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t switch rapidly from natural protein to urea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always have feed available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t allow hungry animals access to highly palatable, high urea diet, feed, or supplement (including lick tanks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t use urea with low-energy feeds </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Multinutrient block (MNB)
  28. 29. Preparation of MNB
  29. 30. Composition of MNB
  30. 31. How to prepare?
  31. 32. Procedure
  32. 33. Average consumption
  33. 34. Characteristics
  34. 35. Characteristics
  35. 36. Signs of toxicity and corrective measure
  36. 37. Fibrolytic enzyme supplementation Enzyme is bio-molecule of protein Digestibility of fibrous material Microbial protein synthesis ADG, FCE, Milk yield and composition Break down anti-nutritional factors present in feed ingredients Xylanase, Pectinase, Cellulase, Hemicellulase, Arabinase etc.
  37. 38. Sources of feed enzymes <ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Trichoderma viridae </li></ul><ul><li>Neocalimastix frontalis </li></ul><ul><li>Aspergillus Spp. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Bacillus spp. </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrobacter spp. </li></ul><ul><li>Ruminicocus flavifaeciens </li></ul><ul><li>Ruminicocus albus </li></ul><ul><li>Transgenic plant </li></ul><ul><li>Xylanase from tobaco </li></ul>
  38. 39. Desirable characteristics of feed enzyme <ul><li>Must survive at low pH </li></ul><ul><li>Resistant to proteolytic enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerant to feed processing </li></ul><ul><li>Mixture should possesses adequate activity </li></ul>Method of Application Indirect method Direct method
  39. 40. Conservation of feed and fodders <ul><li>Fodders can be conserve as Silage and Hay </li></ul><ul><li>Silage </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anaerobic fermented feed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>possess all the quality of fodder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High moisture feed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable crops are Maize, Jowar, Grasses etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harvesting of crops at flowering stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>moisture content Should not be <60-65% </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Contd.. <ul><li>Preservatives: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Molasses (3.5-4%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urea (0.5% of wet wt.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Propionic acid (1%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formic acid (1%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lactic acid bacteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> lactic acid and acetic acid Prod n </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How silage Formed? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GF </li></ul></ul></ul>Stored Respire O 2 CO 2 5 h CH4, CO, No Organic acids Lactic, Propionic, Formic, Acetic
  41. 42. Contd.. <ul><li>Quality of silage Hay </li></ul><ul><li>pH 3.5-4.2 Drying 85-90% </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonical N <10% of total Leafy, pliable and green </li></ul><ul><li>Butyric acid: No/traces <20% moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Colour: green/brownish flowering stage </li></ul><ul><li>Taste: acidic Losses </li></ul><ul><li> Leaf shattering </li></ul><ul><li> Late cutting </li></ul><ul><li> Leaching etc. </li></ul>Silage Hay
  42. 43. Thank You

×