Value chains, innovation systems and action research:  from principles to practice  Ranjitha Puskur and Alan Duncan Januar...
Overview of the presentation <ul><li>Why a new approach for livestock development for poverty alleviation? </li></ul><ul><...
Historical approaches to livestock development  (and their shortcomings)
Adoption of new technologies by smallholders is generally low New technologies developed by researchers do not find their ...
Historical approaches to livestock development Research Extension Farmer Linear thinking
Why not? <ul><li>Lack of economic assessment? </li></ul><ul><li>Not dealing with true constraints? </li></ul><ul><li>Too k...
Example: urea straw treatment <ul><li>Technically attractive: improves nutritive value and intake of locally available res...
Features of new approaches to R4D  <ul><li>It is about change or “innovation” as an outcome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not just...
Defining principles <ul><li>integrates the perspectives, knowledge and actions of different stakeholders around a common t...
Why is innovation important?  Globalisation  (knowledge networks, markets) Institutions  (local, national, regional, globa...
What is innovation? <ul><li>“ Process  in which all types of knowledge (not just scientific and technology) are applied to...
<ul><li>If we always do </li></ul><ul><li>What we always did, </li></ul><ul><li>We will always get </li></ul><ul><li>What ...
Innovation <ul><li>Emerges from multiple interactions and joint learning among individuals and organizations  </li></ul><u...
Value chain and innovation systems Urban wholesaler Rural  Farmer Collector Urban dairy producer Urban consumer Sorghum Ru...
Embedding research and extension in a wider system Research Extension
Small holder/ Dairy cattle Hub/ Local org. Milk  collection Milk processing/ marketing Breeding services Vaccinations Dewo...
<ul><li>Do not exist ‘out there” </li></ul><ul><li>Exist “in the minds of those who define them” </li></ul><ul><li>Can be ...
Why do we need to pay attention to innovation as a process? Farmer adopting integrated system Research Technology Bulker G...
Building innovation platforms <ul><li>Landscaping to identify key actors along the value chain  </li></ul><ul><li>Understa...
Innovation platforms <ul><li>a fluid entity - evolving membership, drawing in relevant expertise depending on the problem ...
Challenges.. <ul><li>often no formal relation between the actors involved – no clear hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>where col...
Challenges.. <ul><li>requires the development by all actors involved of new ways of working together </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
What this approach is not.. <ul><li>not a fixed method, approach or specific process that can be applied as an alternative...
Livestock system context -Biophysical -Technical -Social -Economic -Political - Institutional System diagnosis Drivers/Fac...
Pilot testing  of interventions <ul><li>Design of interventions </li></ul><ul><li>-Capacity building  of actors </li></ul>...
Case study – Ada’a woreda Ethiopia <ul><li>Currently teff/vegetables – potential for dairy </li></ul>
Identify a range of technical options to offer to farmers Experimenting with stakeholder platforms for livestock developme...
Conduct focus group meetings involving stakeholders and farmers to identify constraints to improved commodity production a...
Facilitate farmers to develop a strategy for testing new fodder options
Arrange supply of appropriate inputs e.g. seed or planting material
Use interest generated by interventions to draw together stakeholder group <ul><li>Regular meetings of stakeholder group <...
Rolling action plan - example Activity Responsibility Time line Focus Group Discussion OoLA , FAP, IPMS Jan-Feb Training F...
Monitoring
Innovation processes in Ada’a Ethiopia Seed sourced 44 farmers  plant on  own fields X-bred cows  sourced Farmers  purchas...
M&E for learning For whom? Actors involved in the system Who assesses? Actors, based on their different perceptions What k...
Dimensions of IS performance <ul><li>Enhanced linkages, networking and knowledge sharing among different groups of actors ...
What needs to be scaled up/out? <ul><li>Principles and methods of stimulating local innovation processes </li></ul><ul><li...
Key questions to steps in scaling out process <ul><li>What factors can be identified as critical for making sustainable an...
Key questions to steps in scaling out process <ul><li>How  can different  actors  be  involved  in the innovation  process...
ILRI is creating and integrating knowledge to  enable diverse partners to find innovative solutions to make livestock a su...
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Value chains, innovation systems and action research: From principles to practice

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Presented by Ranjitha Puskur and Alan Duncan, January 2009

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Value chains, innovation systems and action research: From principles to practice

  1. 1. Value chains, innovation systems and action research: from principles to practice Ranjitha Puskur and Alan Duncan January 2009
  2. 2. Overview of the presentation <ul><li>Why a new approach for livestock development for poverty alleviation? </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation, Innovation Systems and Value Chains </li></ul><ul><li>Building innovation platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Learning-oriented M&E </li></ul><ul><li>Scaling up and out </li></ul>
  3. 3. Historical approaches to livestock development (and their shortcomings)
  4. 4. Adoption of new technologies by smallholders is generally low New technologies developed by researchers do not find their way into mainstream practice very easily Picture of UMB Picture of maize lablab Urea straw treatment UMB Images from FAO Cereal/legume intercropping
  5. 5. Historical approaches to livestock development Research Extension Farmer Linear thinking
  6. 6. Why not? <ul><li>Lack of economic assessment? </li></ul><ul><li>Not dealing with true constraints? </li></ul><ul><li>Too knowledge intensive? </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of systems to sustain new technologies e.g. seed systems </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of attention to market for product </li></ul>
  7. 7. Example: urea straw treatment <ul><li>Technically attractive: improves nutritive value and intake of locally available resource </li></ul><ul><li>Successful in China where paddy straw available in excess, govt campaigns to push, subsidies on urea </li></ul><ul><li>Otherwise only works where researchers are present and yet …. still commonly “pushed” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Features of new approaches to R4D <ul><li>It is about change or “innovation” as an outcome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not just about information, knowledge or technology as a product </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It places “research/technology”, as one of the components contributing to the development process, rather than its pivotal point </li></ul><ul><li>It focuses on processes and performance rather than just </li></ul><ul><li>products (technologies, </li></ul><ul><li>policies) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Defining principles <ul><li>integrates the perspectives, knowledge and actions of different stakeholders around a common theme. </li></ul><ul><li>integrates the learning by stakeholders from working together. </li></ul><ul><li>integrates analysis, action and change across the different (environmental, social, economic) “dimensions” of development. </li></ul>
  10. 10.
  11. 11. Why is innovation important? Globalisation (knowledge networks, markets) Institutions (local, national, regional, global) Markets (consumption, supermarkets, integration) Policy (decentralisation, privatisation) <ul><ul><li>Population pressure Climate change </li></ul></ul>Emerging infectious diseases Intensification Evolving challenges and opportunities Huge implications for livestock-dependent poor and women
  12. 12. What is innovation? <ul><li>“ Process in which all types of knowledge (not just scientific and technology) are applied to achieve desired social and economic outcomes” </li></ul><ul><li>“ It is the process by which social actors create value from knowledge”- Paul Engel </li></ul><ul><li>Technological </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional (way things are routinely done) </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational </li></ul><ul><li>Policy </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>If we always do </li></ul><ul><li>What we always did, </li></ul><ul><li>We will always get </li></ul><ul><li>What we always got!!! </li></ul>
  14. 14. Innovation <ul><li>Emerges from multiple interactions and joint learning among individuals and organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>possessing different types of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>within a particular social, economic, political, policy and institutional context </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Innovation processes can be enhanced by creating more possibilities for actors to interact - ( key actors along the value chain – innovation platforms ) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Value chain and innovation systems Urban wholesaler Rural Farmer Collector Urban dairy producer Urban consumer Sorghum Rural farmer Chopped stover Collector Bagged stover Urban wholesaler Raw milk Urban dairy producer Proc. Milk Urban consumer
  16. 16. Embedding research and extension in a wider system Research Extension
  17. 17. Small holder/ Dairy cattle Hub/ Local org. Milk collection Milk processing/ marketing Breeding services Vaccinations Deworming Disease Investigation Veterinary services Breed selection Superior germplasm Performance evaluation Lab services Input supply Paravet Veterinarian Seeds Fertilizers Feed/Minerals Micro-finance Crop residues Fodder production Pasture development Water conservation / supply Fodder producers / Traders Plant breeders Soil scientists Small Scale Dairy value chain Training / Capacity building Monitoring / Evaluation Consumer
  18. 18. <ul><li>Do not exist ‘out there” </li></ul><ul><li>Exist “in the minds of those who define them” </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used in 2 different ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As an analytical framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a framework to achieve social change </li></ul></ul>IS and VC ..
  19. 19.
  20. 20. Why do we need to pay attention to innovation as a process? Farmer adopting integrated system Research Technology Bulker Goat Value Chain ‘ PULL’ Retail markets Supermarkets Restaurants Processor Veterinary Value Chain Genetics Value Chain Feed Value Chain Knowledge Market Information Credit Policy Organisational ‘ PUSH’ How do we get all of these actors working together to identify problems and co-create solutions as the value chains evolve?
  21. 21. Building innovation platforms <ul><li>Landscaping to identify key actors along the value chain </li></ul><ul><li>Understand their habits and practices; incentives and motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Joint action </li></ul><ul><li>M&L for course correction and lesson learning </li></ul>
  22. 22. Innovation platforms <ul><li>a fluid entity - evolving membership, drawing in relevant expertise depending on the problem being addressed </li></ul><ul><li>facilitate dialogue between the main local players in the value chain </li></ul><ul><li>identify bottlenecks and opportunities in production, marketing and the policy environment </li></ul><ul><li>identify market requirements (quantity, quality, and the timing of sales) </li></ul><ul><li>analyse existing production strategies </li></ul><ul><li>identify and implement technologies to improve production to fulfill market demand </li></ul>
  23. 23. Challenges.. <ul><li>often no formal relation between the actors involved – no clear hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>where collaboration does not happen spontaneously, “institutional vacuum” at the inter-organisational level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>makes innovation difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>raises complex questions on governance and management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>negotiating mutually agreed action plans between the different independent actors involved is a challenge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>concerted implementation of these plans is an even bigger challenge! </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Challenges.. <ul><li>requires the development by all actors involved of new ways of working together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>new rules and regulations, new codes of conduct and conflict resolution, etc., i.e. new institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>can result from a process of institutional and behavioural change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>requires an enabling environment and external facilitation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>leadership and the existence of champions very important to form innovation partnerships and make them work </li></ul>
  25. 25. What this approach is not.. <ul><li>not a fixed method, approach or specific process that can be applied as an alternative to “conventional” research and development </li></ul><ul><li>the conceptualisation and practice needs to go beyond methods or approaches to include changes of personal skills, mindsets and attitudes, organisational practices and culture, and the ways in which organisations interact as part of the wider “innovation system” </li></ul>
  26. 26. Livestock system context -Biophysical -Technical -Social -Economic -Political - Institutional System diagnosis Drivers/Factors -Preferences -Policy and institutions -Knowledge -Culture -Risk and vulnerability –Infrastructure Environment - Technology Current state of a agricultural issue Current actors, alignment and practices
  27. 27. Pilot testing of interventions <ul><li>Design of interventions </li></ul><ul><li>-Capacity building of actors </li></ul><ul><li>-Enrolment and alignment of actors </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Technical options </li></ul>Baseline Context Drivers Actors Linkages Changes -Actors- Institutions -Alignment -Organizations -Practices -Policy M&E and Learning Lessons and principles
  28. 28. Case study – Ada’a woreda Ethiopia <ul><li>Currently teff/vegetables – potential for dairy </li></ul>
  29. 29. Identify a range of technical options to offer to farmers Experimenting with stakeholder platforms for livestock development – the process
  30. 30. Conduct focus group meetings involving stakeholders and farmers to identify constraints to improved commodity production and ways of alleviating them
  31. 31. Facilitate farmers to develop a strategy for testing new fodder options
  32. 32. Arrange supply of appropriate inputs e.g. seed or planting material
  33. 33. Use interest generated by interventions to draw together stakeholder group <ul><li>Regular meetings of stakeholder group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Update rolling action plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree joint actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occasional field days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ad hoc meetings on specific issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>initiated by FAP but with a vision for this role to be passed on </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Rolling action plan - example Activity Responsibility Time line Focus Group Discussion OoLA , FAP, IPMS Jan-Feb Training FAP , EMDTI, IPMS, DZARC, OoLA Mar-Apr Forage Seed Supply OoLA , FAP, IPMS, Crop Grow May Cross bred cows faciliatation OoLA , Adaa Dairy Coop, EMDTI, DZARC Year round Ensuring AI and Vet Services OoLA , IPMS, Land Olakes, DZARC Year round Facilitating Milk transport and Marketing OoLA , Adaa Dairy Coop, FAP, Adaa Dairy Coop, Coop Promotion Year round Facilitating Credit Access Coop Promotion , IPMS Year round Rapid Market Appraisal for milk and feed FAP , EMDTI, IPMS, DZARC, OoLA Feb Facilitate Stake holders Platform OoLA , FAP, IPMS Year round Fodder - Dairy Economics FAP , EMDTI, DZARC, OoLA Jan-Mar Monitoring & Evaluation of all activities OoLA , OoARD, all other stake holders Year round Documentation of activities and processes OoLA, FAP, IPMS Year round Over all Coordination OoARD , OoLA, FAP Year round
  35. 35. Monitoring
  36. 36. Innovation processes in Ada’a Ethiopia Seed sourced 44 farmers plant on own fields X-bred cows sourced Farmers purchase seed 60 farmers plant on own fields Milk transport issues voiced May 2008 Oct 2009 Fodder options identified Dairy co-op formed Milk transport negotiations ongoing Organisational innovation Technical innovation
  37. 37. M&E for learning For whom? Actors involved in the system Who assesses? Actors, based on their different perceptions What kind of indicators? Primarily process indicators Time frame Continuous, periodical How is assessment done? Self assessment, group reflection, interaction What is the product? Lessons learned, improved practices, redefined objectives of needed For what use? Track progress, improve performance, strengthen capacity, advocacy, feed into planning
  38. 38. Dimensions of IS performance <ul><li>Enhanced linkages, networking and knowledge sharing among different groups of actors </li></ul><ul><li>Improved institutional and policy environment and increased resource mobilization </li></ul><ul><li>Improved information, communication and marketing infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced capacity at individual, organizational and inter-organizational levels </li></ul><ul><li>Increased value created </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced market opportunities/access; value chain development and income growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced natural resource use and eco-system performance </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. What needs to be scaled up/out? <ul><li>Principles and methods of stimulating local innovation processes </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons from experience in supporting institutional change </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons in building multi-stakeholder partnerships to create enabling conditions for local innovation processes </li></ul>
  40. 40. Key questions to steps in scaling out process <ul><li>What factors can be identified as critical for making sustainable an innovation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-economic-cultural embedding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How to identify end-users, actors and parties directly or indirectly affected by the introduction of innovation? </li></ul>
  41. 41. Key questions to steps in scaling out process <ul><li>How can different actors be involved in the innovation process ? </li></ul><ul><li>At which stage and to what extent they may influence the change ? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the best level of participation ? </li></ul>
  42. 42. ILRI is creating and integrating knowledge to enable diverse partners to find innovative solutions to make livestock a sustainable pathway out of poverty

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