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Rice fallows - An opportunity for horizontal expansion of pulses

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Oral Presentation 17 by Masood Ali at the International Conference on Pulses in Marrakesh, Morocco, 18-20 April 2016

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Rice fallows - An opportunity for horizontal expansion of pulses

  1. 1. Rice fallows- An opportunity for horizontal expansion of pulses Masood Ali, SS Singh Ashutosh Sarker and S K Agrawal ICAR-Indian Institute of Pulses Research Kanpur International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
  2. 2. • Introduction • Distribution of rice fallows • Bio-physical and production constraints • Research & developmental efforts • Technologies in shelf • Recommendations Outlines
  3. 3. • Low-land, mono- cropped rice under rainfed eco-system • Remain fallow during winter due to inadequate moisture /excessive moisture in surface soil at planting time of winter crops
  4. 4. Assam Jharkhand Eastern Region s Central Region Costal Peninsula Rice fallows in India (11.65 million ha) Eastern Region : 5.7 m ha Hot dry sub-humid, cool winter, poor drainage, deep Alluvial , mod. calcareous (1200-1700 mm rainfall) Central Region : 4.4 m ha Dry/moist sub-humid, silty clay- clay, 1200-1600 mm rainfall, cool winter Coastal region: 0.48 m ha Dry sub-humid, mild winter, bi- modal rains (1000-1200 mm), soils mod. alkaline
  5. 5. Bio-physical and production constraints in Rice Fallows A. Bio-physical •Rainfed ecology •High run-off and low moisture storage •Water stagnation/excessive moisture in coastal region and low residual moisture in central region •Hard soils after puddle rice, develops cracks •Low organic matter content •Terminal drought & heat stresses
  6. 6. B. Production constraints •Narrow window for planting •Lack of short duration and high yielding varieties •Poor plant stand (poor soil-seed contact in relay sowing) •No use of fertilizers/chemicals •Severe weed infestation including parasitic weeds •High incidence of diseases: powdery mildew- urdbean and mungbean, rust- lentil, wilt complex - chickpea •Moisture stress and terminal drought
  7. 7. C. Socio-economic constraints •Resource-poor farmers •Lack of credit and market infrastructure •Non-availability of critical inputs •Scarcity of human labours after rice harvest (migration to urban areas) •Lack of mechanization/ draft power •Stray cattle
  8. 8. Poor plant population in relay sowing
  9. 9. Stray animals and un-controlled grazing-a social problem Blue Bull menace
  10. 10. Planting system in rice fallows Relay After rice harvest
  11. 11. Rice-lentil Rice-Grasspea Rice-Urdbean/Mungbean Rice-pulse relay cropping
  12. 12. International • ICRISAT: Enhancing chickpea production in rainfed rice fallow land of Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh, 2008 • ICARDA: Expanding lentil production in Eastern and North-eastern states under rice based production system in India, 2010 • ICARDA: Enhancing grasspea production in Eastern and North- eastern states under rice based production system in India, 2010 • OFID-ICARDA: Enhancing pulse production through intensification of rice fallows with pulse as a second crop, 2013, Nepal, Bangladesh R & D Efforts
  13. 13. Lentil grown in Rice-fallow Kamrup Manipur
  14. 14. Improved v/s local varieties of grasspea across project sites (2013-14 and 2014-15) 955.134 1356.25 1193.5 437.5 707.8 1033 835.5 201 44.61 32.85 92.5 118.25 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Nirmal Ratan Prateek Mahateora Demonstration yield (Kg/ha) Farmers’ practice (Kg/ha) % increase
  15. 15. Yield advantage in lentil over farmers’ practice across project sites (2013-14 and 2014-15) 1354 1032.5 1123 1161.6 996 1135.165 1109 678 706.5 746 753.3 729 713.5 769 60.86 47.39 52.13 54.05 35.37 59.96 44.2 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Moitree KLS-218 IPL-406 HUL-57 PL-6 PL-8 PL-7 Demonstration yield (Kg/ha) Farmers’ practice (Kg/ha) % increase
  16. 16. Glimpses of capacity development No. of capacity development Male Female Total 211 7105 1699 8804
  17. 17. National: • All India Coordinated Pulse Improvement Project, 1967 • AICRP on Mungbean, Urdbean, Lentil, Lathyrus, Rajmash (French bean) and Peas, 1995 • Mitigating abiotic stresses and enhancing resource-use efficiency in pulses in rice fallows , 2010 • National Food Security Mission, 2007 • Brainstorming meeting on rice fallows, 2013 • Strategy workshop on pulses-April 2016 Research & Developmental Efforts
  18. 18. CONVENER Masood Ali Co- CONVENERS Sajeev Gupta A Sarker
  19. 19. Technologies in shelf  Short duration and disease resistant varieties  Green manuring and application of FYM in rice crop  Zero-till drill  Enhanced seed rate under relay cropping  Seed priming  Seed treatment (Rhizobium and fungicides)  Management of rice stubbles
  20. 20. Contd….  Spray post- emergence herbicides  Seed coating with micronutrients  Foliar spray of 2% urea/DAP  Adoption of suitable IPM module  Water harvesting (farm ponds, community reservoirs) and recycling (sprinkler)
  21. 21. Potential pulse crops identified for rice-fallows in different states of India Pulse crops States Lentil Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand Grass pea Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal Chickpea Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Jharkhand Mungbean Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka Urdbean Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Odisha
  22. 22. Rice ratoon extracts 20-25 % of soil moisture over non-ratoon Ratoon rice
  23. 23. Spray Quizolofop- N- ethyl (post-emergence) herbicide Interventions to avoid regeneration Low ratooning rice line (IET 4786)
  24. 24. Characteristics of crop varieties • Early seedling vigor • Early maturity • Small seed size • Resistant/tolerant to key diseases • Drought and heat tolerance • Amenable to mechanical harvesting
  25. 25. Improved Varieties Lentil: HUL 57, moitree, NDL 1, Pant L 8, Pant L 6, IPL 81, KLS 218 Urdbean: LBG 17, LBG 402, LBG 623, KU 301, TU 94-2 Chickpea: BG 372, PG 186, JG 315, JG 16, JG 14 Mungbean: LGG 450, Pusa 9072, Pairymung, TM 96-2. TARM 1 Grasspea: Ratan, Prateek, Mahateora
  26. 26. Soaking seeds in water for 6-8 hrs and sowing of primed seed at 8-10 days before harvest of rice Improves germination, growth, plant stand and yield Seed Priming- a simple and effective practice in relay cropping Further refinement •Soaking seeds in KH2PO4 solution •Sowing methods for primed seed under minimum tillage •Optimum seed rate
  27. 27. Further refinement • Formulation with micronutrients, growth hormones and PGPR •Seed pellets with nutrients Foliar Nutrition- a low cost effective intervention Effective in both under relay cropping or zero tillage system • Spray of 2% urea/ DAP @ pre-flowering stage
  28. 28. Quizalofop @ 100g/ha for rice stubble management Use of herbicides- an important intervention Imazethapyr @ 50g/ha at 2-4 leaf stage for seasonal weeds
  29. 29. 20 cm rice stubbleResidue removal Mulching Planting lentil after harvest of rice crop 0-5 cm 5-10 cm 10-15 cm Moisture extraction pattern under stubble management in lentil
  30. 30. Significant yield gain due to life saving irrigation with minimal amount of water (2.0 cm) under severe moisture stress in rice fallow pulses Water harvesting and life saving irrigation Life saving irrigation through sprinkler system
  31. 31. Mechanization (A)Opening furrow, placing fertilizer, seeds and covering of seeds (B) Manual furrow opener (C) Manually operated IIPR No- Till Drill (D) Tractor Operated Happy Seeder
  32. 32. Drainage channel 30 x 30 cm around the field Avoid water stagnation in Rice fallows ( provision for Proper drainage)
  33. 33. Recommendations • Disaggregated mapping of rice fallows • Consolidation of R & D activities • Pilot projects • System approach • Development of short duration, high yielding and disease resistant varieties having tolerance to terminal drought and heat stress • Scaling-up crop management practices • Rural credit and market I. R & D Issues
  34. 34.  Public awareness  Creation of community water reservoirs  Solar energy operated shallow tube wells  Creation of seed hubs  Mechanization of field operation  Rural credit  Road and marketing infrastructure  Legislation for containing menace of blue bulls II. Policy issues
  35. 35. Pulses in Rice fallows……. ……..brings Prosperity & Sustainability
  36. 36. Assessing optimum soil moisture for relay sowing
  37. 37. Reasons for fallows  Rainfed/ Lack of irrigation  Highly variable and inadequate monsoonal rains; very low probability of winter rains  Low soil moisture in surface layer after harvest of rice  Water stagnation/excessive moisture in November/December
  38. 38.  Soil compaction and cracks in Vertisols  Cultivation of long duration rice varieties  Lack of appropriate varieties of winter crops for late planting  Lack of public awareness, R & D efforts and policy support  Stray cattle Cont.….
  39. 39. Rice fallows in India State Kharif-rice area ('000 ha) Rabi-fallow ('000 ha) Rice-fallow area as % of kharif rice area % of total rabi- fallow area Andhra Pradesh 2657 305 11.5 2.6 Assam 2234 539 24.1 4.6 Bihar 5974 2196 36.8 18.9 Karnataka 984 182 18.5 1.6 Madhya Pradesh 5596 4382 78.3 37.6 Maharashtra 1762 629 35.7 5.4 Orissa 3879 1219 31.4 10.5 Uttar Pradesh 6255 353 5.6 3.0 West Bengal 4617 1719 37.2 14.8 Others 2378 128 5.4 0.4 Total 40,184 11,652 29.0 100.0
  40. 40. Selection of appropriate variety of rice and pulses
  41. 41. Timely sowing under relay cropping
  42. 42. Mulching / complete soil cover

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