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PULSES
Presented by:
Anand S. Thokal
Rakesh B. R.
Flow of Presentation:
• Introduction
• India and world scenario
• Trends in supply and consumption
• Trends in organization of food systems
• References
• Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy contributing 13.7% of its total
GDP and employing around 55% of the total working population in India.
• Around 65% of India’s total population is dependent upon agriculture and allied
sectors
• Various cereals (wheat, rice etc.), pulses such as (tur, gram etc.) and oilseeds
(groundnut, soybean) are produced largely in India
• India is the world’s largest producer and consumer of pulses accounting about
27 percent of the total production and about 30 percent of the total consumption
in the world
• The total production of pulses in India during the year 2013-14 was 18.5 million
tons
Introduction
Source:- DES
70
79 79 78 79
64
70 68 70 71
0
20
40
60
80
100
2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
World total area and production of pulses
Area(mha) Production(mt)
World and Indian Scenario:
• There has been
approximately
20% increase in
area under
cultivation of
pulses and, 40%
increase in its
production in the
world since 2000-
01
840
811
823
848 855
828
815
851
918
881
859
908 910
750
800
850
900
950
2001 '02 '03 '04 '05 '06 '07 '08 '09 '10 '11 '12 '13
Yield(kg/ha)
World average yield(kg/ha) of pulses
Yield(kg/ha)
Source:- www.ipga.co.in
18.5
6.02
4.96 4.34 3.89
0
5
10
15
20
India Burma Canada China Australia
Production(mt) Production(million tons) of pulses for major
countries (2013-14)
Production
• The world total
production of pulses is
around 72 mt in the year
2013-14.
• India is the highest
producer of pulses in the
world with its best 18.5 mt
pulses
730
1900
1100
1900
980
0
500
1000
1500
2000
India Canada Australia USA Myanmar
Yield(kg/ha)
Yield(in kg/ha) of pulses for major countries
(2013-14)
Yield
• Canada is having the
highest productivity in the
world.
• India has an average
productivity of 730kg/ha
in the year 2013-14
• The world average yield
was 910 kg/ha
Source: www.factfish.com
1722
854 808 795 719
513
0
500
1000
1500
2000
0
1
2
3
4
Canada China Australia Myanmar USA India
Value(millionUSD)
Exportquantity(mt) Export and export value for pulses in various
countries (2012-13)
Export(MMT) Value(million USD)
Source: agriexchange.apeda.gov.in
Canada is the largest exporter of pulses whereas India ranks 6th with an
export of 0.162 MMT and an export value of 513 million USD
• India accounts for about 35% of the world area and 27% of the world
production of pulses.
• Pulses are grown in India in an area of 26-27 million hectares with an
annual production of 17-19 million tons (mt) of which 87% is rain fed
• About 90% of the global pigeon pea, 65% of chickpea and 37% of lentil area
falls in India, corresponding to 93%, 68% and 32% of the global production,
respectively.
Trends in supply and consumption:
Source:- FAOSTAT
6.4
4.69 4.2
7.12
6.06 6.19
7
8.36
9.88 10.46 11.12 11.03 11.26 11.5
14.76 14.57 14.66
18.24
17.09 17.45
18.5
0
5
10
15
20
2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
Production(mt)
Pulses production in India
Kharif Rabi Total
Source: DES-Directorate of Economics and Statistics
The production of pulses in India
increased by 3.35% per annum
during the last decade
In the year 2013-14, India produced 19.5mt pulses, that being its best
performance till this year
The production of pulses in India
in MY 2014-15 in estimated to
18mt, slightly less than 2013-14
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
0
200
400
600
800
2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
Area(mha)
Yield(kg/ha)
Yield and area under production of
pulses in India
Yield(kg/ha) Area(mha)
• The average yield in
India has increased by
100 kg/ha (around 15%)
since 2009-10, yet it is
below world average of
910 kg/ha.
• The area under
production has
increased from 23mha
in 2009 to 27mha in
2013
14.7
18.2
17.1 17.45
18.5
3.4 2.5 3.3 3.5 3
18.1
20.7 20.4 20.95 21.5
0
5
10
15
20
25
2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
milliontons
Production, import and supply of pulses
in India
Production Import Total Supply
• The ever increasing
demand of pulses
in India has yet not
been satisfied by its
production
• The current supply
of pulses is 22.5mt
Source:- www.indiastat.com
Major pulses in India and their production
• Production of gram is highest among pulses i.e. 8.8mt in India which is
followed by tur 3.2mt
• India exports a large amount of gram/chickpea to countries like
Pakistan, Turkey etc
Source:- DOC
1.6 1.5
2.03
1.37 1.33
3.29
2.53
3.23
3.7
3.38
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
Qtyinmt Import of pulses in India
Peas Chickpea Moong/Urad Lentil Pegionpea Total
• It can be observed
that peas are imported
in more quantity as
compared to other
pulses
• It shows the demand
of peas by Indian
population
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
Qtyin‘000’MT
Export of pulses from India
Chickpea Total
• India exports only
chickpea. Other
pulses’ export has
been banned under
The Essential
Commodities Act,
1955
Source:- DOC, DEC
Source:- DOC
• Currently, export of pulses is prohibited except Chickpea (Kabuli Chana) and organic
pulses including lentils upto 10,000 MT per annum.
• India is also the largest pulses processor, as pulses exporting nations such as
Myanmar, Canada and Australia, do not have adequate pulses processing facility.
• Pakistan,
Turkey, Algeria
and Sri-Lanka
are the major
pulses exporting
destinations for
India
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
QuantityinMMT
Major export destinations of pulses for India
Export Quantity(MMT)
• Canada, Myanmar, Australia, USSR are some major sources for import of
pulses in India
• Some of the imported pulses are processed and re-exported to countries
like Myanmar, Australia etc.
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
QuantityinMMT
Major import sources of pulses for India
Import (Qty in
MMT)
Source:- www.ipga.co.in
Import of pulses in India
is free.
State wise statistics of pulses in India
24%
15%
13%10%
38%
Major states producing
pulses(Kharif)
Maharashtra
Rajasthan
UP
MP
Others
33%
19%11%
9%
28%
Major states producing pulses(Rabi)
MP
UP
AP
Maharashtra
Others
• Maharashtra has the
largest production in karif
season followed by
Rajasthan and UP
• MP has the largest
production during rabi
season followed by UP
and AP
Source:- DEC
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
MP RJ MH UP AP
Yield(kg/ha)
Area(mha)andproduction(mt)
Area(mha)
Production(mt)
Yield(kg/ha)
Area, production and yield of gram in major states of India
• MP has the highest
area under cultivation
(3.1mha) and largest
production (3.3mt)
• However, the highest
productivity in India is
in Gujarat, with
1138kg/ha, followed
by Bihar having
1134kg/ha
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
MH KN MP UP GJ
Yield(kg/ha)
Area(mha)andproduction(mt)
Area(mha)
Production(mt)
Yield(kg/ha)
• Maharashtra is the
largest producer of tur
(0.9mt) having largest
area under cultivation
(1.21mha)
• Birhar has the highest
productivity of tur with
1897kg/ha
Area, Production and yield of tur in major states of India
Source:- oar.icrisat.org
Trends in organization of food systems:
2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
Tur 2300 3000 3200 3850 4300 4350
Moong 2760 3170 3500 4400 4500 4600
Urad 2520 2900 3300 4300 4300 4350
Gram 1730 1760 2100 2800 3000 3100
Lentil 1870 1870 2250 2800 2900 2950
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
(INR)
MSP of pulses in India during 2009-2014
Tur Moong Urad Gram Lentil
• The MSP can
be observed to
be gradually
increasing
every year.
• Farmers are
very well
encouraged by
such MSP for
more and more
production of
pulses
Source:- www.indiastat.com
Supply chain for pulses in India
Source:-agropedia.iitk.ac.in
Schemes for pulses in India
National Pulses Development Project (1970)
• Centrally sponsored project implemented in 26 states/UTs with 75:25 funding between GOI and
states during 6th five year plan respectively
• Emphasis on increasing the area covered as well as the yield per unit area
• Some major components of project were:
1. Production and distribution of certified seed
2. Distribution of Seed Minikits
3. Organization of Frontline Demonstration by ICAR
4. Organization of I.P.M. Demonstrations including the use of Pheromone Traps
5. Distribution of Improved Farm implements
6. Distribution of Sprinkler sets
7. Distribution of Rhizobium Cultures/PSB
Special Food Grain Production Program (1988)
• 100% central assistance basis
• To support the NPDP objectives
Source:- agricoop.nic.in
Schemes cont..
Technology Mission on Oilseeds
and Pulses, 1991
• For increasing the production of pulses to
attain self-sufficiency
• Oilseed Production Program(OPP),
NPDP, Post Harvest Technology(PHT), Oil
Palm Development Program(OPDP),
Accelerated Maize Development
Program(AMDP) and National Oilseeds
and Vegetable Oils Development
Board(NOVODB) came under this project
• Implementation of National Pulses
Development Project has helped in
increasing the production of pulses from
12.86 million tons in 1989-90 to 15.23
million tons during 2003-04 with a
marginal decline 1999-2000 to 2002-03
due to drought
Integrated Scheme on Oilseeds,
Pulses, Oil palm and Maize, 2004
• The four erstwhile schemes of OPP,
OPDP, NPDP and AMDP had been
merged into one Centrally Sponsored
Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses,
Oil palm and Maize (ISOPOM) being
implemented from 1.4.2004
.
• Salient features:
1. Flexibility to the states to utilize funds and
introducing innovative measures
2. Annual action plan by state govt.
3. Involvement of private sector by state
govt. with a financial cap of 15%
• The pulses production in the country
increased from 12.8 mt in 1989-90 to 19.5
mt in 2013-14
Source:- dpd.dacnet.nic.in
National Food Security Mission (2007)
• Implemented in 17 states(476 districts)
of the country
• To increase production and yield of
wheat, rice and pulses by 8mt, 10mt
and 2mt resp. by the end of 11th five
year plan
• Targeted 4mt increase in production of
pulses in 12th five year plan
• Ensure food security of the country
• Area expansion and increase
productivity and, enhance the farm
profits to restore the confidence of
farmers
• Total financial implications are Rs.
48,000cr during 11th five year plan
Accelerated Pulses Production
Program (2010)
• Launched under NFSM to
increase yield of pulses
• Bridge the yield gap of pulses
• Increasing production and
productivity of gram, urad (black
gram), arhar (redgram/pigeon
pea), moong (green gram ) and
masoor (lentils)
Schemes cont..
Source:- dpd.dacnet.nic.in
REFERENCES
• www.ipga.
• www.indiastat.nic.in
• dpd.dacnet.nic.in
• oar.icrisat.org
• agricoop.nic.in
• agropedia.iitk.ac.in
• agriexchange.apeda.gov.in
THANK YOU
Policy measures on pulses in India
Imports:
Commodity Tariff Schedule
Bound Duty Statutory Duty Applied Duty
Peas 50% 50% Nil
Chickpeas 100% 30% Nil
Moong/Urad 100% 30% Nil
Lentil 100% 30% Nil
Tur 100% 30% Nil
Source:- DOC

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Pulses: India and World

  • 1. PULSES Presented by: Anand S. Thokal Rakesh B. R.
  • 2. Flow of Presentation: • Introduction • India and world scenario • Trends in supply and consumption • Trends in organization of food systems • References
  • 3. • Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy contributing 13.7% of its total GDP and employing around 55% of the total working population in India. • Around 65% of India’s total population is dependent upon agriculture and allied sectors • Various cereals (wheat, rice etc.), pulses such as (tur, gram etc.) and oilseeds (groundnut, soybean) are produced largely in India • India is the world’s largest producer and consumer of pulses accounting about 27 percent of the total production and about 30 percent of the total consumption in the world • The total production of pulses in India during the year 2013-14 was 18.5 million tons Introduction Source:- DES
  • 4. 70 79 79 78 79 64 70 68 70 71 0 20 40 60 80 100 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 World total area and production of pulses Area(mha) Production(mt) World and Indian Scenario: • There has been approximately 20% increase in area under cultivation of pulses and, 40% increase in its production in the world since 2000- 01 840 811 823 848 855 828 815 851 918 881 859 908 910 750 800 850 900 950 2001 '02 '03 '04 '05 '06 '07 '08 '09 '10 '11 '12 '13 Yield(kg/ha) World average yield(kg/ha) of pulses Yield(kg/ha) Source:- www.ipga.co.in
  • 5. 18.5 6.02 4.96 4.34 3.89 0 5 10 15 20 India Burma Canada China Australia Production(mt) Production(million tons) of pulses for major countries (2013-14) Production • The world total production of pulses is around 72 mt in the year 2013-14. • India is the highest producer of pulses in the world with its best 18.5 mt pulses 730 1900 1100 1900 980 0 500 1000 1500 2000 India Canada Australia USA Myanmar Yield(kg/ha) Yield(in kg/ha) of pulses for major countries (2013-14) Yield • Canada is having the highest productivity in the world. • India has an average productivity of 730kg/ha in the year 2013-14 • The world average yield was 910 kg/ha Source: www.factfish.com
  • 6. 1722 854 808 795 719 513 0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 1 2 3 4 Canada China Australia Myanmar USA India Value(millionUSD) Exportquantity(mt) Export and export value for pulses in various countries (2012-13) Export(MMT) Value(million USD) Source: agriexchange.apeda.gov.in Canada is the largest exporter of pulses whereas India ranks 6th with an export of 0.162 MMT and an export value of 513 million USD
  • 7. • India accounts for about 35% of the world area and 27% of the world production of pulses. • Pulses are grown in India in an area of 26-27 million hectares with an annual production of 17-19 million tons (mt) of which 87% is rain fed • About 90% of the global pigeon pea, 65% of chickpea and 37% of lentil area falls in India, corresponding to 93%, 68% and 32% of the global production, respectively. Trends in supply and consumption: Source:- FAOSTAT
  • 8. 6.4 4.69 4.2 7.12 6.06 6.19 7 8.36 9.88 10.46 11.12 11.03 11.26 11.5 14.76 14.57 14.66 18.24 17.09 17.45 18.5 0 5 10 15 20 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 Production(mt) Pulses production in India Kharif Rabi Total Source: DES-Directorate of Economics and Statistics The production of pulses in India increased by 3.35% per annum during the last decade In the year 2013-14, India produced 19.5mt pulses, that being its best performance till this year The production of pulses in India in MY 2014-15 in estimated to 18mt, slightly less than 2013-14
  • 9. 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 0 200 400 600 800 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 Area(mha) Yield(kg/ha) Yield and area under production of pulses in India Yield(kg/ha) Area(mha) • The average yield in India has increased by 100 kg/ha (around 15%) since 2009-10, yet it is below world average of 910 kg/ha. • The area under production has increased from 23mha in 2009 to 27mha in 2013 14.7 18.2 17.1 17.45 18.5 3.4 2.5 3.3 3.5 3 18.1 20.7 20.4 20.95 21.5 0 5 10 15 20 25 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 milliontons Production, import and supply of pulses in India Production Import Total Supply • The ever increasing demand of pulses in India has yet not been satisfied by its production • The current supply of pulses is 22.5mt Source:- www.indiastat.com
  • 10. Major pulses in India and their production • Production of gram is highest among pulses i.e. 8.8mt in India which is followed by tur 3.2mt • India exports a large amount of gram/chickpea to countries like Pakistan, Turkey etc Source:- DOC
  • 11. 1.6 1.5 2.03 1.37 1.33 3.29 2.53 3.23 3.7 3.38 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 Qtyinmt Import of pulses in India Peas Chickpea Moong/Urad Lentil Pegionpea Total • It can be observed that peas are imported in more quantity as compared to other pulses • It shows the demand of peas by Indian population 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 Qtyin‘000’MT Export of pulses from India Chickpea Total • India exports only chickpea. Other pulses’ export has been banned under The Essential Commodities Act, 1955 Source:- DOC, DEC
  • 12. Source:- DOC • Currently, export of pulses is prohibited except Chickpea (Kabuli Chana) and organic pulses including lentils upto 10,000 MT per annum. • India is also the largest pulses processor, as pulses exporting nations such as Myanmar, Canada and Australia, do not have adequate pulses processing facility. • Pakistan, Turkey, Algeria and Sri-Lanka are the major pulses exporting destinations for India 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 QuantityinMMT Major export destinations of pulses for India Export Quantity(MMT)
  • 13. • Canada, Myanmar, Australia, USSR are some major sources for import of pulses in India • Some of the imported pulses are processed and re-exported to countries like Myanmar, Australia etc. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 QuantityinMMT Major import sources of pulses for India Import (Qty in MMT) Source:- www.ipga.co.in Import of pulses in India is free.
  • 14. State wise statistics of pulses in India 24% 15% 13%10% 38% Major states producing pulses(Kharif) Maharashtra Rajasthan UP MP Others 33% 19%11% 9% 28% Major states producing pulses(Rabi) MP UP AP Maharashtra Others • Maharashtra has the largest production in karif season followed by Rajasthan and UP • MP has the largest production during rabi season followed by UP and AP Source:- DEC
  • 15. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 MP RJ MH UP AP Yield(kg/ha) Area(mha)andproduction(mt) Area(mha) Production(mt) Yield(kg/ha) Area, production and yield of gram in major states of India • MP has the highest area under cultivation (3.1mha) and largest production (3.3mt) • However, the highest productivity in India is in Gujarat, with 1138kg/ha, followed by Bihar having 1134kg/ha 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 MH KN MP UP GJ Yield(kg/ha) Area(mha)andproduction(mt) Area(mha) Production(mt) Yield(kg/ha) • Maharashtra is the largest producer of tur (0.9mt) having largest area under cultivation (1.21mha) • Birhar has the highest productivity of tur with 1897kg/ha Area, Production and yield of tur in major states of India Source:- oar.icrisat.org
  • 16. Trends in organization of food systems: 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 Tur 2300 3000 3200 3850 4300 4350 Moong 2760 3170 3500 4400 4500 4600 Urad 2520 2900 3300 4300 4300 4350 Gram 1730 1760 2100 2800 3000 3100 Lentil 1870 1870 2250 2800 2900 2950 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 (INR) MSP of pulses in India during 2009-2014 Tur Moong Urad Gram Lentil • The MSP can be observed to be gradually increasing every year. • Farmers are very well encouraged by such MSP for more and more production of pulses Source:- www.indiastat.com
  • 17. Supply chain for pulses in India Source:-agropedia.iitk.ac.in
  • 18. Schemes for pulses in India National Pulses Development Project (1970) • Centrally sponsored project implemented in 26 states/UTs with 75:25 funding between GOI and states during 6th five year plan respectively • Emphasis on increasing the area covered as well as the yield per unit area • Some major components of project were: 1. Production and distribution of certified seed 2. Distribution of Seed Minikits 3. Organization of Frontline Demonstration by ICAR 4. Organization of I.P.M. Demonstrations including the use of Pheromone Traps 5. Distribution of Improved Farm implements 6. Distribution of Sprinkler sets 7. Distribution of Rhizobium Cultures/PSB Special Food Grain Production Program (1988) • 100% central assistance basis • To support the NPDP objectives Source:- agricoop.nic.in
  • 19. Schemes cont.. Technology Mission on Oilseeds and Pulses, 1991 • For increasing the production of pulses to attain self-sufficiency • Oilseed Production Program(OPP), NPDP, Post Harvest Technology(PHT), Oil Palm Development Program(OPDP), Accelerated Maize Development Program(AMDP) and National Oilseeds and Vegetable Oils Development Board(NOVODB) came under this project • Implementation of National Pulses Development Project has helped in increasing the production of pulses from 12.86 million tons in 1989-90 to 15.23 million tons during 2003-04 with a marginal decline 1999-2000 to 2002-03 due to drought Integrated Scheme on Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil palm and Maize, 2004 • The four erstwhile schemes of OPP, OPDP, NPDP and AMDP had been merged into one Centrally Sponsored Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil palm and Maize (ISOPOM) being implemented from 1.4.2004 . • Salient features: 1. Flexibility to the states to utilize funds and introducing innovative measures 2. Annual action plan by state govt. 3. Involvement of private sector by state govt. with a financial cap of 15% • The pulses production in the country increased from 12.8 mt in 1989-90 to 19.5 mt in 2013-14 Source:- dpd.dacnet.nic.in
  • 20. National Food Security Mission (2007) • Implemented in 17 states(476 districts) of the country • To increase production and yield of wheat, rice and pulses by 8mt, 10mt and 2mt resp. by the end of 11th five year plan • Targeted 4mt increase in production of pulses in 12th five year plan • Ensure food security of the country • Area expansion and increase productivity and, enhance the farm profits to restore the confidence of farmers • Total financial implications are Rs. 48,000cr during 11th five year plan Accelerated Pulses Production Program (2010) • Launched under NFSM to increase yield of pulses • Bridge the yield gap of pulses • Increasing production and productivity of gram, urad (black gram), arhar (redgram/pigeon pea), moong (green gram ) and masoor (lentils) Schemes cont.. Source:- dpd.dacnet.nic.in
  • 21. REFERENCES • www.ipga. • www.indiastat.nic.in • dpd.dacnet.nic.in • oar.icrisat.org • agricoop.nic.in • agropedia.iitk.ac.in • agriexchange.apeda.gov.in
  • 23. Policy measures on pulses in India Imports: Commodity Tariff Schedule Bound Duty Statutory Duty Applied Duty Peas 50% 50% Nil Chickpeas 100% 30% Nil Moong/Urad 100% 30% Nil Lentil 100% 30% Nil Tur 100% 30% Nil Source:- DOC