Singh agronomics

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Singh agronomics

  1. 1. Detrimental Effect of Soil Zinc Deficiency on Crop Productivity and Human Nutrition in India Indian Institute of Soil Science (ICAR) Bhopal-462 038, India (drmvsingh@yahoo.com) M. V. Singh Project Coordinator ALL India Coordinated Research Project of Micronutrients and Pollutants Paper presented in First global conference on Biofortification: Discovery to delivery held at Georgetown University, Washington, USA, Nov. 9-11,2010
  2. 2. Population 1,168,714,600 Children-under-5 mortality rate 79 per 1000 Vitamin A deficiency, in children 6 to 59 months old 57 per 100 Iodine deficiency 33 per 100 Prevalence of anemia, in children 6 to 59 months old 69 per 100 Prevalence of anemia, in women Zinc deficiency disorders 62 per 100 33 per 100 India - micronutrient malnutrition
  3. 3. Trends of population growth in India 0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2007 Populationinmillions Per capita cereals availability in India 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2007 Cerealg/day/capita Per capita pulse availability in India 0 20 40 60 80 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2007 gpulse/day/capita Influence of Population growth on per capita pulse and Cereals availability over the years in India
  4. 4. Demand projections for various food products in India (m t) Commodity Base year (2004-05) Projection (2020-21) Cereals 192.8 262.0 Pulse 14.2 19.1 Food grains 207.0 281.1 Edible oilseeds 35.5 53.7 Vegetables 90.6 127.2 Fresh fruits 52.9 86.2 Sugar in terms of cane 262.3 345.3 Source: Chand (2007)
  5. 5. Detrimental effect of zinc deficiency on crops It leads to poor growth, low crop yields or often entire failure of crops and low input use efficiency
  6. 6. Crops grown in problem soils suffer more with zinc deficiency and causing more loss of crop productivity Soil Type Area, m ha Salt affected soils 5.44 Salt affected water eroded 1.20 Acidic soils ( pH < 5.5) 5.09
  7. 7. Fertilizer (NPK ) response of food grain crops in irrigated areas attributed to depletion in soil zinc fertility in India (Source: Biswas and Sharma, 2008)
  8. 8. State of knowledge * Precise delineation and mapping helps in prescribing site specific micronutrient use, thereby increasing their MUE and benefits. • Indian soils are low in total and available micronutrient content. •
  9. 9. Extent of deficiency in soil in India • Zinc deficiency varied from 21 to 78% among various states. • About 50% of 260,000 samples were found deficient in zinc • Zinc deficiency in soil is expected to increase from 49% to 63% by the year 2025 as most of the marginal soils show hidden hunger.
  10. 10. Periodic changes in percent zinc deficiency (PSD) in some northern states of India during four decades Year 1968-83 1983-89 1988-97 1997-2008 State No. of Sample PSD No. of Sample PSD State No. of sample PSD No. of Samp le Punjab 13341 53 6641 37 3142 27 3790 22.6 Haryana 14472 77 13350 52 7376 28 1702 19.4 Uttar Pradesh 6093 69 5570 62 2003 3 39 1259 35.5 Mean northern India 33906 66 25561 50 3055 1 35 6751 24.2
  11. 11. Periodic changes in percent zinc deficiency (PSD) in some Middle parts of country during four decades Year 1968-83 1983-89 1988-97 1997-2008 State No. of Sample PSD No. of Sample PSD State No. of sample PSD No. of Sample Bihar 10779 54 6746 49 8435 66 721 57.0 Gujarat 21994 26 18944 22 8158 18 943 36.5 Madhya Pradesh 7643 63 8069 66 25224 37 1804 63.8 Mean middle states of country 40416 41 33759 38 41817 53 3468 55.0
  12. 12. Periodic changes in percent zinc deficiency (PSD) in some southern states of India during four decades Year 1968-83 1983-89 1988-97 1997-2008 State No. of Sample PSD No. of Sample PSD State No. of sample PSD No. of Sample Andhra Pradesh 4405 51 3304 52 3753 47 685 45.0 Tamil Nadu 7540 36 19433 48 2547 67 4581 73.9 Mean southern states of India 11945 42 22737 49 6300 55 5266 70.1 Source : Singh (2009)
  13. 13. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 North states Central states South states Overall Assessment year %Zndeficientsample 1968-83 1983-89 1988-97 1997-2008 Periodic changes in zinc deficiency in soils of India
  14. 14. Percentage of cases in different categories of response to zinc over years in farmer’s fields Source: Singh (2005) Years No. of trials Percent distribution of experiments in different response range, kg /ha < 200 200-500 500-1000 >1000 1975-76 250 44 41 15 0 1978-80 413 46 30 17 7 1981-84 489 22 40 30 8 1984-85 277 16 43 35 6 1985-86 103 21 44 27 8 1986-90 222 13 65 14 8 1990-2000 236 29 49 15 7
  15. 15. Current trend of Per cent micronutrients deficiencies in Soils Punjab District Zn Cu Fe Mn B Ludhiana 7 2 7 22 7 Muktsar 37 1 31 8 5 Patiala 12 1 5 5 36 Amritsar 22 0 4 12 - Hoshiarpur 31 6 24 25 4
  16. 16. Crop No. of Experi- ments Grain yield in NPK, kg/ha Mean grain response over NPK B:C Ratio Rs.:Re% incre- ase kg grain/ ha kg grain/ kg Zn Rice 1252 3483 6.3 219 39.9 3.0 : 1 Wheat 5172 2353 8.8 208 37.8 2.8 : 1 Maize 601 2987 7.6 226 41.1 3.1 : 1 Barley 209 2734 9.3 254 46.2 3.5 : 1 Over all 7234 2612 8.3 213 38.7 2.9 : 1 Source: Singh M. V. (2001c) Mean response to zinc application over NPK in experiments on cultivator's Fields.
  17. 17. Estimates of detrimental effects of zinc deficiency for major cereal crops economic crop production in India Crop Area sown Under major Cereals (m ha) Average yield loss compare to NPKZn (t/ha) Total grain loss in Cereal production (million ton/year)* Rice 43.77 0.219 5.272 Wheat 28.15 0.208 3.220 Maize 8.26 0.226 1.027 Total 80.18 0.212 9.350 •On an Average 55% of 7960 field trials showed yield loss if zinc deficiency is not corrected at country level **Country as whole needs 169, 535 tonnes zinc or 403, 654 t zinc sulphate/ year) considering 49% soils deficient in zinc and 50% soils needs fertilization.
  18. 18. Estimates of detrimental effects of zinc deficiency on economic loss from three major cereal crops in India Crop Economic Total loss due to Zn** deficiency equivalent (mUS $)*** Economic Net loss annual from Zn deficiency ( m US $ ) Net benefit lost from nonsupply of Zn (costing for each US $ (B:C ratio) As BONUS benefits lost from residual Zn fertility & overcoming malnutrition Rice 1226 792.8 1.83:1 Zn enriched food grain & yield increase by Zn residual fertility for 3 Major crops Wheat 899 620.0 2.23:1 Maize 175 93.2 1.14:1 Total 2200 1506 1.90:1 *Cost: fertilizer US$ 18 for 5 kg Zn/ ha, **Produce cost (US $) for 1 ton Paddy 232.56 , Wheat 279.07 , Maize 186.04
  19. 19. Influence of soil mineral status on nutritional disorders in animals emanated in various zones of India State Zone Mineral deficiency Madhya Pradesh Northern Hill zone P, Zn Central Narmada Valley P, Zn, Mn Rajasthan Semi arid zone Ca, P, Zn Arid zone Zn, Cu Haryana Irrigated Ca, P, Cu, Zn, Mn Himachal Pradesh Shivalik Hill zone Ca, Zn, K Maharashtra North Konkan Coastal Ca, P, Mg, Fe Karnataka North East Transition zone Ca, P North East Dry zone Ca, Zn Northern Dry zone Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Zn Southern Transition zone Ca, Cu, Zn Coastal zone Cu, Zn Kerala Northern zone Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Mn Tamil Nadu Rainfed Ca, P, Cu, Zn Irrigated Cu, Zn, Mn Andhra Pradesh Rainfed zone Ca, P, Cu, Zn, Mn Bihar Zone-I Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn , Co
  20. 20. District Deficiency (%) based on serum mineral Deficiency (%) based on hair mineral basis Deficiency (%) based on milk mineral basis Ca P Cu Ca Zn Mn Ca P Zn Cu Gurgaon 80 19 42 27 44 -- 30 28 51 48 Faridabad 73 06 07 41 34 -- 35 24 64 71 Kurukeshtra 21 45 -- 32 57 -- 4 69 54 65 Bhiwani 35 -- 37 27 96 99 66 62 90 29 Rohtak 29 -- 46 55 81 67 71 80 63 25 Hisar 37 13 34 36 31 30 24 51 30 6 Jhajjar 40 33 -- 1 61 12 51 97 37 90 Source: CCSHAU, Hisar Detrimental effect of soil mineral deficiencies on nutritional disorders in animals in Haryana
  21. 21. Micronutrient prescription for healthy live stock Composition of a mineral mixture for live stock ( 3 kg mixture / 100 kg feed) in Karnataka Ingredients Amounts added in g/ 3 kg mixture Dicalcium Phosphate 1650 Sodium chloride 900 Calcium carbonate 312 Magnesium carbonate 90 Ferrous sulphate 15 Zinc sulphate 7.5 Manganese dioxide 2.1 Copper sulphate 2.1 Sodium fluoride 1.5 Potassium iodide 0.3 Nutrient deficiencies in soils of Karnataka from animal health point of view Prasad et al (1999), NIANP
  22. 22. Influence of soil zinc deficiency on zinc content in crops and in human blood serum Mean zinc status Blood serum µg/ml District (A.P.) Category No.of Subject tested Soil mg/kg Plant mg/kg Men Women Deficient 18 0.37 18.2 0.49 0.52Rangga reddy Sufficient 44 0.69 26.7 0.55 0.65 Deficient 16 0.45 13.6 0.84 0.97East Godavary Sufficient 44 1.12 25.9 1.08 1.06
  23. 23. Selection of efficient plants: Wheat varieties Response to zinc BIOFORTIFICATION OF CROPS WITH ZINC
  24. 24. Zinc concentration enrichment in grain It varied with crops and crop varieties Soil Zn status yield Zinc enrichment in grain Zn deficient Soil application Foliar spray Zn moderate Soil or foliar Foliar sprays Zn adequate Foliar sprays Foliar sprays Zn sources All Zn sources ( So4/P04/ chelates/ ZnO ) are good Zn sulphate/ Zn chelate Time of application Tillering Flowering Doses 5-20kgZn/ha 0.5% spray twice
  25. 25. Effect of zinc application on zinc enrichment in grain of wheat varieties 0 20 40 60 80 JW 3020 GW 273 JW 3173 MP 373 DL 7882 PDW 233 PDW 291 P 550 PBW 343 HW 2004 HI 1544 Znconc.mg/kg No Zn Zn Sprays Foliar Sprays of 0.5% zinc sulphate solution twice at blooming stage gave higher zinc enrichment in wheat seed than soil application
  26. 26. Effect of zinc soil and foliar application on zinc enrichment in wheat varieties 0 20 40 60 80 Varieties JW 3020 G W 273 JW 3173 M P 373 DL 7882 PDW 233 PDW 291 P 550 PBW 343 HW 2004 Znconc.,mg/kg
  27. 27. Micronutrient content in Rice Varieties Rice Variety 1000 Grain wt.(gm) Zn ppm Fe ppm Mn ppm Cu ppm B ppm S % Kanak 24.2 14.2 45.9 51.1 8.2 41.9 0.077 Bhagwati 24.0 19.6 42.5 21.0 8.6 15.8 0.051 Rajshree 19.3 12.2 41.2 18.1 4.7 13.9 0.060 Gautam 18.2 18.5 47.6 21.1 12.8 17.8 0.063 Subhasini 17.5 14.7 45.9 32.3 12.9 10.7 0.049 Santosh 15.9 18.6 58.2 19.8 6.1 13.9 0.059 RAU 3036 11.4 13.6 76.2 30.8 16.4 23.9 0.088 Kasturi 10.8 11.4 56.0 22.8 5.9 23.7 0.061 Saroj 9.8 28.5 61.0 40.4 14.4 31.9 0.092
  28. 28. Zinc concentration in grain varied in crops and crop varieties Zinc enrichment or agronomic biofortification Paddy 5-8 ppm over No Zn Less than 1 time Maize/ bajra 7-18 ppm over no Zn 1-2 times Wheat/ chickpea 16-66 ppm over no Zn 2-4 times Majority of Indians have rice or maize based diet so zinc deficiency in children and human is wide spread
  29. 29. Detrimental effect of rice-red gram diet produced in zinc deficient soil (ZDS) compared to diet produced in Zinc sufficient soil (ZSS) on the apparent mineral nutrient absorption and their content in tissues of model animal (Guinea pig) Zn Fe Ca Diet ZDS ZSS ZDS ZSS ZDS ZSS Intake (mg /3 days) 517.5 777.16 1.04 0.67 5.87 7.85 Apparent absorption (mg/3day) 164.6 295.4 0.36 0.23 1.79 2.42 Percent of Intake 31.8 38.2 34.6 34.3 30.5 30.8 Liver (µg/g) 64.3 68.14 425.6 418.2 - - Femur (µg/g) 154.0 174.15 93.0 80.6 210 212 Serum (µg/g) 1.05 1.34 - - 90.1 91.1 Haemoglobin (gm %) - - 12.93 13.41 - - Source: AICRP MNS, ANGRAU
  30. 30. A. Multinutrient deficiencies in wheat B. Healthy wheat crop • Farmers are advised not to waste money on spurious materials and apply genuine zinc or manganese • Awareness of zinc or manganese deficiency to farmers is must Field day in Haryana
  31. 31. G : Popularization of technology Widely adopted technology at grassroot level. • Real constraint is genuine supply of micronutrient • material to farmers.
  32. 32. Summary and conclusions 1. Among micronutrients, Zn deficiency is the most common and widespread in soil and crops of India. 2. Zinc deficiency has extensive detrimental effect on crop yields (200-1000 kg/ha). Thus India is loosing 9.35 million tonnes food grains ( rice, wheat and maize) worth of US $ 1.506 billion annually. 3. Micronutrient deficiency leads to low zinc, iron, manganese and copper concentration in edible parts of crop produce which has detrimental effect on nutrition and health. As a consequence, it is reported that, India is spending nearly US $ 2.5 billion to prevent various diseases aroused from micronutrient malnutrition. 4. Foliar sprays of 0.5% solution is more beneficial and economical in enhancing zinc content in seed than 20 kg Zn/ha to soil.
  33. 33.  Improving ZINC fertility of ALL SOILS reduces detrimental effect of zinc on crop productivity and nutrition of humans and live stock. Location and crop specific micronutrient supply is important to save US $ 4.00 billion annually and thereby reducing drug dependence of millions of poor rural population of India. • Soil application of zinc and/or foliar sprays of zinc sulphate at blooming of crops reduces detrimental effect of zinc on YIELDS and zinc concentration in edible parts, it provides economic BENEFIT of US $ 2.00 for US $ 1.0 spent on zinc fertilization. • The increase in ZINC CONCENTRATION by 5-20 mg/kg in seed is a BONUS besides yield gains so government policy should intent to promote zinc fertilization in ALL CROPS to reduce zinc malnutrition and serve humans and animals.
  34. 34. Summary  Crop species and variety showed wide differences in zinc efficiency and their ability for absorption and translocation of micronutrient in seed and thus biofortifying efficient varieties needs promotion.  Zinc deficiency in soil is decreasing in northern part of India due regular use of zinc fertilizers while in southern parts of India it is increasing. Still zinc fertilization policy needs more attention to produce high micronutrient enriched agriculture produce. • Holistic approach and better options including efficient crop plants, suitable agronomic interventions along with favourable government policy is must to reduce detrimental effect of Zn deficiency on crop productivity, produce quality, nutrition and well being of Indians.
  35. 35. Thank You
  36. 36. Thank You
  37. 37. Future Research Needs • Developing holistic approach and better options to produce high micronutrient enriched agriculture produce for reducing drug dependence in treating micronutrient . • Identify efficient crops and varieties as master plant type having capability to produce high micronutrients enriched seed /fodder . • Better understanding of physiological mechanisms, as an marker or indicator, controlling micronutrient efficiency in crop plants at root, shoot and grain level. • Investigating plant anatomical and rhizospheric factors responsible for the variability in absorption, and translocation of micronutrient in seed and fodder of important food crops.
  38. 38. Delineation of micronutrient deficient areas & mapping Based on 2.70 lakh soil samples, micronutrient deficient areas have been delineated & mapped. As much as 49, 12, 3, 5, 33,13 soils are low in available Zn, Fe,Cu, Mn, B, and Mo, leading to lower crop productivity, production and and profits. Zinc deficiency is most common and wide spread problem. Zinc deficiency is likely to increase from 49 to 63% by the year 2025 as crops in marginal soils are showing hidden hunger. Multi nutrient deficiencies are emerging widely affecting plant, animal and human health, directly on loss in productivity, working days, high susceptibility to diseases.
  39. 39. Periodic changes in zinc deficiency in various states during four decades in India State Per cent Zn deficient soil samples ( PSD) Year 1968-83 1983-89 1988-97 1997-2008 State No. of sample PSD No. of Sample PSD No. of Sample PSD No. of sample PSD Punjab 13341 53 6641 37 3142 27 3790 22.6 Haryana 14472 77 13350 52 7376 28 1702 19.4 U.Pradesh 6093 69 5570 62 20033 39 1259 35.5 Bihar 10779 54 6746 49 8435 66 721 57.0 M.Pradesh 7643 63 8069 66 25224 38 1804 63.8 Gujarat 21994 26 18944 22 8158 18 943 36.5 Andhra Pradesh 4405 51 3304 52 3753 47 685 45.0 Tamil Nadu 7540 36 19433 48 2547 67 4581 73.9 Overall 86267 51 82057 45 53126 39 15545 43.3

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