0501 SRI An Innovative Technology to Produce more Crop per Drop


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Presented by: A. Satyanarayana

Presented at: IWMI TATA Symposium, Anand

Subject Country: India

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0501 SRI An Innovative Technology to Produce more Crop per Drop

  1. 1. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) An innovative technology to produce ‘ More crop per drop’ Dr. A. SATYANARAYANA Director of Extension Acharya N. G.Ranga Agricultural University Rajendranagar, Hyderabad -30
  2. 2. Rice in India Major food crop: Normal area: 45 million ha Normal production: 90 million tons Rice production: 75.72 m.tons (2002-2003 (lowest in last 10 years) Reasons: * Irrigation water crisis * Diminishing returns to chemical inputs (fertilizer, agrochemicals)
  3. 3. RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH <ul><li>Rice is the main food crop in AP </li></ul><ul><li>Area under rice: 4.0 m. ha </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivated through out the State ( 22 districts) </li></ul><ul><li>Wide range of soils, climate, irrigation sources </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse varieties under cultivation </li></ul>
  4. 4. Irrigation Status of Andhra Pradesh Total geographical area : 274.40 lakh ha Total cultivable area : 93.0 lakh ha Area under irrigation : 57.76 lakh ha 4.00 Waterlogged Area 8.00 Salt Affected Area 57.76 Total 2.54 Other sources 11.53 Other wells 14.42 Tube wells 7.19 Tanks 22.08 Canals Area (lakh ha) Source of Irrigation
  5. 5. WATER PRODUCTIVITY IN RICE <ul><li>Lowland rice (traditional) 0.5 g/kg of water </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic rice 1.0 g/kg of water </li></ul><ul><li>SRI 1.2 g/kg of water </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate wetting & 1.3 g/kg of water </li></ul><ul><li>drying (5 cm – 7 DDW) </li></ul>
  6. 6. RICE WATER CONSUMPTION - Irrigated rice is the leading consumer of water - Rice is the most widely consumed staple crop - Finding ways to reduce the demand for water to grow irrigated rice in the necessity . - If rice production can be increased while water consumption is reduced, this is the need of the hour
  7. 7. <ul><li>Research done earlier has shown that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water applications can be reduced without sacrificing yield with little or no increase in profitability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As long as water has been freely available, most farmers have used water to reduce their labour requirements for weed control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downstream farmers are thereby deprived of the water they need </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Getting people to change long standing practices especially ones that require both learning new techniques and efforts, at least during learning phase has always been difficult . </li></ul><ul><li>- Motivating benefits are needed for change </li></ul><ul><li>- SRI is an innovative rice farming method that can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase yields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce costs of production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decrease the amounts of irrigation water needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enhance profitability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce dependence on agrochemicals and other external inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The growth and performance of rice are achieved with substantial reduction in water applications using SRI methods: China up to 65% Yuan Longping (2001) achieve 16 t/ha Philippines by 67% Lazaro et al. (2004) with yield increase 3.66 -> 7.33 t/ha China by 43.2% Li et al. (2004) village study in Sichuan Province # of irrigations reduced Sri Lanka (IWMI) 32 -> 24 Dry season (Namara et al., 2004) 29 -> 22 Wet season 90% increase in water productivity (kg rice/water issue) 33% fewer hours spent in irrigation activity
  10. 10. SRI has had the disadvantage of sounding “too good to be true” – but can get: “ More crop per drop” SRI is a set of principles and insights about how rice plants can be induced to become more productive An understanding of soil ecology reinforces the idea that water application should be optimised rather than maximised.
  11. 11. 20 th Century Modern Agriculture <ul><li>Has become overly genocentric </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity gains were possible with increased use of inputs – fertilizers, pesticides, water, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>These are now: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving diminishing returns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating environmental hazards and health risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facing rising costs of production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Declining efficiency </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Biological power and eco-agriculture should be the basic foundations for soil health and for 21 st century agriculture <ul><li>Micro organisms and other soil biota as </li></ul><ul><li>creators and maintainers of soil fertility </li></ul><ul><li>Contributions of soil microbial activity to </li></ul><ul><li>soil fertility need to be taken more seriously </li></ul><ul><li>Greater attention to be paid to plant roots </li></ul>
  13. 13. The basic ideas of SRI Rice plants do best when their roots can grow large because - young seedlings are transplanted carefully, - given wider spacing and - grown in soil that is kept well aerated - with abundant and diverse soil microorganisms
  14. 14. <ul><li>SRI was first developed in Madagascar during 1980’s mainly to develop low-cost rice production technologies.This has led to the set of practices known as SRI. </li></ul><ul><li>SRI was not known outside Madagascar until 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is under evaluation in 29 countries at present </li></ul><ul><li>In A.P., SRI has been experimented with in all 22 districts with encouraging results </li></ul><ul><li>Over 10,000 farmers are cultivating rice under SRI in AP at present. </li></ul>
  15. 15. On-farm evaluation of SRI in A.P. ANGRAU DOA Kharif 2003-04 200 500 Rabi 2003-04 >2000 Volunteer farmers with larger areas Kharif 2004-05 250 800 Rabi 2004-05 250 + Thousands of volunteer farmers
  16. 16. <ul><li>SRI methods use </li></ul><ul><li>Less external inputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less seed (2 kg/ac) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer plants per unit area (25 x 25 cm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less chemical fertilizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More organic manures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less pesticides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less water </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>SRI is initially labour-intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Needs 50% more man-days for transplanting and weeding </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilises labour to work for profit </li></ul><ul><li>It offers opportunities to the resource-poor, who rely on their family labour for household income </li></ul><ul><li>Once skills are learned and implements are used, the labour costs will be less than for present-day rice cultivation </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>SRI encourages rice plant to grow healthy with </li></ul><ul><li>Large root volume </li></ul><ul><li>Profuse and strong tillers </li></ul><ul><li>Without lodging </li></ul><ul><li>Big panicles </li></ul><ul><li>More well-filled spikelets and higher grain weight </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance to insects </li></ul><ul><li>Because SRI allows rice to grow naturally </li></ul>
  19. 20. Tillering is greatly increased <ul><li>30 tillers per plant are fairly easy to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>50 tillers per plant are quite attainable </li></ul><ul><li>With really good use of SRI, individual plants can have 100 fertile tillers or even more </li></ul><ul><li>Because no set-back due to early transplanting and no die-back of roots </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum tillering occurs concurrently with panicle initiation </li></ul><ul><li>With SRI, positive correlation is found between the number of panicles per plant and number of grains per panicle – this is reverse of usual observations </li></ul>
  20. 24. Rice plant <ul><li>Everybody believe that rice is an aquatic plant and grows best in standing water </li></ul><ul><li>Rice is not an aquatic plant; it can survive in water but does not thrive under hypoxic conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Rice plants spends a lot of its energy to develop air pockets (aerenchyma tissue) in its roots under continuous inundation </li></ul><ul><li>70% of rice roots get degenerated by flowering period </li></ul><ul><li>Under SRI, paddy fields are not flooded but kept the soil moist during the vegetative growth phase </li></ul><ul><li>SRI requires only about half as much water as normally applied in irrigated rice </li></ul>
  21. 25. Conventional system with more water
  22. 26. Intermittent wetting and drying with soil aeration
  23. 27. SIX MECHANISMS AND PROCESSES FOR SRI <ul><li>EARLY TRANSPLANTING </li></ul><ul><li>seedlings 8-12 days old, </li></ul><ul><li>when plant has only </li></ul><ul><li>two small leaves , before </li></ul><ul><li>the fourth phyllochron </li></ul><ul><li>2. CAREFUL TRANSPLANTING </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize trauma in transplanting </li></ul><ul><li>Remove plant from nursery with the seed and soil attached, handling roots carefully, and place it in the field without plunging too deep into soil </li></ul><ul><li>More tillering potential </li></ul><ul><li>More root growth potential </li></ul><ul><li>More tillering potential </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  24. 31. Main field preparation <ul><li>Land preparation is not different from regular irrigated rice cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Leveling should be done carefully so that water can be applied very evenly </li></ul><ul><li>At every 2 m distance, form a canal to facilitate drainage </li></ul><ul><li>With the help of a marker, draw lines both ways 25 x 25 cm apart and transplant at the intersection </li></ul>
  25. 35. Diagram of possible stalks of a rice shoot stalks grow following a regular cycle (phyllochron)
  26. 36. Contd.. <ul><li>WIDE SPACING </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Plant single seedlings, </li></ul><ul><li>not in clumps, and in </li></ul><ul><li>a square pattern, not in rows, </li></ul><ul><li>25cm x 25cm, or eventually wider </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>4. WEEDING AND AERATION </li></ul><ul><li>N eeded because no standing water; use simple mechanical ‘rotating hoe’ that churns up soil; 2 weedings are required, with 4 recommended before panicle initiation; first weeding 10 days after transplanting </li></ul><ul><li>More root growth potential </li></ul><ul><li>More root growth , due to reduced weed competition, and aeration of soil, giving roots more oxygen and N due to increased microbial activity in soil; can add 1+ tons per weeding? Each additional weeding after two rounds results in increased productivity up to 2 t/ha per weeding </li></ul>
  27. 38. Contd.. <ul><li>WATER MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Regular water applications to </li></ul><ul><li>keep soil moist but not saturated , </li></ul><ul><li>with intermittent dryings, alternating </li></ul><ul><li>aerobic and anaerobic soil conditions </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIC MANURES </li></ul><ul><li>Applied instead of or in addition to </li></ul><ul><li>chemical fertilizer; 10 tons/ha preferably in diverse forms </li></ul><ul><li>More root growth because avoids root degeneration able to acquire more and more varied nutrients from the soil </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>More plant growth because of better soil health and structure, and more balanced nutrient supply </li></ul>
  28. 40. Crop residues
  29. 41. Green Manure crop (Sunhemp)
  30. 42. Crop residues
  31. 43. Nursery Management <ul><li>Seed rate 2 kg/ac </li></ul><ul><li>Nursery area 1 cent/ac </li></ul><ul><li>Select healthy seed </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-sprouted seeds are sown on raised nursery bed </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare nursery bed like garden crops </li></ul><ul><li>Apply a layer of fine manure </li></ul><ul><li>Spread sprouted seed sparcely </li></ul><ul><li>Cover with another layer of manure </li></ul><ul><li>Mulch with paddy straw </li></ul><ul><li>Water carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Banana leaf sheath may be used for easy lifting and transport of seedlings </li></ul>
  35. 47. Performance of SRI in AP-Kharif 2004 (ANGRAU) No. of trials 194 SRI 7.6 t/ha Conventional 5.9 t/ha Advantage 1.7 t/ha
  37. 49. Performance of SRI in AP- Kharif 2003-04 (Trials organized by State DOA) No. of trials - 476 Average SRI yield (t/ha) - 7.92 Control (t/ha) - 5.48 State average productivity (t/ha) - 3.01 2 districts averaged over 10 t/ha 6 districts averaged over 9 t/ha
  38. 50. Report on SRI Cultivation Name of the Farmer : Mr.A.Jayasurya Reddy Address : Tarimala Village, Singanamala Mandal Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh Season : Rainy season 2003 Area under SRI : 0.2 ha Variety : BPT 5204 140 150 Duration(days) 8 12600 7110 Straw yield (kg/ha) 7 13297 5850 Grain yield (kg/ha) 6 3.2 19.2 Chaffy grain (%) 5 14.4 13.3 1000 grain weight (g) 4 14.2 15.5 Length of panicle (cm) 3 152 87 No. of grains/panicle 2 706 503 No. of productive tillers/m2 1. SRI Farmers method Parameter S.No.
  39. 51. Report on SRI Cultivation Name of the Farmer : Mr.K.Venka Subba Reddy Address : Konidedu Village, Panyam Mandal Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh Season : Rainy season 2003 Area under SRI : 840 m 2 Variety : BPT 5204 18000 16250 Cost of cultivation (Rs/ha) 9 15774 5625 Grain yield kg/ha 8 21.1 18.8 1000 grain weight(g) 7 202 105 No. of grains/panicle 6 20.2 17.2 Panicle length (cm) 5 1040 510 Productive tillers/m 2 4 10-12-2003 10-12-2003 Date of harvesting 3 28-7-2003 31-7-2003 Date of Transplanting 2 19-7-2003 22-6-2003 Date of sowing 1. SRI Farmers method Parameter S.No.
  40. 52. Report on SRI Cultivation Name of the Farmer : Mr.Rakesh Address : EdulapalliVillage, Kotturu Mandal Mahabubnagar district, Andhra Pradesh Variety : BPT 5204 Area under SRI : 0.8 ha (*) Only organic manures were applied 8.9 4.7 Grain yield t/ha 7 210 150 No. of grains/panicle 6 20 14 Length of the panicle (cm) 5 40 20 No. of productive tillers/hill 4 5-12-2003 6-11-2003 Date of harvesting 3 17-7-2003 28-6-2003 Date of Transplanting 2 7-7-2003 6-6-2003 Date of sowing 1. SRI (*) Farmers method Parameter S.No.
  41. 53. Report on SRI Cultivation Name of the Farmer : Mr.T.Sambi Reddy Address : Bhadirajupalem Village, ThotlavallurMandal Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh Area under SRI : 0.2 ha Variety : BPT 5204 17,500 15,000 Cost of cultivation per ha 8 12576 8036 Grain yield (kg/ha) 7 357 254 No. of grains/panicle 6 30 22 Length of the panicle(cm) 5 42 13 No. of productive tillers/hill 4 13-12-2003 13-12-2003 Date of harvesting 3 1-8-2003 17-8-2003 Date of Transplanting 2 20-7-2003 20-7-2003 Date of sowing 1. SRI Farmers method Parameter S.No.
  42. 54. Performance of Rice under SRI during Rabi 2003-04 No. of trials (data reported so far) - 94 Average SRI yield (kg/ha) - 9,669 Average conventional yield (kg/ha) - 7,125 Yield advantage (kg/ha) - 2,554 Highest yield recorded under SRI (kg/ha) - 17,250
  43. 55. SRI is Counterintuitive Less can produce more Younger seedlings becomes larger and more productive Fewer plants/hill and per m 2 give more yield Less water can give greater yield Less chemical fertilizers can result in higher yields Less pesticides to control pests
  44. 56. SRI Utilizes Biological Power <ul><li>Rice root systems grown under SRI, i.e., aerated soil, do not degenerate and are much larger and function better </li></ul><ul><li>Soils that are aerated and well-supplied with organic matter can support longer and diverse populations of soil microorganisms, which in turn mobilize nutrients to the plant </li></ul><ul><li>Phytohormones produced by bacteria and fungi living in soils and roots promote root growth and the health of the plants </li></ul><ul><li>Root exudates provide food to microorganisms </li></ul><ul><li>Application of fertilizers and other agrochemicals has an inhibiting effect on soil biota </li></ul>
  45. 57. Benefits of SRI 1. Higher yields – Both grain and straw 2. Reduced duration (by 10 days) 3. Lesser chemical inputs 4. Less water requirement 5. Less chaffy grain % 6. Grain weight increased without change in grain size 7. Higher head rice recovery 8. Withstood cyclonic gales 9. Cold tolerance 10. Soil health improves through biological activity 11. Drought tolerance
  46. 58. <ul><li>Research Priorities on SRI </li></ul><ul><li>Whether SRI can achieve super yields ? </li></ul><ul><li>How much rice is produced per unit of land, labour, water and investment under SRI ? </li></ul><ul><li>  Changes and improvements in the ‘standard’ SRI methodology </li></ul><ul><li>     Development of varieties best suited for SRI growing environment </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic data generation on water management </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of rice with SRI methods </li></ul><ul><li>Root growth and soil ecology and soil fertility </li></ul>
  47. 59. <ul><li>SRI has potential to achieve super high yields </li></ul><ul><li>The potential of young seedlings, wider spacing, less water, no tillage, and organic matter improve root growth and microorganism and yield is known; </li></ul><ul><li>but why then SRI is not accepted as scientific? </li></ul><ul><li>Do not dismiss SRI with misconceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers’ experiences on large areas and in diverse conditions should be taken seriously </li></ul>
  48. 60. Swarna under SRI
  49. 62. THANK YOU