Essential climatic Conditions
Required for the cultivation of major
food and commercial crops and their
distribution in India
Food crops Commercial crops
Food crops are any agricultural
product that can be eaten such as
corn, soya beans, sunflowers.
Cash crops are those crops which
are grown for profit. They are
generally purchased by parties such
as of developed nations. For example-
cotton, coffee, etc.
This crop is essential for living and has
less value compared to commercial
This crop is cultivated for extra income
and has more value.
Essential climatic conditions required for the cultivation
of major food crops and their distribution in India.
Rice is the most widely consumed staple food in large parts of the world for human
population, especially in Asia. It is the grain with the second-highest worldwide
production, after corn.
Temperature:- Rice being a tropical and sub-tropical plant, requires a fairly high
temperature, ranging from 20° to 40°C. The optimum temperature of 30°C during
day time and 20°C during night time is considered favorable for its growth and
Rainfall:- Rice cultivation is possible only in areas where there is good rainfall. A
monthly rainfall of 100-200 mm is a must and about 125 cm is during vegetative
Soil:- It grows best in clayey alluvial soil, which can retain water.
Distribution of rice in India
Its distribution in India is eastern coastal plains, West Bengal,
Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab
and Haryana. Two to three crops of rice are raised annually in
the deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri. Nowadays
Punjab and Haryana are known for its cultivation. It depends
upon irrigation. Besides, rice is grown on terraced fields of the
hills from Kashmir to Assam.
Wheat is a cereal grain. It is the third most-produced cereal after maize (844 million
tons) and rice (672 million tons). This grain is grown on more land area than any other
Temperature :- Wheat requires 14° to 18°C temperature. High temperature is
harmful for the cultivation of wheat.
Rainfall :- 50 cm to 100 cm rainfall is required for wheat cultivation. In the primary
stage cold moisture rich climate at the time of harvesting bright hot climate is
Soil :-Fertile alluvial soil or mixed soil is ideal for wheat cultivation.
Land:- Plain land or gentle slope is ideal for wheat cultivation.
Distribution of wheat in India
Uttar Pradesh 33.02
Madhya Pradesh 9.67
West Bengal 1.06
They are also known as coarse grains. They are a group of highly variable small-
seeded grasses widely grown around the world. The most widely grown millet is pearl
millet. Finger millet, proso millet, and foxtail millet are also important crop species.
Temperature :- High to moderate temperature is required for the growth of wheat.
Rainfall :- It requires low rainfall.
Soil:- It requires sandy soil and can be grown even when it is less fertile.
Essential climatic conditions required for the
cultivation of major commercial crops and their
distribution in India.
Tea is a beverage crop grown on plantations. tea is the most widely consumed
beverage in the world. Tea originated in China as a medicinal drink. Tea has long been
promoted for having a variety of positive health benefits.
• Temperature: 21°C to 29°C is ideal for the production of tea. High temperature is
required in summer. The lowest temperature for the growth of tea is 16°C.
• Rainfall: 150-250 cm of rainfall is required for tea cultivation.
• Soil: Tea shrubs require fertile mountain soil mixed with lime and iron. The soil
should be rich in humus.
• Land: Tea cultivation needs well drained land. Stagnation of water is not good for
tea plants. Heavy rainfall but no stagnancy of water, such mountain slopes are
good for tea cultivation.
Distribution of tea in India
Assam is the largest producer of tea in India in quantity but West Bengal is noted for
the fine quality of tea followed by Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and N.E. Hilly
Distribution of coffee in India
Coffee production in India is dominated in the hill tracts of South Indian states, with
the state of Karnataka accounting 53% followed by Kerala 28% and Tamil Nadu 11% of
production of 8,200 tonnes. Indian coffee is said to be the finest coffee grown in the
shade rather than direct sunlight anywhere in the world. There are approximately
250,000 coffee growers in India; 98% of them are small growers. Karnataka, Kerala and
Tamil Nadu form the traditional coffee growing region of South India .
Rubber is harvested mainly in the form of the latex from certain trees. The latex is a
sticky, milky colloid drawn off by making incisions into the bark and collecting the fluid
in vessels in a process called "tapping". The latex then is refined into rubber ready for
commercial processing. Natural rubber is used extensively in many applications and
products, either alone or in combination with other materials. In most of its useful
forms, it has a large stretch ratio, high resilience, and is extremely waterproof.
Temperature:- Maximum temperature of about 29C to 34oC is required.
Rainfall:- There should be rainfall of 2000 to 3000 mm evenly distributed and
should rain for 125 to 150 rainy days per annum.
Soil:- Rubber is grown in literate or loamy soil, mostly in slope and undulated land
or slightly high elaborated flat land where there is no possibility of water
stagnation, and having well drainage facilities.
Distribution of rubber in India
India is the third largest natural rubber producing country of the world. Kerala is the
largest producer of natural rubber producing 595 thousand tonnes or 92 per cent of
total rubber production of India. Tamil Nadu is the second largest producer of rubber
but lags far behind Kerala producing only 22 thousand or 3.39 per cent of the total
Indian production. Nilgiri, Madurai, Kanyakumari, Coimbatore and Salem are the chief
rubber producing districts of Tamil Nadu. Karnataka produced 14 thousand tonnes or
1.85 per cent of total Indian production. Tripura and Andaman & Nicobar Islands also
produce small quantities of rubber respectively.