Published on


Published in: Environment
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Essential climatic Conditions Required for the cultivation of major food and commercial crops and their distribution in India
  2. 2. Food crops Commercial crops Food crops are any agricultural product that can be eaten such as corn, soya beans, sunflowers. Cash crops are those crops which are grown for profit. They are generally purchased by parties such as of developed nations. For example- cotton, coffee, etc. This crop is essential for living and has less value compared to commercial crops. This crop is cultivated for extra income and has more value.
  3. 3. Essential climatic conditions required for the cultivation of major food crops and their distribution in India. 1) Rice 2)Wheat 3) Millets
  4. 4. Rice Rice is the most widely consumed staple food in large parts of the world for human population, especially in Asia. It is the grain with the second-highest worldwide production, after corn. Temperature:- Rice being a tropical and sub-tropical plant, requires a fairly high temperature, ranging from 20° to 40°C. The optimum temperature of 30°C during day time and 20°C during night time is considered favorable for its growth and development.  Rainfall:- Rice cultivation is possible only in areas where there is good rainfall. A monthly rainfall of 100-200 mm is a must and about 125 cm is during vegetative season.  Soil:- It grows best in clayey alluvial soil, which can retain water.
  5. 5. Distribution of rice in India Its distribution in India is eastern coastal plains, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab and Haryana. Two to three crops of rice are raised annually in the deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri. Nowadays Punjab and Haryana are known for its cultivation. It depends upon irrigation. Besides, rice is grown on terraced fields of the hills from Kashmir to Assam.
  6. 6. Wheat Wheat is a cereal grain. It is the third most-produced cereal after maize (844 million tons) and rice (672 million tons). This grain is grown on more land area than any other commercial food. Temperature :- Wheat requires 14° to 18°C temperature. High temperature is harmful for the cultivation of wheat. Rainfall :- 50 cm to 100 cm rainfall is required for wheat cultivation. In the primary stage cold moisture rich climate at the time of harvesting bright hot climate is required. Soil :-Fertile alluvial soil or mixed soil is ideal for wheat cultivation. Land:- Plain land or gentle slope is ideal for wheat cultivation.
  7. 7. Distribution of wheat in India State Percentage% Uttar Pradesh 33.02 Punjab 19.26 Haryana 13.27 Madhya Pradesh 9.67 Rajasthan 9.31 Bihar 5.16 Gujarat 3.96 Maharashtra 2.15 Uttaranchal 1.06 West Bengal 1.06
  8. 8. Millets They are also known as coarse grains. They are a group of highly variable small- seeded grasses widely grown around the world. The most widely grown millet is pearl millet. Finger millet, proso millet, and foxtail millet are also important crop species. Temperature :- High to moderate temperature is required for the growth of wheat. Rainfall :- It requires low rainfall. Soil:- It requires sandy soil and can be grown even when it is less fertile.
  9. 9. Distribution of millets in India
  10. 10. Different types of millets
  11. 11. Essential climatic conditions required for the cultivation of major commercial crops and their distribution in India. 1) Tea 2)Coffee 3)Rubber
  12. 12. Tea Tea is a beverage crop grown on plantations. tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. Tea originated in China as a medicinal drink. Tea has long been promoted for having a variety of positive health benefits. • Temperature: 21°C to 29°C is ideal for the production of tea. High temperature is required in summer. The lowest temperature for the growth of tea is 16°C. • Rainfall: 150-250 cm of rainfall is required for tea cultivation. • Soil: Tea shrubs require fertile mountain soil mixed with lime and iron. The soil should be rich in humus. • Land: Tea cultivation needs well drained land. Stagnation of water is not good for tea plants. Heavy rainfall but no stagnancy of water, such mountain slopes are good for tea cultivation.
  13. 13. Distribution of tea in India Assam is the largest producer of tea in India in quantity but West Bengal is noted for the fine quality of tea followed by Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and N.E. Hilly States.
  14. 14. Coffee
  15. 15. Distribution of coffee in India Coffee production in India is dominated in the hill tracts of South Indian states, with the state of Karnataka accounting 53% followed by Kerala 28% and Tamil Nadu 11% of production of 8,200 tonnes. Indian coffee is said to be the finest coffee grown in the shade rather than direct sunlight anywhere in the world. There are approximately 250,000 coffee growers in India; 98% of them are small growers. Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu form the traditional coffee growing region of South India .
  16. 16. Rubber Rubber is harvested mainly in the form of the latex from certain trees. The latex is a sticky, milky colloid drawn off by making incisions into the bark and collecting the fluid in vessels in a process called "tapping". The latex then is refined into rubber ready for commercial processing. Natural rubber is used extensively in many applications and products, either alone or in combination with other materials. In most of its useful forms, it has a large stretch ratio, high resilience, and is extremely waterproof. Temperature:- Maximum temperature of about 29C to 34oC is required. Rainfall:- There should be rainfall of 2000 to 3000 mm evenly distributed and should rain for 125 to 150 rainy days per annum. Soil:- Rubber is grown in literate or loamy soil, mostly in slope and undulated land or slightly high elaborated flat land where there is no possibility of water stagnation, and having well drainage facilities.
  17. 17. Distribution of rubber in India India is the third largest natural rubber producing country of the world. Kerala is the largest producer of natural rubber producing 595 thousand tonnes or 92 per cent of total rubber production of India. Tamil Nadu is the second largest producer of rubber but lags far behind Kerala producing only 22 thousand or 3.39 per cent of the total Indian production. Nilgiri, Madurai, Kanyakumari, Coimbatore and Salem are the chief rubber producing districts of Tamil Nadu. Karnataka produced 14 thousand tonnes or 1.85 per cent of total Indian production. Tripura and Andaman & Nicobar Islands also produce small quantities of rubber respectively.
  18. 18. Thank you