Rice lecture final


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Production Technology of Rice

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Rice lecture final

  1. 1. Production Technology of Rice by Hafiz Ali Bashir
  2. 2. Origin, History and Importance  Rice is cultivated and eaten mostly in the “rice bowl” region, which consists of Asia and middle/near east countries. Juliano 1985:15 IRC 2003:154888
  3. 3. Rice has been cultivated in these regions for over nine thousand years, which means that it is highly variable and adaptable. Its been grown in the lowlands of India to as high as three thousand meters in Nepal. Lang 1996:5 IRC 2003:18437
  4. 4. Native to the deltas of the great Asian rivers  the Chang (Yangtze), Tigris,  Euphrates. Ganges,
  5. 5.  First domesticated in,  Eastern Himalayas (i.e. north-eastern India),  Burma,  Thailand,  Laos,  Vietnam and  Southern China.  southern China
  6. 6. In the sub-continent found in the north and west in 2000 BC. Perennial wild rice still grow in Assam and Nepal. In southern India it appeared 1400 BC after its domestication in the northern plains.
  7. 7.  Consumed by 5.6 billion people world wide. World consumption is highest in Asian countries. Rice industry is an important source of employment and income for rural people. Provides 21% per capita energy.
  8. 8. 15% of per capita protein. Seventy percent of daily calories. Provides minerals, vitamins, fiber, vitamin A, zinc and iron.
  9. 9. Rice exporting countries Sr. No Countries Export 1 Thailand 10 million tons (34.5% of global rice exports) 2 India 4.8 million tons (16.5%) 3 Vietnam 4.1 million tons (14.1%) 4 Myanmar 3.314 million tons (11.0%) 5 United States 3.1 million tons (10.6%) 6 China 901,550 tons (3.1%) 7 Egypt 836,940 tons (2.9%) 8 Italy 668,940 tons (2.3%)
  10. 10. Rice cultivation in Pakistan Pakistan’s annual production is more than 4.57 million tons and area 2.21 m.ha. Kollar track of rice consists of Gujranwala, Lahore, Sialkot, Shakhupura, Hafizabad. Third largest crop after wheat and cotton.  Second staple food of pakistan .
  11. 11. Annual local consumption crosses 2.5 million tons. Contributes about 1.6 percent to the country’s gross domestic product The per acre yield is 26 to 27 mounds.
  12. 12. Rice production in Punjab • Area (thousand acre) thousand hactare Year Bsmati Fine rice IRRI coarse rice 2006-07 1474.24 (3643) 138.81 (343) 2007-08 1377.12 (3403) 159.85 (395) 2008-09 1548.30 (3826) 202.34 (500) 2009-10 1413.95(3494) 218.93 (541) 2010-2011 1313.59 (3248) 174.27 (443)
  13. 13. Production of rice in punjab (1000 metric tonne) Year Basmati IRRI 2006-07 2493.63 334.41 2007-08 2453.15 414.37 2008-09 2601.65 517.66 2009-10 2475.43 532.15 2010-11 2323.43 435.15
  14. 14. Botanical classification Botanical Name : Oryza sativa L. Family : Gramineae/ Poaceae Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Liliopsida Order: Poales Genus: Oryza Species Sativa
  15. 15. Rice plant
  16. 16. Rice plant is an annual, 2 to 6 ft (61–183 cm) tall, round, jointed stem,  long, pointed leaves, edible seeds borne in a dense head on separate stalks. Long day plant Self pollinated
  17. 17. Rice seed
  21. 21. Growth stages of rice Germination Seedling growth Tillering Stem elongation Booting Inflorescence Anthesis
  22. 22. Milk development Dough development Ripening
  23. 23. Germination
  24. 24. Seedling growth
  25. 25. Tillering
  26. 26. Stem elongation
  27. 27. Booting
  28. 28. Inflorescence of rice
  29. 29. Anthesis
  30. 30. Milk development
  31. 31. Dough development
  32. 32. Ripening
  33. 33. Factors responsible for rice yield Selection and preparation of soil Selection of approved varieties Seed rate Sowing and transplantation of nursery Irrigation on proper time Proper use of fertilizers Weeds management Important diseases of rice and their control
  34. 34. Harmful insects and their control Harvesting at proper time
  35. 35. Rice varieties provinces Fine varieties Coarse varieties Punjab Super Basmati, Basmati 2000, Basmati Pak (karnal Basmati), Basmati 370, Basmati 515 KSK 282, NIAB IRRI 9, KSK 133 Sind Shadasb, Khushboo, Sada Hayat, Kinoo 92, DR-82, DR 83, DR-92 KPK JP-5, Basmati 385, Sawat-1, Sawat-2, IRRI-6, KS-282, Fakhar Malakand Balochistan Basmati-386 IRRI-6 DR-83 KS-282,
  36. 36. Soil Can be grown in type of soil exept sandy soil. Can be grown on salt effected soil where other crops can not be grown successfully. Clay Loam soil with optimum quantity of organic matter and more water holding capacity is best for rice cultivation.
  37. 37. Climate Can be grown under variety of climate, tropical regions cooler regions temperate regions. humid climate. Best suited to regions, which have high humidity, prolong sunshine and an assured supply of water.
  38. 38. Rice Nursery and Early Crop Management
  39. 39. Seed Rate for nursery (kg/acre) Sr. No Rice varieties Wet method Dry method Rabi method 1 IRRI 6,KSK 282, KSK 133 6-7 8-10 12-15 2 Supper Basmati, Basmati 385, Basmati 2000, 4.5-5 6-7 10-12
  40. 40. Sowing and transplanting time of nursery Sr. No Rice varieties Sowing time Transplan ting time 1 IRRI 6,KSK 282, KSK 133 20 May to 7 June 20 June 7 July 2 Supper Basmati, Basmati 385, Basmati 2000, 20 May to 20 June 20 May to 20 July
  41. 41. Seed dressing Seed dressing is done to control diseases e.g, Blast Bakanae Stem rot It is done by soaking the seed into water contain fungicide 2.5 g/ L water
  42. 42. What is the goal of Crop Establishment?What is the goal of Crop Establishment?  To secure a uniform plant population that can produce high yields
  43. 43. Methods of sowing nursary WET BED Irrigate, plow, puddle and level the field Prepare beds of 1 to 1.5 m width, 4-5 cm height & any convenient length Start preparing the seedbed 2 weeks before planting time Seedlings are ready for transplanting in 25-35 days.
  44. 44. Water the seedbed 2-3 DAS . Maintain a water level of 2-5 cm, depending on the height of seedlings Apply 20-40 g urea or DAP per m2 at 10 DAS, if needed
  45. 45. Wet-bed Rice NurseryWet-bed Rice Nursery
  46. 46. Wet-bed Rice NurseryWet-bed Rice Nursery
  47. 47. • DRY BED method Bed is prepared in dry conditions Water the seedbed till saturation after sowing Then water the plots periodically as seedlings emerge & grow This method is practiced in areas where soils are loamy or silt loam. Puddling is not possible.
  48. 48. DRY BED
  49. 49. Dry-bed Rice NurseryDry-bed Rice Nursery
  50. 50. Rabi method of nursery sowing Practiced in D.G. khan Areas where soil is hard Uprooting of nursery is not possible Nursery plots are leveled Crop residue spread then burnt
  51. 51. Rabi method
  52. 52. Para shoot rice nursery
  53. 53. Para shoot rice nursery: What are the: What are the limitations?limitations? Farmers have to buy plastic trays Heavy rains just after SB may disturb the distribution of broadcasted seedlings IRRI: Rice Production Course
  54. 54. TransplantingTransplanting:: Most common methodMost common method in small farms of Asiain small farms of Asia
  55. 55. TRANSPLANTING OF RICE IRC 2003:1914
  56. 56. Transplanting: Critical FactorsTransplanting: Critical Factors • Proper nursery management • Careful handling of young seedlings for fast revival and early growth after TP • Shallow transplanting at 1-2 cm depth • Optimum plant-to-plant spacing: 20 x 20 cm to 25 x 25 cm • Optimum number of seedlings: 1-2 hill-1 IRRI: Rice Production Course
  57. 57. IRRI: Rice Production Course TP: Careful Handling ofTP: Careful Handling of SeedlingsSeedlings
  58. 58. Manual Transplanting: whatManual Transplanting: what are the advantages?are the advantages?  Good head start for plant growth over weeds  Shorter duration in main field  Easy to maintain uniform plant spacing & population, if planted in rows
  59. 59. Manual TP: What are theManual TP: What are the constraints?constraints?  Tedious & labor intensive, > 30 PD ha-1  Difficult to find labor to plant on time  Drudgery & back problem  Poor plant population due to contract TP on area basis
  60. 60. IRRI: Rice Production Course Manual PlanterManual Planter
  61. 61.  Chinese planter  Japanese planter
  62. 62. Para shoot rice nursery transplanting-manually
  63. 63. IRRI: Rice Production Course Source: Dr. Sumith, RRDI, Para shoot rice nursery transplanting-manually
  64. 64. Para shoot rice nursery transplanting with Machine
  65. 65. Para shoot nursery : What are thePara shoot nursery : What are the advantagesadvantages Low seed rate: 15-20 kg ha-1 Less labor for CE (16 for SB vs. 30-36 for TP) No bird damage in the nursery and main field Early crop maturity by 7-8 days Water saving: 10 irrigations for SBR vs. 12 for TPR
  66. 66. Less use of agro-chemicals as they can be applied directly to the nursery
  67. 67. Advantages & Disadvantages  The young rice plant is raised in a small seed bed, so it can receive intensive care and protection  The field can be used to grow other thing according to the time taken to grow the rice.  Increase of crop collected per unit area because the caring of the farm will be held intensively.  Need a lot of water to grow crop  Need to take care  Weak to pesticides Advantages Disadvantages
  68. 68. Direct Seeding of Rice: Why?Direct Seeding of Rice: Why? • To reduce labor input • To tackle labor shortage & high wages • To establish crops on time • To maintain optimum plant population IRRI: Rice Production Course
  69. 69. Direct Seeding of Rice: IncentivesDirect Seeding of Rice: Incentives  Increasing water crisis is forcing farmers and researchers to find out ways to decrease water use in rice production.  In Asia, irrigated agriculture accounts for 90% of total diverted freshwater, and more than 50% of this is required to irrigate rice.
  70. 70.  Direct seeding offers a promising solution for this by saving water and labor  Direct seeding is a potential alternative to the traditional production system  Reduced cost: US$ 60-80 per ha  Less methane emission: DDS < WDS < TP
  71. 71. Direct Seeding RequirementsDirect Seeding Requirements • Good Land Prepration & leveling • Furrows to drain water • Saturated soil (WDS) & moist soil (DDS) for first 7-10 days IRRI: Rice Production Course
  72. 72. • Varieties: early seedling vigor, fast canopy dev., non-lodging • Quality seed • Effective weed control: cultural, mechanical, herbicides
  73. 73. Level field for DDS Level field for WDS Well-prepared and Leveled Fields for Direct Seeding
  74. 74. Direct Seeding MethodsDirect Seeding Methods • Wet direct seeding (WDS): puddled soil, broadcast- or row-seeded > Surface WDS > Subsurface WDS > Water seeding • Dry direct seeding (DDS): dry/moist soil, broadcast or drilled in rows IRRI: Rice Production Course
  75. 75. IRRI: Rice Production Course Drum seeder, 8 kg wt + 12 kg seed
  76. 76. Drum seeder Seed hoppers Seed holes
  77. 77. Dry SeedingDry Seeding  Used in rainfed areas  Dry seed  Seed rate 75 kg ha-1  Germination with rainfall; drought  High pest incidence Seeding behind Machine seeding Dry broadcasting
  78. 78. Bed PlantingBed Planting
  79. 79. TPR-B: TransplantingTPR-B: Transplanting seedlings on bedseedlings on bed •Good CE, but more labor • Good plant growth & uniform tillering •High yield as that of TPR • Less water use (by 20-30%) than that of TPR
  80. 80. DSR-B: Dry drill seeding on bedsDSR-B: Dry drill seeding on beds • Fast & efficient seeding, but poor CE • May need saturated soil for the first 25-30 days • Micro-nutrient deficiency: Fe, Zn, Cu, etc. • Severe weed infestation, needs effective herbicides •Termite problems •Saving in water (~ 20-30%) • Conserves rain water & avoids flooding
  81. 81. Water management Judicious use of water is necessary At transplanting and one week after depth of water 3-4 cm Higher water depth is harmful Lower water depth cause drying Seven days after transplanting depth of water should be 8 cm Water should remain standing in field continuously for 25-30 days.
  82. 82. Fertilizer managment Adequate and timely application of fertilizers is essential Soil analysis should be done Incorporation of green manure crop before transplanting to increase organic matter All of P and k and half of the N is incorporated into soil at the last ploughing Remaining N is top dressed after 30-35 days
  83. 83. Quantity of fertilizer (kgacre) Type of varieties N P K Amount of fertilizer at the time of puddling After transpla -nting IRRI-6, KSK 282, Niab IRR- 9, KSK 133 69 41 32 1.5 Bag Urea+4.5 Bag SSP+1.25 Bag Potassium Sulphate 1.5 Bag of urea after 30- 35 days of urea transplant ing Super Basmati, 57 32 25 1 Bag Urea+3.5 Bag 0.5 Bag of urea
  84. 84. Weeds management 15%-20% losses due to weeds Some time up to 50% Three groups of weeds in rice Weeds of grass family Weeds of sedge family Broad leaf weeds
  85. 85. Weeds of grass family Swanky grass (Echinochloa colon) Dhedan ( Echinochloa crusgalli) Khabal grass (Cynodon dactylon) Narro (Paspalum distichum)
  86. 86. Weeds of sedge family Ghoein (Cyperus difformus) Bhoein (Cyperus iria) Deela (Cyperus rotundus)
  87. 87. Broad leaf weeds Mirch boti (Sphenoclea zeylanica) Chopti (Marsilea minuta) Darai boti (Fclipta bprostata)
  88. 88. Swanky grass (Echinochloa colon)
  89. 89. Common Name: Bermudagrass Scientific Name: Cynodon dactylon mudagrass
  90. 90. Bhoein (Cyperus iria)
  91. 91. Mirch boti (Sphenoclea zeylanica)
  92. 92. INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT (IWM) IWM is aimed to reduce weed population to the level at which there would be no economical losses of crop. Effective IWM combines preventive, cultural, mechanical and biological weed management methods in an effective, economical and ecologically safe manner.
  93. 93. weed management technologies can optimize rice production. Holistic multi-disciplinary integrated approach is necessary. combination of various weed management methods together is called integrated weed management (IWM).
  94. 94. • Weeds are allowed to emerge and are then killed during tillage operations. • First weeding should be done between 15 to 21 days after germination. Second weeding is done 30 to 45 days after first weeding.
  95. 95. Application of mulch reduces weed growth and conserve moisture and fertilizers.  Use of weed free seed material is recommended for better weed management.
  96. 96. Maintaining 5–7 cm water depth and avoiding drainage prevents germination of weed seeds.  Azolla can suppress the weed growth by reducing sunlight and aeration.  Herbicide should be applied when there is a thin film of water in the field
  97. 97.  Application of pendimethalin 1.0kg/ha on 5 days after sowing  Pretilachlor + Safener (Sofit) 0.45kg/ha on the day of receipt of soaking rain followed by one hand weeding on 30 to 35 days after sowing effectively controls weeds in kharif season.
  98. 98. Advantages of Weed Control Increase in yield Conservation of soil moisture  through reduced competition for  sunlight, nutrients and water. Reduced incidences of pest and disease
  100. 100. Dark-headed stem borer (Chilo polychrysus) Larva • Neonate - grayish white with a large head. • Head and prothoracic shield are black. • Body dirty white with five longitudinal stripes of grayish violet or purplish brown situated mid- dorsally, latero-dorsally, and laterally. Adult • Adults brownish yellow. • The center of the forewings has dark markings of silvery scales or 6-7 tiny black dots. • The hind wing has a lighter color.
  101. 101. • Larva The larva is whitish to light yellow. A full-grown larva is 25 mm long. The larva has no body marks. • Pupa The fresh pupa is soft-bodied and whitish. It grows up to 25 mm in length. With age, it turns brown. • Adult The male and female adults are immaculately white in appearance. They have a tuft of long hairs on the thorax. The male is smaller than the female. White stem borer (Scirpophaga innotata)
  102. 102. Yellow stem borer : Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker)  Most destructive pest.  Attack all stages of the rice plant  1% to 19% yield loss in early planted rice crops and  38% to 80% yield loss in late-planted rice.  Low infestations by stem borers may not result in yield loss because of plant compensation.  Sprays for stem borer control carried out when whiteheads are visible will not result in any economic gain.
  103. 103. Adult  The female is whitish to yellowish.  Has a pair of clear black spots at the middle of each forewing.  The male is smaller and dull in color. It has two rows of black spots at the tip of the forewings.  The male’s wingspan is about 20-30 mm, whereas the female’s is 24-36 mm.  The female’s abdomen is wide with tufts of yellowish hairs all over. The male has a slender abdomen toward its anal end and is covered with thin hairs dorsally.
  104. 104. Egg Individual eggs are white, oval, flattened, and covered with brownish hairs from the anal tufts of the female. Larva The larval body is yellowish green. The head and prothoracic shield of a full-grown larva are brown. The larva passes through six instars. The first instar is about 1.5 mm long and the last instar 20 mm long. Pupa The pupa is pale green. It is about 12 mm long and 3 mm wide. The pupa is enclosed in a white silk cocoon. When newly formed, the cocoon is pale brown. It gradually turns dark brown.
  105. 105.  Adult  The forewings are bright pale brown with some scattered dark brown markings.  A purplish red band radiates from the central point in the forewing to the wing tip.  Light stripes border the wing apex.  The hind wings are whitish with light yellow scales along the major veins. Pink stem borer Sesamia inferens
  106. 106.  Larva  Newly hatched larvae are white with a yellowish tinge and a black head capsule.  Mature larvae turn pinkish purple with a brown or orange-red head capsule.  The body has no longitudinal stripes.  Measures 25.0 to 35.0 mm long and 3.0 mm wide.  Pupa The pupa is brown to dark brown with a tinge of bluish powdery substance.
  107. 107.  Adult  The adults are brownish yellow with silvery scales  A row of 7 or 8 small black dots at the terminal margin of each forewing.  The forewings are darker than the hindwings. Striped stem borer : Chilo suppressalis Egg
  108. 108.  Larva  Neonate larvae have a large head.  Head and prothracic shields are shiny brown or orange.  Body is light brown or pink with five rows of longitudinal stripes, which run the entire length of the body.  The stripes are brown or pale purple, situated dorsally and laterally.  The full-grown larvae measure 20 to 25 mm long.  Pupa  The pupa is reddish brown.  It measures about 11 to 13.5 mm long.  Several spines are prominent on the last segment of the pupa.
  109. 109.  Common in rice ecosystems.  Infests at the early crop stages.  Population densities are usually insufficient to cause significant losses in yield. Crops generally recover from this damage.  Insecticide use have little or no economic returns. Rice leaf folder : Cnaphalocrocis medinalis
  110. 110. Egg The newly laid egg is jelly-like and transparent. It is oblong with an irregular upper surface. The mature egg is ovoid and whitish yellow. It is ventrally flattened. Larva Neonate larvae are yellow. With age, they turn yellowish green with brown heads. They have distinct pinnaculae or one pair of subdorsal spots on the mesonotum. The apex of their pronotum is always straight. They are from 12 to 25 mm long.
  111. 111. The male moth has a thick black hair tuft on its fore tibia. The dorsal part of its abdominal tip has a thin and very long longitudinal black band. The male has a wingspan of 14 to 16 mm. The female moth has a longer wingspan of 16 to 18 mm. Pupa The pupa is light brown or bright brown. With age, it turns reddish brown. It is 9 to 12 mm long. Adult The adult is whitish yellow or golden yellow. It has three black bands on the forewings, two are complete bands and one is an incomplete middle band.
  112. 112.  Feeding damage of the rice leaf folder includes folded leaves and removal of leaf tissue, leaving longitudinal and transparent streaks. The streaks are whitish.  The folded leaves are tubular where the larvae conceal themselves to feed. Sometimes, the tips are fastened to the basal part of the leaf.  Heavily infested fields show many folded leaves and a scorched appearance of leaf blades. Nature of damage
  113. 113. Rice hispa : Dicladispa (= Hispa) armigera Olivier • Causes leaf defoliation damage to rice crops over large areas in Bangladesh, India, and Indonesia. • Extensively damaged plants may be less vigorous and stunted. • The rice hispa seems to be a perpetual problem in Bangladesh. It infests about 120,000 hectares, causing an estimated loss of 20% in yield.
  114. 114. Adult The adult is blue-black and very shiny. Its wings have many spines. It is 5.5 mm long. Egg The white egg is small and oval. It measures 1-1.5 mm long. A small dark substance secreted by the female covers each egg. As the egg matures, it turns yellow. Pupa The brown pupa is round and about 4.6 mm long. Larva The larva or grub is white to pale yellow. A younger grub measures 2.5 mm long, whereas a mature larva is about 5.5 mm long and 1.6 mm broad.
  115. 115. • Both adults and grubs feed on and damage the plants. • The adults scrape the upper surface of the leaf blade leaving the lower epidermis. • Damaged areas appear as white streaks parallel to the midrib. • Tunneling of the grubs results in irregular translucent white patches. • The affected parts wither off. • The leaves also turn whitish and membranous. • Severe infestation causes the field to appear burned. Nature of damage
  116. 116. Plant hoppers Brown plant hopper (BPH) (Nilaparvatha lugens) White backed planthopper (WBPH) (Sogatella furcifera) Brown planthoppers (BPH) suck the sap of the leaf blades and leaf sheaths, causing the yellowing of the plants. Hopperburn or complete drying of the plants is observed at a high population density of the insects. At this level, the loss is considered 100%.
  117. 117. Adults The adult is brownish black with a distinct white band on its mesonotum and dark brown outer sides. The body is yellowish brown. The adults have two distinct winged forms, macropterous and brachypterous. Macropterous forms have normal front and hind wings, whereas brachypterous forms have reduced hind wings.
  118. 118. Eggs are crescent-shaped, 0.99 mm long and 0.2 mm wide. Some of the eggs are united near the base of the egg cap and others remain free. When freshly laid, the eggs are whitish, but later become darker. Before egg hatching, two distinct spots appear, representing the eyes of the developing nymph. Nymphs The newly hatched nymphs are 0.91 mm long and 0.37 mm wide. The head is triangular with a narrow vertex. The body is creamy white with a pale brown tinge. The nymphs molt five times. The fully developed nymph is 2.99 mm long and 1.25 mm wide. There is a prominent median line from the base of the vertex to the end of the metathorax where it is the widest. This line crosses at a right angle to the partition line between the prothorax and mesothorax.
  119. 119. • Both BPH and WBPH nymphs and adults damage the plants by sucking phloem sap • Reduced vigour, stunting, yellowing, delayed tillering and grain formation. • At later stages, crop dries up in patches known as hopper burn. • BPH also transmit virus disease called grassy stunt. Nature of damage
  120. 120. • Leaf hoppers adult and nymphs suck the sap from the leaves which is characterized by small scratch like marks on the leaf due to chlorophyll removal. Leaf hoppers Green leaf hopper Nephotettix virescens N. nigropictus Zigzag leaf hopper Racilia dorsalis EIL 10 GLH/hill at vegetative stage 20 GLH/hill at flowering stage
  121. 121. Nephotettix nigropictus Adult The adult is slender and green with a rounded vertex. Vertex has an anterior black band and a sub-marginal black band extending beyond the ocelli to the inner margins of the eyes. Its pronotum is smooth with a black anterior margin. Black spots are prominent on the forewings. The female hopper measures 4.3 by 1.4 mm, whereas the male is 3.7 by 1.3 mm.  Less efficient virus transmitter  Transmits tungro, yellow dwarf, dwarf, and transitory yellowing diseases.
  122. 122. Green leafhoppers are important pests. They are vectors of viruses such as tungro, yellow dwarf, and transitory yellowing.  The adult leafhopper is green.  Its head has a pointed vertex without black bands.  The face is also green.  A pair of black spots is either present or absent on the tegmen of the forewings.  A male hopper measures 4.2 by 0.05 mm, whereas the female is 4.3 by 1.4 mm. Nephotettix virescens
  123. 123. Recilia dorsalis In large numbers, this insect can transmit rice tungro, rice dwarf, and rice orange leaf viruses  Adult hoppers has zigzag white and brown pattern on the front wings.  The body of the female adult is 3.5-3.8 mm long, whereas the male is 3.1-3.4 mm long.
  124. 124. This sporadic pest occasionally causes losses. It can be destructive when an outbreak occurs. Mature panicles are cut off from the base or peduncles. The host plant may be totally devoured when populations are very high. Caterpillars feed on leaves in night and in severe infestation entire seed beds and fields are destroyed and the field appears as if it has been grazed by animals/ cattle Rice armyworm :: Mythimna separata (Walker)
  125. 125. Egg The eggs are subspherical and greenish white. With age, they turn yellow. Adult The adult is more than 15.0 mm in length. Its forewings are pale red-brown with two pale round spots. Its hindwings have two colors, dark red- brown on top and white underneath. Larva Young larvae have two pairs of prolegs. Mature larvae are green to pink with longitudinal light gray to black stripes running along the entire length of the body. They are 31.0 to 45.0 mm long. They have a brown to orange head with an A-marking on the frons. Pupa The pupa is 17.0 to 20.0 mm long. It is dark brown.
  126. 126. The larvae feed on the leaves by removing the epidermis leaving the leaf tissues. Excessive feeding causes complete removal of whole leaves and plants. The rice panicles can also be cut off from the peduncles. Nature of damage
  127. 127. Rice thrips : Stenchaetothrips biformis This is a pest during the seedling stage or 2 weeks after early sowing. It is a serious pest during the dry season. Losses can reach 100% where infestation is severe for the first 20 days in direct-seeded rice fields.
  128. 128. • Egg The egg is very tiny. A single egg is 0.25 mm long and 0.1 mm wide. It is hyaline when freshly laid and turns pale yellow toward maturation. • Larva Neonate larvae are colorless. They become pale yellow in the second larval instar. The legs, head, and antennae of the second instar larvae are slightly darker than those of the first instar larvae. • Prepupa The prepupa is brown. Four pointed processes are present on the hind margin of the ninth abdominal tergite. • Pupa The pupa has long wing pads that reach two-thirds the length of the abdomen. It also has four pointed processes on the ninth abdominal tergite. • Adult The minute adult has a slender body. It is dark brown. It is 1- 2 mm long with well-pronounced 5 to 8 segmented antennae. It exists in two forms, winged or wingless. The winged form has two pairs of elongated narrow wings that are fringed with long hairs.
  129. 129. . Nature of damage • Feeding damage causes laceration of plant tissues. • Damaged leaves become noticeable as silvery streaks or yellowish patches. • The translucent epidermis becomes visible on the damaged area. • Curling of the leaves from the margin to the middle is also visible. • In severe infestation, the leaf tips wither off. • Infestation at the panicle stage causes unfilled grains
  130. 130. Both the nymphs and adults feed on the leaf and can consume large amounts of leaves. Grasshopper : Oxya hyla intricata Adult Oxya hyla intricata are small to medium and moderately slender insects. They measure up to 20 mm in length. Their eyes are large and close to each other. They have a sub- cylindrical pronotum with a rounded posterior margin. The height of the pronotum is lower than the head. Their wings are fully developed in both sexes. Their green hind femora are slender with upper knee lobes rounded and lower knee lobes extended into acute spine-like projections. They have greenish tibiae. Their wings are green with brownish to bluish bands. The antennae are filiform in type. The antennae of the male are slightly longer than the head and pronotum combined. The female has shorter antennae. Egg The eggs are capsule-like and yellow. Nymph The nymph is a smaller version of the adult except for the presence of small wing pads.
  131. 131. Integrated DiseaseIntegrated Disease Management in RiceManagement in Rice
  132. 132. Major Diseases of RiceMajor Diseases of Rice • Blast (Pyricularia oryzae) • Brown spot (Helminthosporium oryzae) • Stem rot (Sclerotium oryzae) • Bacterial leaf blight (Xanthomonas oryzae)
  133. 133. Symptoms of Blast Disease
  134. 134. Blast diseaseBlast disease • Most plant parts are susceptible to infection except the roots. • Disease usually develops during seedling, tillering (leaf blast) and at heading (panicle blast). • The initial infections start as small water soaked areas on young leaves and enlarge into diamond shape with a blue gray cast which are the fungal spores. Lesions often dry out and turn tan with a brown border. Lesion shape and size can vary.
  135. 135. Head infections develop at the joint just below the head (neck blast) or on individual panicle branches (panicle blast). The head can break off at neck lesion can cause rotten neck blast.
  136. 136. The fungus produces many spores ,on stalk like structures called sporangia, in the presence of a favorable environment and a susceptible host and causes numerous new infections in the field and neighboring fields. They are carried by wind and water over long distances.
  137. 137. ManagementManagement • Blast development is favored by thick stands and high nitrogen rates which increase canopy thickness resulting in higher moisture levels but is most severe under upland or drained conditions. Other conditions that favor blast are sandy soils and fields lined with trees.
  138. 138. Management contd.Management contd. • Plant varieties resistant to blast. • Avoid late planting. • Plant as early as possible within the recommended planting period. • For leaf blast, re-flood if field has been drained. Maintain flood at 4 -6 inches to ensure soil is covered. • Do not over fertilize with nitrogen. • Apply a fungicide if necessary.
  139. 139. Brown spotBrown spot
  140. 140. Management of brown spotManagement of brown spot • Treat the seeds with 0.2% Thiram • Avoid water stress • Give balanced nutrition • Use resistant varieties • Spray Tricyclazole
  141. 141. Stem rotStem rot Black angular lesions on leaf sheath at or near water line on plants at tillering or early jointing growth stages; later sheath may dye and culms have dark-brown or black streaks, at maturity culms may collapse and small round black sclerotia form in dead tissues.
  142. 142. ManagementManagement • Fungicides are available to control stem rot however infestation levels seldom reach economic levels to justify spraying and no economic thresholds have been developed. Stem rot is usually detected when scouting for sheath blight. Fungicide applications targeted at other diseases can reduce stem rot severity.
  143. 143. Foot rot/ Bakanae • Caused by fungus Fusarium moniliforme. • The general symptoms of this disease is that infected plants die at grain filling period, and they bear only white empty panicles. • A white or pink growth of the pathogenic fungus may be noticed on the lower parts of diseased plants.
  144. 144. • Some other symptoms may be observed in early stages: infected seedlings are taller than normal plants and are thin and yellowish-green at the seedling stage, • Bakanae symptoms can be seen in the vegetative stage, infected plants are taller than the normal plants and have a few tillers and yellow-green leaves. • The most important damage occurs at the grain filling period.
  145. 145. Foot rot/ SymptomsFoot rot/ Symptoms
  146. 146. Management • Produce basmati seed from disease free aress. • Treat seed with suitable fungicide e.g. Benlate • Destroy stubble and crop debris. • Rogue out infected plants • Adopt crop rotation • Grow less susceptible varieties • Use balance fertilizers
  147. 147. Bacterial blight • Symptoms • Small, green water-soaked spots develop at the tips and margins of fully developed leaves, and then expand along the veins, merge and become chlorotic then necrotic forming opaque, • White to grey colored lesions that extend from leaf tip down along the leaf veins and margins. Both bacterial blight and bacterial leaf streak can occur simultaneously and are difficult to distinguish
  148. 148. . caused by Xanthomonas oryzae
  149. 149. Factors favoring disease development • presence of weeds • presence of rice stubbles and ratoons of infected plants • presence of bacteria in the rice paddy and irrigation canals • warm temperature, high humidity, rain and deep water • over fertilization • handling of seedlings at transplanting
  150. 150. Management principles • Practicing field sanitation such as removing weed hosts, rice straws, ratoons, and volunteer seedlings is important to avoid infection caused by this disease. • Likewise, maintaining shallow water in nursery beds, providing good drainage during severe flooding, plowing under rice stubble and straw following harvest are also management practices that can be followed
  151. 151. . Proper application of fertilizer, especially nitrogen, and proper plant spacing are recommended for the management of bacterial leaf blight.
  152. 152. Harvesting Harvesting at proper time ensure grain quality, a high market value and improved consumer acceptance. Harvesting should be done between 27 to 39 days after flowering. Harvesting is done by • Manual with sickle • By using Combine harvester
  153. 153. Content • Introduction • What is harvesting • Harvesting systems • When to harvest • How to harvest (technology options) • Harvest losses • Recommendations
  154. 154. Introduction Harvesting is the process of collecting the mature rice crop from the field. • Cutting: cutting the panicles and straw. • Hauling: moving the cut crop to the threshing location. • Threshing: separating the paddy grain from the rest of the cut crop. • Cleaning: removing immature, unfilled and non-grain materials. • Field drying: (optional) leaving the cut crop in the field and exposing it to the sun for drying. • Stacking / Piling: (optional) temporarily storing the harvested crop in stacks or piles.
  155. 155. Good harvesting practices Goals of good harvesting: • maximize grain yield (minimize losses) • minimize grain damage • Minimize quality deterioration • Heat build up from mold and insect development • Discoloration/Yellowing from heat build-up • Cracking from re-wetting of dried grains • Loss of vigor • Reduced head rice yield • Shattering losses At harvest the quality of rice is best. From then on it can deteriorate quickly:
  156. 156. Harvesting systems 1. Manual system • Manual operation sometimes using tools • Labor requirement: 48 person days / ha
  157. 157. Harvesting systems 2. Manual cutting / machine threshing • Labor requirement: 28 person days/ha • Capital cost appr.: US$ 1000 Optional: Winnowing or cleaning
  158. 158. Harvesting systems 2. Machine cutting / machine threshing • Capacity reaper: • Capacity thresher: • Capital cost approx.: US$ 2,500 Optional: Winnowing or cleaning
  159. 159. Harvesting systems 4. Combine harvesting • Cutting, hauling, threshing, cleaning in one combined operation • Capacity: > 0.5 ha/h • Labor requirement: 1 Operator • Capital cost: > $ 250,000
  160. 160. When to harvest Harvest rice when: • 20-25% grain moisture • 80-85% straw colored and • the grains in the lower part of the panicle are in the hard dough stage • 30 days after flowering
  161. 161. Manual cutting and hauling • Capacity: 0.07 ha/person day • Advantages – effective in lodged crop – less weather dependent • Problems – high labor cost – labor dependent, competes with other operations in peak season – winnowing/cleaning necessary
  162. 162. Mechanical reaping • Capacity: 2-4 ha/d • Advantages – Fast cutting • Problems – Places crop in window back in the field – Problem with lodged crop – Complex cutter bar and conveying mechanism
  163. 163. Manual threshing • Capacity: approximately 15 person days/ha • Threshing by impact • High shattering losses • Pre-drying might be needed
  164. 164. Pedal thresher • Capacity: • Principle – Wire loop threshing drum – Mainly combing the grains off the straw, some threshing by impact • Advantages – Maintains the straw • Disadvantage – Needs winnowing after threshing Wire loop threshing drum
  165. 165. Axial-flow thresher • Capacity: 0.3-3t/h • Threshing through impact • Large range of sizes available • With or without cleaner • Truck mounted units • Advantages – Can thresh wet crop – Compact roduced in 9 different countries sed by several 100,000’s of rice farmers across Asia Peg tooth threshing drumAxial flow principle
  166. 166. Winnowing • Principle: lighter materials are blown away by air • Removes chaff, straw and empty grains • Hand or mechanical winnowing • Does not work for materials heavier than grain (dirt, stones)
  167. 167. Cleaning • Combination of fan and oscillating sieves • Air delivered by fan removes lighter materials • Top sieves with large holes remove larger straw particles • Bottom sieves with smaller holes remove small seeds (e.g. weed seeds)
  168. 168. Combine harvesting • Features – capacity: 4-8 ha/day – combines cutting, threshing, cleaning and hauling – tracks for mobility in wet fields • Advantages – high capacity – low total harvest losses • Disadvantages – Requires relatively large field sizes – Problem in terraced fields
  169. 169. Stripper harvesting • Capacity: 1ha/day • Advantages – strips and collects grains only – less material to handle • Problems – problems in wet soils and lodged crop – straw treatment – does not work well with long straw – complex machine – skills required Despite strong promotion in SE-Asia the stripper harvester has not gained wide popularity because of its problems in less favorable harvesting conditions
  170. 170. Losses during cutting • Shattering loss = premature shedding of mature grains from the panicle caused by birds, wind, rats, and handling operations. Certain rice varieties shatter more easily than others. • Lodging loss = plants with mature grains in the panicles fall on the ground making the grains difficult to recover. • Standing crop loss = standing plants with mature grains are left standing in the field after harvesting operations as a result of oversight, carelessness or haste.
  171. 171. Losses during threshing • Separation loss or “blower loss” = mature grains that are mixed with straw or chaff during the cleaning operation. • Scatter loss = mature grains that are scattered on the ground during the threshing and cleaning operation. • Threshing loss = mature grains that remain attached to the panicle in the straw after completion of the threshing operation. High threshing efficiency will lead to low threshing loss, and vice versa.
  172. 172. Recommendations for optimizing quality • Harvest at the right time and moisture content • Avoid stacking the cut crop in the field • Avoid delays in threshing after harvesting • Use the proper machine settings when using a threshing machine • Clean the grain properly after threshing • Avoid delay in drying after threshing
  173. 173. Tips for manual threshing • Thresh as soon as possible after cutting • Hand thresh at lower moisture • Place a large canvas under the threshing frame to minimize shatter loss
  174. 174. Tips for machine threshing • Thresh as soon as possible after cutting • Level the thresher • Set machine correctly – drum speeds in thresher (600rpm) – air flow in the cleaner – angle in the cleaner sieves
  175. 175. Tips for good winnowing • Place grain on a winnowing tray • Place a net or mat on the ground • Tilt the tray against the wind • Pour grain slowly at a height of about 1m • Wind will separate light from heavy grains • Recover only the heavier grains • Repeat the procedure, if needed • Use a fan or blower if there is insufficient wind.
  176. 176. THANKSTHANKS