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PMP_Project Human Resources Management

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Project Management Professional (PMBOK® 5th edition) training course

Published in: Leadership & Management
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PMP_Project Human Resources Management

  1. 1. PPROJECTROJECT HHUMANUMAN RRESOURCEESOURCE MMANAGEMENTANAGEMENT Hisham Haridy, PMP, PMI-RMPFebruary 2016
  2. 2. PPROJECTROJECT HHUMANUMAN RRESOURCEESOURCE MMANAGEMENTANAGEMENT Part “1”Part “1” February 2016
  3. 3. Plan Human Resource Management Acquire Project Team Develop Project Team Manage Project Team “The processes involved in the planning, acquisition, development, and management of the project team” Human Resource Management Human resource planning determines project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships, and creates the staffing management plan. HR Plan. The process of obtaining the human resources needed to complete the project . Project staff assignments, Resource calendars, Project management plan updates. To improve competencies (individual development) and to enhance the interaction of the team members (team building oriented trainings) Team performance assessments, Enterprise environmental factors updates. Manage Project Team involves tracking performance, providing feedback, resolving issues and coordinating changes to enhance project performance. Enterprise environmental factors updates, Organizational process assets updates, Change requests, Project management plan Updates. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  4. 4. Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs Plan HR Management “The process of identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, and required skills, reporting relationships, and creating a staffing management plan.” Inputs Techniques Outputs 1. Project management plan 2. Activity resource requirements 3. Enterprise environmental factors 4. Organizational process assets 1. Organization charts and position descriptions 2. Networking 3. Organizational theory 4. Expert judgment 5. Meetings 1. Human resource management plan PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  5. 5. INPUTSINPUTS 1. Project management plan The information used for the development of the human resource management plan includes; The project life cycle and the processes that will be applied to each phase, How work will be executed to accomplish the project objectives, A change management plan that documents how changes will be monitored and controlled, A configuration management plan that documents how configuration management will be performed, How integrity of the project baselines will be maintained, and Needs and methods of communication among stakeholders. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  6. 6. INPUTSINPUTS 2. Activity resource requirements Human resource planning uses activity resource requirements to determine the human resource needs for the project. 3. Enterprise environmental factors Organizational culture and structure. Existing human resources. Personnel administration policies. Marketplace conditions. 4. Organizational process assets Organizational standard processes and policies and standardized role descriptions. Templates for organizational charts and position descriptions. Historical information on organizational structures that have worked in previous projects. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  7. 7. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 1. Organization charts and position descriptions Hierarchical-type charts Showing who reports to who Work Breakdown Structure Organizational Breakdown Structure Resource Breakdown Structure Project Manager Project Chief Civil Civil Engineer 1 Civil Engineer 2 Chief Mechanical Mechanical Engineer 1 Mechanical Engineer 2 Chief Electrical Electrical Engineer 1 Electrical Engineer 2 Project administrator PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  8. 8. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES Matrix-based charts Illustrates the connections between work that needs to be done and project team members. A structure that relates the project organizational breakdown structure to the work breakdown structure to help ensure that each component of the project’s scope of work is assigned to a responsible person. Matrix charts are used to illustrate which roles on the project will be working with which work packages and what their responsibilities will be.which work packages and what their responsibilities will be. Shows level of responsibility for groups /or individuals Graphically links the work to be done to those doing it. RAM Chart Person Activity Ann Ben Tom Define A P Design A P R Develop A Test R S P= Participate A = Accountable R = Review S = Sign-off RAM “Responsibility Assignment Matrix”: PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  9. 9. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES RACI Chart Person Activity Ann Ben Tom Dina Aly RACI “Responsibility Accountable Consult Inform”: Only one person is assigned accountability for a work package, but more than one person may be responsible for performing the work on a work package. Activity Ann Ben Tom Dina Aly Define A R I I I Design I A R C C Develop I A R C C Test A I I R I R = Responsible A = Accountable C = Consult I = Inform PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  10. 10. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES Text-oriented formats Provide information such as responsibilities, authority, competencies, and qualifications. positions. This tool is particularly useful in recruiting. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  11. 11. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 2. Networking Networking is the process of communicating with others within your "network" of contacts. Informal interaction with others in an organization or industry to understand political and interpersonal factors that will impact the effectiveness of various staffing management options. 3. Organizational theory Provides information regarding the ways that people, teams, and organizational units behave. Groups behave differently than individuals, and it is important to understand how organizations and teams behave. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  12. 12. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 4. Expert Judgment List the preliminary requirements for the required skills; Assess the roles required for the project based on standardized role descriptions within the organization; Determine the preliminary effort level and number of resources needed to meet project objectives; Determine reporting relationships needed based on the organizational culture;Determine reporting relationships needed based on the organizational culture; Provide guidelines on lead time required for staffing, based on lessons learned and market conditions; Identify risks associated with staff acquisition, retention, and release plans; and Identify and recommend programs for complying with applicable government and union contracts. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  13. 13. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 5. Meetings When planning human resource management of the project, the project management team will hold planning meetings. These meetings leverage a combination of other tools and techniques to allow for all project management team members to reach consensus on the human resource management plan. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  14. 14. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS 1. Human resource plan A part of the project management plan. Provides guidance on how project human resources should be defined, staffed, managed, controlled, and eventually released. HR Plan include; Roles and responsibilities: Role: The label describing the portion of a project for which a person is accountable. Examples; Civil Engineer Role clarity concerning authority, responsibilities, and boundaries should be documented. Authority: The right to apply project resources, make decisions, and sign approvals. Examples; quality acceptance, and how to respond to project variances. Team members operate BEST when their individual levels of authority match their individual responsibilities. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  15. 15. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS Responsibility: The work that a project team member is expected to perform in order to complete the project’s activities. Competency: The skill and capacity required to complete project activities. Lack of required competencies lead to bad performance (Problem!). Proactive responses such as training, hiring, schedule changes, or scope changes areProactive responses such as training, hiring, schedule changes, or scope changes are initiated in case of mismatch. Project organization charts A project organization chart is a graphic display of project team members and their reporting relationships. It can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  16. 16. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS Staffing management plan Describes when and how human resource requirements will be met. The staffing management plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, depending upon the needs of the project. The plan is updated continually during the project to direct ongoing team member acquisition and development actions. Information in the staffing management plan varies by application area and project size, but items to consider include:size, but items to consider include: Staff acquisition. Resource calendars. Staff release plan. Training needs. Recognition and rewards. Compliance. Safety. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  17. 17. Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs Acquire Project Team “The process of confirming human resource availability and obtaining the team necessary to complete project assignments” 1. Human resource management plan 2. Enterprise environmental factors 3. Organizational process assets 1. Pre-assignment 2. Negotiation 3. Acquisition 4. Virtual teams 5. Multi-criteria decision analysis 1. Project staff assignments 2. Resource calendars 3. Project management plan updates PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  18. 18. INPUTSINPUTS 1. Human resource management plan Roles and responsibilities defining the positions, skills, and competencies. Project organization charts indicating the number of people needed. Staffing management plan delineating the time periods each project team member will be needed and other information important to acquiring the project team. 2. Enterprise environmental factors Existing information for human resources including who is available, their competencyExisting information for human resources including who is available, their competency levels, their prior experience, their interest in working on the project and their cost rate; Personnel administration policies such as those that affect outsourcing. Organizational structure. Location or multiple locations. 3. Organizational process assets Organization standard policies, processes, and procedures PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  19. 19. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 1. Pre-assignment It is normal on project for the roles to be defined first. Later, resources are assigned to perform those roles and fulfill the responsibilities; however, occasionally specific resources will be pre-assigned to fill a role. This may occur before the staffing management plan has been developed and even before the project 2. Negotiation Negotiating is an important skill for project managers to cultivate. Project managers often have to negotiate for resources, both inside and outside the organization. formally begins. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  20. 20. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 3. Acquisition The tool of acquisition, as used here, can be a bit misleading, since the overall process is "Acquire Project Team." The tool of acquisition refers to looking outside the organization for resources when they cannot be provided by your organization. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  21. 21. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 4. Virtual teams Virtual teams have become much more popular over recent years. A virtual team is a group of individuals who may or may not see each other in person. Instead, they typically use communication tools to meet online, share information, and collaborate on deliverables. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  22. 22. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 4. Multi-criteria decision analysis A set of criteria to help evaluate potential team members Example; availability, cost, experience, location, a required skill set, knowledge, training, as well as any other factors that address the needs of the project. Criteria can be weighted by importance, and potential team members are scored based on how well they meet the selected criteria. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  23. 23. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS 1. Project staff assignments The project is staffed when appropriate people have been assigned through the previously described methods. Each defined role should have a resource assigned to it. These assignments may happen several times throughout the process as resources are needed. Staff assignments contain a list of all team members for the project. 2. Resource calendars As resources are assigned to the project, the time they are assigned to work on activities should be documented. Each resource's resource s forecasted time on the project should be documented. 1. Project management plan updates The human resources plan. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  24. 24. Develop Project Team “The process of improving the competencies, team interaction, and the overall team environment to enhance project performance” Inputs Tools and Techniques OutputsInputs Techniques Outputs 1. Human resource management plan 2. Project staff assignments 3. Resource calendars 1. Interpersonal skills 2. Training 3. Team-building activities 4. Ground rules 5. Colocation 6. Recognition and rewards 7. Personal assessment tools 1. Team performance assessments 2. Enterprise environmental factors updates PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  25. 25. INPUTSINPUTS 1. Human resource management plan The human resource plan which identifies training strategies and plans for developing the project team. Items such as rewards, feedback, additional training, and disciplinary actions can be added to the plan as a result of ongoing team performance assessments and other forms of project team management.other forms of project team management. 2. Project staff assignments Team development starts with a list of the project team members. Project staff assignment documents identify the people who are on the team. 3. Resource calendars Resource calendars identify times when the project team members can participate in team development activities. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  26. 26. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 1. Interpersonal skills Soft skills which are particularly important to team development. Leading Communicating Negotiating Motivating Problem solving Influencing the organization 2. Training2. Training If a team member does not have the skills needed to carry out their responsibilities, then training may be a good option. Training can be formal or informal. Examples of training methods include classroom, online, computer-based, on-the- job training from another project team member, mentoring, and coaching. Scheduled training takes place as stated in the human resource plan. Unplanned training takes place as a result of observation, conversation, and project performance appraisals conducted during the controlling process of managing the project team. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  27. 27. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 3. Team-building activities Any activity that enhances or develops the cohesiveness of the team. Focusing on building bonds and relationships among team members. Although team-building may be treated as a special event, it can occur while performing regular project responsibilities, and becomes more important as the project progresses. Team-building cannot be forced. It should be modeled by the project manager,Team-building cannot be forced. It should be modeled by the project manager, who should work to include all members of the team and produce a shared goal. One theory states that there are five stages of development that teams may go through: i. Forming ii. Storming. iii. Norming. iv. Performing. v. Adjourning. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  28. 28. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 4. Ground rules A list of acceptable and unacceptable behaviors adopted by a project team to improve working relationships, effectiveness, and communication. Formal or informal rules. A link between performance & reward. Authority appropriate for responsibility. System specific to needs of project. For example, everyone on the project shares responsibility for protecting the security of project data. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  29. 29. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 5. Colocation or (War Room) Most active team members are placed in one physical location. To enhance team members’ ability to perform as a team To encourage interaction Colocation can be temporary or for the entire project duration. When not viable, alternative is frequent face-to-face meetings. 6. Recognition and rewards6. Recognition and rewards The project manager appraises performance and gives out team-member- appropriate recognition and rewards, which were planned. 7. Personal assessment tools These tools help project managers assess the team preferences, aspirations, how they process and organize information, how they tend to make decisions, and how they prefer to interact with people. Various tools are available such as attitudinal surveys, specific assessments, structured interviews, ability tests, and focus groups. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  30. 30. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS 1. Team performance assessments The evaluation of a team’s effectiveness may include indicators such as: Improvements in skills that allow individuals to perform assignments more effectively, Improvements in competencies that help the team perform better as a team, Reduced staff turnover rate, and Increased team cohesiveness where team members share information and experiences openly and help each other to improve the overall project performance. As a result of conducting an evaluation of the team’s overall performance, the project management team can identify the specific training, coaching, mentoring, assistance, or changes required to improve the team’s performance. 2. Enterprise environmental factors updates Personnel administration, including updates for employee training records. Skill assessments. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  31. 31. Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs Manage Project Team “The process of tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing changes to optimize project performance” Inputs Techniques Outputs 1. Human Resource management plan 2. Project staff assignments 3. Team performance assessments 4. Issue log 5. Work performance reports 6. Organizational process assets 1. Observation and conversation 2. Project performance appraisals 3. Conflict management 4. Interpersonal skills 1. Change requests 2. Project management plan Updates 3. Project documents updates 4. Enterprise environmental factors updates 5. Organizational process assets updates PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  32. 32. INPUTSINPUTS 1. Human resource management plan The human resource plan includes: Roles and responsibilities. Project organization. The staffing management plan. 2. Project staff assignments2. Project staff assignments Provides documentation which includes the list of project team members. 3. Team performance assessments The project management team makes ongoing formal or informal assessments of the project team’s performance. By continually assessing the project team’s performance, actions can be taken to resolve issues, modify communication, address conflict, and improve team interaction. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  33. 33. INPUTSINPUTS 4. Issue log A point or matter in question or in dispute, or not settled and is under discussion or over which there are opposing views or disagreements. Anything that threatens project progress. It could be specific, such as a technical concern, or general, such as a personality conflict among team members. A place to record issues that require resolution.A place to record issues that require resolution. Along with each issue, the person or people responsible for resolving the issue should be documented, as well as due dates for the desired resolution. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  34. 34. INPUTSINPUTS 5. Work performance reports Provide documentation about the current project status compared to project forecasts. Performance areas that can help with project team management include results from schedule control, cost control, quality control, and scope verification. The information from performance reports and related forecasts assists in determining future human resource requirements, recognition and rewards, and updates to the staffing management plan. 6. Organizational process assets Certificates of appreciation, Newsletters, Websites, Bonus structures, Corporate apparel, and Other organizational perquisites. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  35. 35. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 1. Observation and conversation A project manager watches what is happening and specifically talks to people to understand how things are going. 2. Project performance appraisals Evaluation of employees' performance by those who supervise them is a common business practice around the world. This evaluation should include the employees work on projects. The project manager can adjust the project to handle changes in performance based on these appraisals. A new and sophisticated way to complete performance appraisals is to include the input of coworkers and subordinates, as well as supervisors. This may result in a clearer picture of actual performance and is called a 360-degree review. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  36. 36. Conflict is the result of group problem solving. Where two or more people need to make decisions, there eventually is disagreement. Conflict is natural and inevitable. Conflicts can, for example, easily develop out of a situation where members of a group have a misunderstanding of each other’s role and responsibilities 3. Conflict Management TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES Project Managers need to realize that conflicts during the life of a project are inevitable. Recognizing this fact, developing good procedures or techniques, and planning for conflict resolution can help resolve conflicts as they arise. A project management plan can identify potential conflicts, develop resolution methods, and document the methods for the project team to use throughout the project. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  37. 37. Source of conflicts Research has shown that the greatest source of conflict is between project managers and functional managers. Most of these are the result of disagreements over schedules, priorities, and resources. This runs contrary to commonly held beliefs that most project conflicts are a result of personality differences. Cause of conflicts: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES of personality differences. Cause of conflicts: 1. Project Schedule 2. Project Priorities 3. Resources 4. Technical opinions 5. Administrative procedures 6. Costs 7. Personality. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  38. 38. Conflict Management Strategies 1. Confronting / Problem-Solving Sometimes referred to as “confronting”, although the term confronting may have a negative connotation to it, this method is generally viewed as the best method for conflict resolution. It “confronts” the source of conflict and looks to solve the conflict so it will not be an issue for the project. The conflicting parties meet face-to-face and try to work through their disagreements. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES The conflicting parties meet face-to-face and try to work through their disagreements. These approaches focus more on solving the problem and less on being combative. This method should be used: • To attack a common enemy • When there is enough time • When there is trust • When you have confidence in other party’s ability • When you and the conflicting party can both get at least what you wanted PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  39. 39. 2. Compromising / Reconciling To compromise is to negotiate or bargain for a solution that gives both parties some degree of satisfaction. Some would call this a “give and take” or “win-win situation”. Others might call it a “lose-lose” position, since neither party will get everything they want or need. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES Compromise should be used: • When both parties need to be winners • When you can’t win • When others are as strong as you are • When you are not sure you are right • To avoid giving the impression of “fighting” • When you don’t have time PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  40. 40. 3. Forcing / Direct Forcing is exactly as the name implies. It is when one party tries to impose the solution on the other party. The result is usually viewed as a “win-lose” situation, where one party wins at the expense of the other. Typically, this method does not address the underlying source of conflict and can reduce team morale. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES reduce team morale. It is NOT viewed as a good method for long term solutions and relationship building. Forcing should be used when: • When you are right • When a quick decision must be made • To gain power • When it’s understood that a game is being played • When a do-or-die situation exists • When you are stronger (never start a battle you can’t win) PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  41. 41. 4. Collaborating / Problem-Solving Incorporating multiple viewpoints and insights from differing perspectives; leads to consensus and commitment. 5. Smoothing / Accommodating When using the smoothing, or accommodating, technique, the Project Manager will TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES emphasize the areas of agreement or turn attention to what is going well and deemphasizing the areas of disagreement or conflict. Smoothing tends to downplay the conflict instead of resolving it. An example of smoothing would be to tell someone, “We have agreed on three of the five points and there is not reason why we cannot agree on the last two points.” PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  42. 42. 6. Withdrawing / Avoiding Withdrawal is often regarded as a temporary solution at best. Some argue that this is not a conflict resolution at all. A project manager that uses this method is merely hoping that the problem will go away by itself over time. Because of the avoidance or temporary nature of this method, the conflict can come up again and again throughout the project life. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES up again and again throughout the project life. Avoiding should be used: • When you can’t win • To gain time • To preserve neutrality or reputation • When you think the problem will go away • When you win by delay PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  43. 43. Steps to Prevent Conflict 1. Assume the other person has a different value relating style than yours 2. Beware of the orientation of the other person 3. Avoid overdoing personal strengths 4. Think collaboratively TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 4. Think collaboratively 5. Respect other’s value relating style PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  44. 44. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 4. Interpersonal skills Project managers use a combination of technical, human, and conceptual skills to analyze situations and interact appropriately with team members. Using appropriate interpersonal skills aids project managers in capitalizing on the strengths of all team members. Some of the interpersonal skills the project managers use most often are briefly covered below. Leadership. Influencing. Effective decision making PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  45. 45. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS 1. Change requests When staffing issues disrupt the project management plan, such as causing the schedule to be extended or the budget to be exceeded, a change request can be processed through the Perform Integrated Change Control process. Staffing changes can include moving people to different assignments, outsourcing some of the work, and replacing team members who leave. 2. Project management plan Updates The human resource management plan. 3. Project documents updates Issue log Roles description Project staff assignments. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  46. 46. OUTPUTSOUTPUTS 4. Enterprise environmental factors updates Input to organizational performance appraisals, and Personnel skill updates. 5. Organizational process assets updates Historical information and lessons learned documentation, Templates, and Organizational standard processes.Organizational standard processes. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  47. 47. PPROJECTROJECT HHUMANUMAN RRESOURCEESOURCE MMANAGEMENTANAGEMENT Part “2”Part “2”February 2016
  48. 48. The project manager must be able to lead, motivate and persuade people to act in the best interest of the project and must be able to build a team and lead members to give their best effort to the project. Effective project managers acquire a balance of technical, interpersonal, and conceptual skills that help them analyze situations and interact appropriately Leadership INTERPERSONAL SKILLSINTERPERSONAL SKILLS Team building Motivation Communication Influencing Decision making Political and cultural awareness Negotiation PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  49. 49. Leadership PMI's philosophy the project manager is rarely given complete and unquestioned authority on a project. Leadership involves focusing the efforts of a group of people toward a common goal and enabling them to work as a team. INTERPERSONAL SKILLSINTERPERSONAL SKILLS -- LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP Leadership is the ability to get things done through others. Respect and trust, rather than fear and submission, are the key elements of effective leadership. Effective leadership is critical during the beginning phases of a project when the emphasis is on communicating the vision and motivating and inspiring project participants to achieve high performance. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  50. 50. Leadership Style Autocratic: Making decision without input. Directing: Telling people what to do. Coaching: Giving needed instructions. Facilitating: Coordinating input of others. INTERPERSONAL SKILLSINTERPERSONAL SKILLS -- LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP Supporting: Giving assistance along the way. Consultative: Inviting Ideas from others. Consultative-Autocratic : In this style, the manager solicits input from team members, but retains decision-making authority for him- or herself. Delegating: Give the team sufficient authority. Consensus: Decision made based on agreement. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  51. 51. Bureaucratic :. This style focuses on following procedures exactly. Charismatic: Charismatic managers energize and encourage their team in performing project work. Democratic or Participative: This style involves encouraging team participation in the decision making process. INTERPERSONAL SKILLSINTERPERSONAL SKILLS -- LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP Laissez-faire: “allow to act” “Leave alone” with highly skilled team. Influencing: This style emphasizes teamwork, team building, and team decision making. Analytical: This style depends on the manager's own technical knowledge and ability. Driver: A driver manager is constantly giving directions. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  52. 52. Team building The process of helping a group of individuals, bound by a common sense of purpose, to work interdependently with each other, the leader, external stakeholders, and the organization. INTERPERSONAL SKILLSINTERPERSONAL SKILLS –– TEAM BUILDINGTEAM BUILDING The result of good leadership and good team building is teamwork. Team building activities consist of tasks (establish goals, define, and negotiate roles and procedures) and processes (interpersonal behavior with emphasis on communication, conflict management, motivation, and leadership). PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  53. 53. INTERPERSONAL SKILLSINTERPERSONAL SKILLS –– TEAM BUILDINGTEAM BUILDING Outcomes of team building include mutual trust, high quality of information exchange, better decision making, and effective project control. One theory states that there are FIVE stages of development that teams may go through: i. Forming “The team meets and learns about the project and what their formal PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016 roles and responsibilities are. “ ii. Storming. “The team begins to address the project work, technical decisions, and the project management approach.” iii. Norming. “Team members begin to work together and adjust work habits and behaviors that support the team.” iv. Performing. “Teams that reach the performing stage function as a well- organized unit.” v. Adjourning. “The team completes the work and moves on from the project.”
  54. 54. INTERPERSONAL SKILLSINTERPERSONAL SKILLS –– TEAM BUILDINGTEAM BUILDING PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  55. 55. INTERPERSONAL SKILLSINTERPERSONAL SKILLS -- MOTIVATIONMOTIVATION Motivation Project teams are comprised of team members with diverse backgrounds, expectations, and individual objectives. Motivating in a project environment involves creating an environment to meet project objectives while offering maximum self-satisfaction related to what peopleproject objectives while offering maximum self-satisfaction related to what people value most. These values may include job satisfaction, challenging work, a sense of accomplishment, achievement and growth, sufficient financial compensation, and other rewards and recognition the individual considers necessary and important. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  56. 56. Motivation Theory Theory “X” Theory “Y” People inherently dislike work. People must be coerced or controlled to do work to achieve objectives. People prefer to be directed basic human needs are arranged in a hierarchy. People view work as being as natural as play and rest . People will exercise self-direction and control towards achieving objectives they are committed to. People learn to accept and seek responsibility. INTERPERSONAL SKILLSINTERPERSONAL SKILLS -- MOTIVATIONMOTIVATION 1. Theory of X and Y (Douglas McGregor’s) People learn to accept and seek responsibility. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  57. 57. INTERPERSONAL SKILLSINTERPERSONAL SKILLS -- MOTIVATIONMOTIVATION 2. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Abraham Maslow) The basic human needs are arranged in a hierarchy. The lower needs must be satisfied PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016 The lower needs must be satisfied before the higher needs can be addressed. According to this concept, people are always in some sort of a ‘‘needs’’ state.
  58. 58. INTERPERSONAL SKILLSINTERPERSONAL SKILLS -- MOTIVATIONMOTIVATION 3. Hygiene Theory (Frederick Herzberg’s). Hygiene factors: A series of hygiene factors create dissatisfaction if individuals perceive them as inadequate or inequitable, yet individuals will not be significantly motivated if these factors are viewed as adequate or good. Hygiene factors include factors such as salary, job security and working PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016 Hygiene factors include factors such as salary, job security and working conditions. Motivators: They are intrinsic factors such as sense of achievement, recognition, responsibility, and personal growth. The hygiene factors determine dissatisfaction, and motivators determine satisfaction.
  59. 59. 4. Theory of Needs - Acquired Needs Theory (David McClelland’s) . Needs for achievement: The person who have a high achievement need likes to take personal responsibility. Needs for affiliation: The person who have a high need for affiliation needs harmonious relationships with people and needs to be accepted by other people. INTERPERSONAL SKILLSINTERPERSONAL SKILLS -- MOTIVATIONMOTIVATION harmonious relationships with people and needs to be accepted by other people. (People-oriented rather than task-oriented). Needs for power: The person who have a need for power wants to direct and command other people. Most managers have a high need for power. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  60. 60. INTERPERSONAL SKILLSINTERPERSONAL SKILLS -- MOTIVATIONMOTIVATION 5. Expectancy Theory (Victor Vroom) Expectancy theory focuses on people’s ideas about their jobs and their surroundings. It focuses on the idea that people will do a certain thing in order to receive some sort of positive outcome. Personal Goal PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  61. 61. 6. Halo Theory Halo Theory is the process (in project management) of assuming that someone would make a good Project Manager because that person is good in his or her technical field. The theory could also be used to imply that if someone was not good in his or her INTERPERSONAL SKILLSINTERPERSONAL SKILLS -- MOTIVATIONMOTIVATION The theory could also be used to imply that if someone was not good in his or her technical field, that person wouldn't be good at project management. This theory often becomes reality when someone is promoted to a Project Manager from a technical or hands-on position and hasn't had the opportunity to receive any project management training. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  62. 62. Learning Curve The concept of learning curve theory is ; If people do a job repeatedly, each time they double the number of times they repeat the job, the time to do the work is reduced by a constant percentage. INTERPERSONAL SKILLSINTERPERSONAL SKILLS -- MOTIVATIONMOTIVATION PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  63. 63. INTERPERSONAL SKILLSINTERPERSONAL SKILLS -- MOTIVATIONMOTIVATION PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  64. 64. INTERPERSONAL SKILLSINTERPERSONAL SKILLS -- COMMUNICATIONCOMMUNICATION Communication Communication has been identified as one of the single biggest reasons for project success or failure. Openness in communication is a gateway to teamwork and high performance. It improves relationships among project team members and creates mutual trust. To communicate effectively, the project manager should be aware of the communication PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016 styles of other parties, cultural issues, relationships, personalities, and overall context of the situation. Awareness of these factors leads to mutual understanding and thus to effective communication. Project managers should identify various communication channels, understand what information they need to provide, what information they need to receive, and which interpersonal skills will help them communicate effectively with various project stakeholders. Listening is an important part of communication.
  65. 65. Influencing Influencing is a strategy of sharing power and relying on interpersonal skills to get others to cooperate towards common goals. Using the following guidelines can influence team members: Lead by example, and follow through with commitments INTERPERSONAL SKILLSINTERPERSONAL SKILLS -- INFLUENCINGINFLUENCING Clarify how a decision will be made Use a flexible interpersonal style, adjust the style to the audience Apply your power skillfully and cautiously. Think of long-term collaboration. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  66. 66. Decision Making There are four basic decision styles normally used by project managers: i. Command ii. Consultation iii. Consensus iv. Coin flip (random) There are four major factors that affect the decision style: INTERPERSONAL SKILLSINTERPERSONAL SKILLS -- DECISION MAKINGDECISION MAKING There are four major factors that affect the decision style: i. Time constraints. ii. Trust. iii. Quality. iv. Acceptance. Project managers may make decisions individually, or they may involve the project team in the decision-making process. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  67. 67. Project managers and project teams sometimes use a decision-making model or process such as the six-phase model shown below. 1. Problem Definition 2. Problem Solution Generation 3. Ideas to Action INTERPERSONAL SKILLSINTERPERSONAL SKILLS -- DECISION MAKINGDECISION MAKING 4. Solution Action Planning —Involve key participants to gain acceptance and commitment to making the solution work. 5. Solution Evaluation Planning —Post-implementation analysis, evaluation, and lessons learned. 6. Evaluation of the Outcome and Process —Evaluate how well the problem was solved or project goals were achieved (extension of previous phase). PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  68. 68. Political and Cultural Awareness Organizational politics are inevitable in project environments due to the diversity in norms, backgrounds and expectations of the people involved with a project. The skillful use of politics and power helps the project manager to be successful. By understanding and capitalizing on cultural differences, the project management team is more likely to create an environment of mutual trust and a win/win atmosphere. INTERPERSONAL SKILLSINTERPERSONAL SKILLS An effective way to manage this cultural diversity is through getting to know the various team members and the use of good communication planning as part of the overall project plan. Culture can impact the speed of working, the decision-making process, and the impulse to act without appropriate planning. This may lead to conflict and stress in some organizations PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  69. 69. Negotiation Negotiation is a strategy of conferring with parties of shared or opposed interests with a view to compromise or reach an agreement. Negotiator: May be seller, employee or boss, spouse or friend. Objectives of Negotiation: To shape the perceptions of the other side. INTERPERSONAL SKILLSINTERPERSONAL SKILLS -- NEGOTIATIONNEGOTIATION To get the best final offer from the other side. Type of negotiation Win- win. Win- lose. Lose- lose. Lose - win PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  70. 70. INTERPERSONAL SKILLSINTERPERSONAL SKILLS -- NEGOTIATIONNEGOTIATION Negotiation Tactics 1. Authority limits 2. Last and final offer 3. Nibbles 4. Humble and helpless 5. Dead line 6. Surprise 7. Missing Man 8. Faire and reasonable 9. Strategic Delays 10.Arbitration PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  71. 71. Project managers, especially those in matrix and functional organizations, are often tasked with responsibility for the project without much formal authority in the organization. Understanding the forms of power can help the project manager maximize his ability to influence and manage the team: 1. Reward Power Form of PowerForm of Power 1. Reward Power 2. Expert Power 3. Legitimate 4. Referent 5. Punishment Best Forms of Power: PMI considers reward and expert the most effective forms of power and punishment the least effective. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  72. 72. Refreshments Q1: The management theory that states that all people can direct their own efforts is: A. Theory Y. B. Herzberg's theory. C. Maslow's hierarchy. D. Theory X. Q2: Which of the following leadership traits is MOST important for a project manager? A. Communication B. Team building C. Technical expertise D. Project control PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  73. 73. Refreshments Q3:A project is in the middle of the executing processes when a stakeholder suggests a major new change. This change will cause the third major overhaul of the project. At the same time, the project manager discovers that a major work package was not completed because a team member's boss moved him to another project that had a higher priority. Which of the following is the BEST person for the project manger to address these issues with? A. The team B. Senior management C. The customer D. The sponsor PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  74. 74. Refreshments Q4: Conflict resolution techniques that may be used on a project include confronting, smoothing, forcing, and: A. Withdrawing. B. Directing. C. Organizing. D. Controlling. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
  75. 75. Refreshments Q5: There have been many work packages completed successfully on the project and the sponsor has made some recommendations for improvements. The project is on schedule to meet an aggressive deadline when the successor activity to a critical path activity suffers a major setback. The activity has 14 days of float and is being completed by four people. There are two other team members with the skill set to assist the troubled activity, if needed. The project manager receives a call that three other team members are attempting to be removed from the project because they do not feel the project can be successful. When the project manager pursues this, she discovers that those team members have issues that have not been addressed.issues that have not been addressed. Which of the following is the BEST thing to do to improve the project? A. Have the team members immediately assist the troubled activity. B. Investigate why the project schedule is aggressive. C. See who can replace the three team members. D. Create an issue log. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016
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  79. 79. THANK YOU PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT February 2016

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