William G. Perry Jr.


Published on

William G. Perry Jr.
Introduction of Intellectual and Ethical Development.

Published in: Education
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

William G. Perry Jr.

  1. 1. William Graves Perry Jr.Intellectual and Ethical Development<br />Presenter: Kevin Foster<br />EDUC 551 <br />7/2/09<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />Background<br />Literature<br />Contribution<br />Reaction<br />
  3. 3. Background<br />William Graves Perry Jr. (1913 – 1998)<br />Born in Paris, France<br />Graduated from St. Mark’s School<br />Received both his bachelor’s and master’s from Harvard<br />Studied English and Greek<br />Taught English for 10 years<br />Assistant dean at Williams College<br />Returned to Harvard in 1946<br />Founded and lead the Bureau of Study Counsel for 33 years<br />Educational psychologist who focused on the development of college students.<br />&quot;Every student in my class has a completely different teacher.“<br />http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/1999/05.27/mm.perry.html<br />
  4. 4. Background<br />Father worked on the restoration of Williamsburg, VA and designed many of Harvard’s buildings.<br />During WWII Perry Jr. taught celestial navigation to naval pilots, none of whom were subseqently lost due to navigational errors.<br />http://www.nytimes.com/1998/01/18/classified/paid-notice-deaths-perry-william-g-jr.html<br />While working at Harvard, he and his staff counseled over 400 students a year.<br />He was appointed full Professor of Education in the Harvard Graduate School of Education (1965-1979) because of his work.<br />His article “Examsmanship and the Liberal Arts,” discusses the role of “bull” (b.s.) in undergraduate epistemological development.<br />
  5. 5. Literature<br />Cognitive and Ethical Growth: The Making of Meaning (1981)<br />Forms of Ethical and Intellectual Development in the College Years.<br />Most well known/influential piece<br />Published in 1970 after a 15 year study.<br />Covered 50s and 60s.<br />Proposes that college students pass through a predictable sequence of stages of epistemological growth.<br />Epistemological - the study or a theory of the nature and grounds of knowledge especially with reference to its limits and validity.<br />http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/epistemological<br />Primary reference for discussion on epistemological development of college students.<br />
  6. 6. Perry’s Scheme<br />Focuses on nine stages of development<br />Basic Duality<br />Full Dualism<br />Early Multiplicity<br />Late Multiplicity<br />Contextual Relativism<br />Pre-Commitment<br />Commitment<br />Challenges to Commitment<br />Post-Commitment <br />Dualist to relativist<br />Viewing truth as black or white to viewing multiple truths all as legitimate alternatives.<br />
  7. 7. Three broad categories<br />Dualism + multiplicity<br />Relativism discovered<br />Commitments in relativism development<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_G._Perry<br />
  8. 8. Dualism/Received Knowledge<br />There is a right and wrong answer to all questions possessed by an authority.<br />Basic Duality<br />The authority has the answer.<br />There is a right answer to question<br />Teacher knows right and wrong.<br />Students learn the right answer from authority/teacher<br />Full Dualism<br />Realize there is a right and wrong answer, but the authority does not know it, others do.<br />Learn to find the right answer.<br />
  9. 9. Rapaport, W: The Perry Scheme of Intellectual development: approaches to successful learning.<br />
  10. 10. Multiplicity/Subjective Knowledge<br />Diversity of opinion and values is recognized as legitimate in areas where right answers are not yet known.<br />There are multiple conflicting answers.<br />Early Multiplicity<br />Teacher/Authority does not have the answer, but someone is working on finding the answer<br />Student begin to trust self and explore finding the right answer.<br />Late Multiplicity<br />Where the teacher/authority doesn’t have the answer, everyone has the right to their own opinion. No wrong answer.<br />Teacher/Authority does not want the right answer. Wants the student to think a certain way.<br />Students B.S.<br />Most Freshman are around this stage<br />Rapaport, W: The Perry Scheme of Intellectual development: approaches to successful learning.<br />
  11. 11. Rapaport, W: The Perry Scheme of Intellectual development: approaches to successful learning.<br />
  12. 12. Rapaport, W: The Perry Scheme of Intellectual development: approaches to successful learning.<br />
  13. 13. Rapaport, W: The Perry Scheme of Intellectual development: approaches to successful learning.<br />
  14. 14. Relativism/Procedural Knowledge<br />Diversity of opinion, values and judgment derived from coherent sources, evidences, logics, systems, and patterns allowing for analysis and comparison.<br />Contextual Relativism<br />Everything is relative but not equally valid<br />There are no right or wrong answers, it depends on the situation, but some answers might be better than others.<br />Theories are not truth but metaphors to interpret data with.<br />All answers must be support and put into context.<br />The search for truth is more precious than its possession.”<br />-Einstein<br />Pre-Commitment<br />Student has to make their own decision<br />What the student thinks is important not what the teacher/authority thinks.<br />No one is going to tell you whether or not you are right.<br />
  15. 15. Commitment/Constructed Knowledge<br />An affirmation, choice, or decision (career, values, politics, personal relationship) made in the awareness of Relativism<br />Commitment<br />First commitment<br />For this topic I think…<br />Challenges to Commitment<br />Several Commitments<br />For these topics I think…<br />Discovers responsibility of choices<br />Post-Commitment<br />Believe own values, respect others, ready to learn<br />Students knows what they believe in, but willing and able to consider other views and reconsider their own views.<br />Learning is an on-going process.<br />
  16. 16. Challenges<br />The idea of a fixed development process<br />It is possible that different stages are visited through out development.<br />