SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Theoretical Approaches in
Teaching and Learning in the
Clinical Setting
Prepared By: Mae Michelle Aguilar RN
NRSG 215A
Objectives
• To know the different Learning Theories
applied in the nursing education.
• Identify different learning styles, types and
models.
• Determine the application of Learning
Theories in approaches to teaching in the
clinical setting.
LEARNING THEORIES
• BEHAVIORIST THEORIES
• COGNITIVE THEORIES
• SOCIAL THEORIES
BEHAVIORIST THEORIES
• Focuses of objectively observable behavior.
• The acquisition of new behavior is based on
environmental conditions where there is a
stimulus (S) that produces a response (R).
• The learning process occurs in a “black
box” and only the outcome of the learning is
the focus rather than the intellectual process
that resulted in the outcome.
Stimulus Response
Classical Conditioning Theory
Ivan Pavlov
• A process of behavior modification by which a
subject comes to respond in a desired manner
to a previously neutral stimulus that has been
repeatedly presented along with an
unconditioned stimulus that elicits the desired
response.
Basic Principles of the Process
• Unconditioned Stimuli – Automatically or
naturally triggers a response.
• Unconditioned Response – Response that occurs
naturally to the unconditioned stimuli.
• Conditioned Stimulus - previously neutral
stimulus that, after becoming associated with the
unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to
trigger a conditioned response.
• Conditioned Response – The learned response.
Application: Learning CPR
• US: Seeing an unconscious person.
• UR: Attempting to rouse that person.
• CS: “CODE BLUE”
• CR: Nurse need not to witness the
unconscious individual to know what is
happening and how to respond.
BEHAVIORISM THEORY
John Watson
“A man is stripped of his responsibility, freedom and dignity and
is reduced to a purely biological being, to be reshaped by
those who are able to use the tools of Behaviorism
effectively.” -John Watson
• Behavior is a result of a series of conditioned
reflexes and all emotion and thought is a
result of behavior learned through
conditioning.
CONTIGUITY THEORY
Edwin Ray Guthrie
“A combination of stimulus which has accompanied a
movement will on its recurrence tends to be followed by
that movement.” (Guthrie 1952)
Guthrie-Horton Experiment
• One-Trial Learning – The bond between
stimulus and response was established on the
first occasion, and that repetitions neither
strengthen or weaken the link.
• He referred to stimulus-response bonds as
“Habits“.
PRINCIPLES:
• Learning occurs through doing.
• Since learning involves the conditioning of specific
movements, instruction must present very specific
tasks
• Exposure to many variations in stimulus patterns is
desirable in order to produce a generalized
response.
• The last response in a learning situation should be
correct since it is the one that will be associated.
CONNECTIONISM THEORY
Edward Thorndike
• “Reward and Punishment”
3 Laws:
1. Exercise and Repetition – the more the
stimulus induced response is repeated, the
longer it will be retained.
2. Law of Effect – Pleasure-Pain Principle.
3. The Law of Readiness - a series of responses
can be chained together to satisfy some goal
which will result in annoyance if blocked.
Operant Conditioning
B.F. Skinner
• The use of behavior’s consequence to
influence the occurrence and form of
behavior.
• Distinguished from classical conditioning in
that it deals with “Voluntary behavior”
• Key element: REINFORCEMENT
FOUR TYPES
• Positive Reinforcement - particular behavior
is strengthened by the consequence of
experiencing a positive condition
• Negative Reinforcement - particular behavior
is strengthened by the consequence of
stopping or avoiding a negative condition.
• Punishment - a particular behavior is weakened
by the consequence of experiencing a negative
condition.
• Extinction - particular behavior is weakened by
the consequence of not experiencing a positive
condition or stopping a negative condition
COGNITIVE THEORIES
• The focus is in the mental process that are
responsible for behaving and its meaning.
• INFORMATION PROCESSING – one of the terms
used to describe this field.
• Learning is an active process from which the
learner constructs meaning based on prior
knowledge and view of the world (FEDEN 1994)
GESTALT LEARNING THEORY
Kohler and Koffka, Max Wertheimer
• A holistic approach as it prompts to look at
the “whole picture” rather than the discrete
aspects of the situation.
• Focus is on learner’s thought process or
cognition.
• Key Principle: INSIGHT – reflects the learners
ability to recognize patterns and relationships
that are present in the stimulus situation.
LAW OF RELATIVISIM – components of a whole
are seen in relation to one another. It is the
basis of these relationships, rather than the
components, that meaning is derived.
SUBSUMPTION THEORY OF VERBAL LEARNING
David Ausbel
• New information is subsumed into existing
thought and memory structures.
• Learning occurs if existing cognitive structures
are organized and differentiated.
SCHEMA THEORY
David Rumelhart
• Schema/Schemata(Pleural) – Knowledge
structures stored in memory.
• Schema help comprehend events or situations
and predict unobserved events.
3 Modes of Learning
1. Accretion – Learning of facts.
2. Tuning – Existing schemata evolve or are
refined throughout life spans.
3. Restructuring – Development of new
schemata.
Levels of Processing Theory
• Information is process sequentially. Occurs in
both memory storage and retrieval.
Connectionistic Model
Parallel Distributing Processing Model
• Information is process by different parts of the
memory system simultaneously.
• Information is stored in many places throughout
the brain forming a network of connections.
HUITT 2000
STAGE THEORY
• Information is processed and stored in 3
stages:
1. Sensory Memory- Fleeting. Usually forgotten
when not attend to in that time frame.
2. Short-term Memory - Last about 20 secs.
3. Long-term Memory – Firmly tied name to an
existing schema in the brain.
COMMON CONCEPTS IN COGNITIVE
THEORIES
LEARNING - concerned with what the
knowledge means to that person.
– Learning does not follow the same principle and
path in every circumstance.
METACOGNITION
• “Thinking about one’s thinking.”
• Process learners use to gauge their thinking
while reading, studying, trying to learn and
problem solving.
• Teaching strategies: Journal writing, group
dialogues
MEMORY
• Consolidation Function (Gordon 1995)
– the more we connect new information to the old,
the more we ruminate over new information and
the more frequently we think about it the more
long lasting it will be.
• Meaningful material (makes sense) that has
meaning to the learner is tied to the schema.
• Forgetting – happens when there is weakening
of connections (networks) in the memory due
to disuse overtime, not enough cues, disease,
interference from new memories (Gordon
1995)
• INTENT to learn partly determines whether
they will remember or forget something
learned (White 1997)
TRANSFER
• Ability to take information learned in one
situation and apply it to another.
• “What teaching is all about.”
FACTORS:
• Extent to which material was originally
learned.
• Ability to retrieve information from memory.
• The way material was taught and learned.
• Similarity of the new situation to the original.
– POSITIVE TRANSFER
– NEGATIVE TRANSFER
SOCIAL THEORIES
• Knowledge is socially constructed in
interaction with others and interpreted
through the lens of what is know and what is
culturally acceptable.(FRIENE 1970)
• Learning emerges from social situations which
prompts then to seek knowledge and skills.
SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY
Albert Banduria
• Individuals are capable of self-regulation and
self-direction.
• People learn when in constant interaction
with their environment.
• Most learning occurs through observing
people’s behavior (MODELING)
Conditions Necessary for Effective
Modeling
• Attention – Individuals focus or concentrate. It
determines which model behaviors to be
learned.
• Retention - ability to retain modeled
behaviors in permanent memory.
• Reproduction – replication of image including
physical capabilities and self-observation.
• Motivation – Reason to learn or imitate. Value
outcomes and perceived rewards fosters
motivation.
MODEL OF ADULT LEARNING
Malcom Knowles (1984)
PEDAGOGY ANDRAGOGY
Need to Know Learn what the teacher
wants them to learn.
Need to know why they
need to learn something.
Self-Concept Perception of dependence
on teacher.
Feels responsible for their
own learning.
Role of experience Teacher’s experience is
what counts.
Adult’s learn from each
others experience
Readiness to Learn Must be ready when they
must
Ready to learn when they
feel the need to know
Orientation to Learning Subject centered
orientation
Life-centered, Task-
centered orientation.
Motivation Externally motivated Primarily internally
motivated with some
external motivation
• Clinical setting provides excellent opportunity
to use andragogical approach to teaching and
learning.
• Clinical Instructor’s Role : Facilitator, Guide,
Coach, Role Model, Challenger and Motivator
Benner’s Framework for the
Development of Clinical Expertise
• Has the most relevance for clinical instruction
in nursing.
• Used Hermeneutical Phenomenology – an
approach to the interpretation of human
concerns and behaviors.
3 Major Themes
1. Skilled nursing does not rely on theoretical
knowledge alone. Practical and clinical
knowledge embedded in clinical situations
nurses encounter is necessary to explicate,
understand, and apply the theory.
2. Ability to grasp a clinical situation is
dependent on the ability to single out relevant
from irrelevant elements of the situation.
“Perceptual awareness” – sees what is most
salient. Manifested in the nurse’s intuitive
grasp.
3. Requires emotional, caring, morally
responsible involvement with patients.
Stages:
1. Novice
2. Advanced Beginner
3. Competent
4. Proficient
5. Expert
LEARNING PROPOSITIONS
1. Behaviors that is rewarded are more likely to
occur.
2. Sheer repetition without indication of
improvement or any kind of reinforcement is
a poor way to attempt to learn.
3. Threat and punishment have variable and
uncertain effects on learning.
4. Reward must follow almost immediately after
the desired behavior.
5. Learners progress in any area of learning only
as far as they need to, to achieve their
purpose.
6. Forgetting proceeds rapidly at first, then more
and more slowly.
7.Learning from reading is facilitated more by
the time spent recalling what was read than
re-reading.
8. To help in forming general concepts, present
it in different ways.
9. When there is too much frustration, behavior
ceases to be integrated, purposeful and
rational.
10. No school subjects are markedly superior to
others.
11. What is learned is most likely to be available
for use.
12. Children especially adults remember new
information which confirms previous
attitudes.
13. Adults need to know why the need to learn.
Gagne’s Conditions of Learning
• Signal Learning
• Stimulus-response Learning
• Chaining
• Verbal Association
• Discrimination Learning
• Concept Learning
• Rule Learning
• PROBLEM-SOLVING
Learning Styles
• Involves more than just cognitive styles.
• The habitual manner in which learners rescue
and produce information, process it,
understand it, value it, and recall it.
Concepts:
• Holistic (Global) – gets the whole picture
quickly. Processes information simultaneously
rather than step to step.
• Analytic Thinkers – process details of a
picture. Objective, does not need to connect
to personal values.
• Habitual Verbal Approach- words or verbal
associations.
• Visual Approach- mental pictures and images
KOLB’S THEORY OF EXPERIMENTAL
LEARNING
GREGORC’s COGNITIVE STYLES MODEL
• The mind has mediation abilities of perception
and ordering and this affects how the person
learns.
FIELD INDEPENDECE AND
DEPENDENCE MODEL
Herman Witkin
Field Independent Field Dependent
1. Mathematical reasoning may be strong 1. Difficulty with mathematical reasoning
2. Analyzes elements of a situation 2. Analyzes the whole picture, less able to
analyze the elements.
3. Recognizes and recalls details 3. Does no perceive details
4. More Task oriented 4. People oriented
5. Forms attitudes independently 5. Attitudes guided by authority figures or
peer group
6. Pronounced self-identity 6. See themselves as others see them.
References:
• Clinical Teaching and Evaluation: A Teaching
Resource by Andrea O’Connor
• Teaching Strategies for Nurse Educators by
Sandra DeYoung
Thank You for
Listening!

More Related Content

What's hot

Analysis and Utilization of Relevant Data in Nursing Process
Analysis and Utilization of Relevant Data in Nursing ProcessAnalysis and Utilization of Relevant Data in Nursing Process
Analysis and Utilization of Relevant Data in Nursing Process91varsha
 
Application of theory to nursing practice
Application of theory to nursing practiceApplication of theory to nursing practice
Application of theory to nursing practiceArun Madanan
 
Health education process lesson 1
Health education process lesson 1Health education process lesson 1
Health education process lesson 1Hazel Cayena
 
learning in nursing education
learning in nursing educationlearning in nursing education
learning in nursing educationGargiBiswas9
 
Betty Neuman Theory.pptx
Betty Neuman Theory.pptxBetty Neuman Theory.pptx
Betty Neuman Theory.pptxProf Vijayraddi
 
Ethical and legal issues in nursing
Ethical and legal issues in nursingEthical and legal issues in nursing
Ethical and legal issues in nursingJays George
 
DETERMINANTS-OF-LEARNING.pptx
DETERMINANTS-OF-LEARNING.pptxDETERMINANTS-OF-LEARNING.pptx
DETERMINANTS-OF-LEARNING.pptxteddeang
 
betty neumann's theory
betty neumann's theorybetty neumann's theory
betty neumann's theoryMahesh kumar
 
lydia Halls theory
lydia Halls theorylydia Halls theory
lydia Halls theoryUma Binoy
 
Nursings fundamental patterns of knowing
Nursings fundamental patterns of knowingNursings fundamental patterns of knowing
Nursings fundamental patterns of knowingJijo G John
 
Florence Nightingale's Environment Theory
Florence Nightingale's Environment TheoryFlorence Nightingale's Environment Theory
Florence Nightingale's Environment TheoryJosephine Ann Necor
 
Peplau’s interpersonal relations theory
Peplau’s interpersonal relations theoryPeplau’s interpersonal relations theory
Peplau’s interpersonal relations theoryJannet Elias
 
Application of nursing theories
Application of nursing theories Application of nursing theories
Application of nursing theories Arun Madanan
 
Philosophy of nursing
Philosophy of nursingPhilosophy of nursing
Philosophy of nursingNGABOYASE
 
Roy's Adaptation Model
Roy's Adaptation ModelRoy's Adaptation Model
Roy's Adaptation ModelSana Sultan
 
Neuman's theory- nursing theories
Neuman's theory- nursing theoriesNeuman's theory- nursing theories
Neuman's theory- nursing theoriesSiva Nanda Reddy
 

What's hot (20)

Analysis and Utilization of Relevant Data in Nursing Process
Analysis and Utilization of Relevant Data in Nursing ProcessAnalysis and Utilization of Relevant Data in Nursing Process
Analysis and Utilization of Relevant Data in Nursing Process
 
Application of theory to nursing practice
Application of theory to nursing practiceApplication of theory to nursing practice
Application of theory to nursing practice
 
Health education process lesson 1
Health education process lesson 1Health education process lesson 1
Health education process lesson 1
 
learning in nursing education
learning in nursing educationlearning in nursing education
learning in nursing education
 
Nursing education
Nursing educationNursing education
Nursing education
 
LEVINE'S Theory
LEVINE'S TheoryLEVINE'S Theory
LEVINE'S Theory
 
Betty Neuman Theory.pptx
Betty Neuman Theory.pptxBetty Neuman Theory.pptx
Betty Neuman Theory.pptx
 
Ethical and legal issues in nursing
Ethical and legal issues in nursingEthical and legal issues in nursing
Ethical and legal issues in nursing
 
DETERMINANTS-OF-LEARNING.pptx
DETERMINANTS-OF-LEARNING.pptxDETERMINANTS-OF-LEARNING.pptx
DETERMINANTS-OF-LEARNING.pptx
 
betty neumann's theory
betty neumann's theorybetty neumann's theory
betty neumann's theory
 
Peplau's Theory
Peplau's TheoryPeplau's Theory
Peplau's Theory
 
HENDERSON THEORY IN NURSING
HENDERSON THEORY IN NURSINGHENDERSON THEORY IN NURSING
HENDERSON THEORY IN NURSING
 
lydia Halls theory
lydia Halls theorylydia Halls theory
lydia Halls theory
 
Nursings fundamental patterns of knowing
Nursings fundamental patterns of knowingNursings fundamental patterns of knowing
Nursings fundamental patterns of knowing
 
Florence Nightingale's Environment Theory
Florence Nightingale's Environment TheoryFlorence Nightingale's Environment Theory
Florence Nightingale's Environment Theory
 
Peplau’s interpersonal relations theory
Peplau’s interpersonal relations theoryPeplau’s interpersonal relations theory
Peplau’s interpersonal relations theory
 
Application of nursing theories
Application of nursing theories Application of nursing theories
Application of nursing theories
 
Philosophy of nursing
Philosophy of nursingPhilosophy of nursing
Philosophy of nursing
 
Roy's Adaptation Model
Roy's Adaptation ModelRoy's Adaptation Model
Roy's Adaptation Model
 
Neuman's theory- nursing theories
Neuman's theory- nursing theoriesNeuman's theory- nursing theories
Neuman's theory- nursing theories
 

Similar to Learning theory

Understanding Learning and Acquisition of Knowledge
Understanding Learning and Acquisition of KnowledgeUnderstanding Learning and Acquisition of Knowledge
Understanding Learning and Acquisition of KnowledgeSheila Lavapie
 
Learning report curriculum/models
Learning report curriculum/modelsLearning report curriculum/models
Learning report curriculum/modelsSheryl Valdez
 
theories of learning.ppt
theories of learning.ppttheories of learning.ppt
theories of learning.pptrupasi13
 
Learning theories, intellectual skills, cognitive skills, psychomotor skills
Learning theories, intellectual skills, cognitive skills, psychomotor skillsLearning theories, intellectual skills, cognitive skills, psychomotor skills
Learning theories, intellectual skills, cognitive skills, psychomotor skillsIjaz Ahmad
 
Theories of Learning and Individual Development
Theories of Learning and Individual DevelopmentTheories of Learning and Individual Development
Theories of Learning and Individual DevelopmentJoey Miñano
 
Educational Theories.pptx
Educational Theories.pptxEducational Theories.pptx
Educational Theories.pptxUsmanAli283811
 
THEORIES OF LEARNING PRESENTATION .pptx
THEORIES OF LEARNING PRESENTATION  .pptxTHEORIES OF LEARNING PRESENTATION  .pptx
THEORIES OF LEARNING PRESENTATION .pptxTayyebaIrshad
 
Learning process- Theories, Principles and Characteristics (Lecture-1)-1)
Learning process- Theories, Principles and Characteristics (Lecture-1)-1)Learning process- Theories, Principles and Characteristics (Lecture-1)-1)
Learning process- Theories, Principles and Characteristics (Lecture-1)-1)Zulfiquer Ahmed Amin
 
learningprocess-theoriesprinciplesandcharacteristicslec-1-171008163423.pdf
learningprocess-theoriesprinciplesandcharacteristicslec-1-171008163423.pdflearningprocess-theoriesprinciplesandcharacteristicslec-1-171008163423.pdf
learningprocess-theoriesprinciplesandcharacteristicslec-1-171008163423.pdfaidamohamed12
 
Principles of Teaching and Learning
Principles of Teaching and LearningPrinciples of Teaching and Learning
Principles of Teaching and LearningJusof Cariaga
 
Learning By Dr. Zafar Iqbal, Ph.D Education MEDIU
Learning By Dr. Zafar Iqbal, Ph.D Education MEDIULearning By Dr. Zafar Iqbal, Ph.D Education MEDIU
Learning By Dr. Zafar Iqbal, Ph.D Education MEDIUFreelanced
 
Psychological Foundations of Curriculum-Dr. D (EDITED).ppt
Psychological Foundations of     Curriculum-Dr. D (EDITED).pptPsychological Foundations of     Curriculum-Dr. D (EDITED).ppt
Psychological Foundations of Curriculum-Dr. D (EDITED).pptMariaRowenaFlores
 
adult teaching methods and Av techniques ch 1&2.ppt
adult teaching methods and Av techniques ch 1&2.pptadult teaching methods and Av techniques ch 1&2.ppt
adult teaching methods and Av techniques ch 1&2.pptfuad80
 

Similar to Learning theory (20)

Understanding Learning and Acquisition of Knowledge
Understanding Learning and Acquisition of KnowledgeUnderstanding Learning and Acquisition of Knowledge
Understanding Learning and Acquisition of Knowledge
 
Learning report curriculum/models
Learning report curriculum/modelsLearning report curriculum/models
Learning report curriculum/models
 
theories of learning.ppt
theories of learning.ppttheories of learning.ppt
theories of learning.ppt
 
Learning theories, intellectual skills, cognitive skills, psychomotor skills
Learning theories, intellectual skills, cognitive skills, psychomotor skillsLearning theories, intellectual skills, cognitive skills, psychomotor skills
Learning theories, intellectual skills, cognitive skills, psychomotor skills
 
Learning
LearningLearning
Learning
 
Theories of learning.ppt
Theories of learning.pptTheories of learning.ppt
Theories of learning.ppt
 
Theories of Learning and Individual Development
Theories of Learning and Individual DevelopmentTheories of Learning and Individual Development
Theories of Learning and Individual Development
 
Learning Theories
Learning TheoriesLearning Theories
Learning Theories
 
Educational Theories.pptx
Educational Theories.pptxEducational Theories.pptx
Educational Theories.pptx
 
Learning
LearningLearning
Learning
 
Learning Approaches
Learning ApproachesLearning Approaches
Learning Approaches
 
THEORIES OF LEARNING PRESENTATION .pptx
THEORIES OF LEARNING PRESENTATION  .pptxTHEORIES OF LEARNING PRESENTATION  .pptx
THEORIES OF LEARNING PRESENTATION .pptx
 
Learning process- Theories, Principles and Characteristics (Lecture-1)-1)
Learning process- Theories, Principles and Characteristics (Lecture-1)-1)Learning process- Theories, Principles and Characteristics (Lecture-1)-1)
Learning process- Theories, Principles and Characteristics (Lecture-1)-1)
 
learningprocess-theoriesprinciplesandcharacteristicslec-1-171008163423.pdf
learningprocess-theoriesprinciplesandcharacteristicslec-1-171008163423.pdflearningprocess-theoriesprinciplesandcharacteristicslec-1-171008163423.pdf
learningprocess-theoriesprinciplesandcharacteristicslec-1-171008163423.pdf
 
Principles of Teaching and Learning
Principles of Teaching and LearningPrinciples of Teaching and Learning
Principles of Teaching and Learning
 
Learning By Dr. Zafar Iqbal, Ph.D Education MEDIU
Learning By Dr. Zafar Iqbal, Ph.D Education MEDIULearning By Dr. Zafar Iqbal, Ph.D Education MEDIU
Learning By Dr. Zafar Iqbal, Ph.D Education MEDIU
 
Psychological Foundations of Curriculum-Dr. D (EDITED).ppt
Psychological Foundations of     Curriculum-Dr. D (EDITED).pptPsychological Foundations of     Curriculum-Dr. D (EDITED).ppt
Psychological Foundations of Curriculum-Dr. D (EDITED).ppt
 
Learning theories
Learning theoriesLearning theories
Learning theories
 
adult teaching methods and Av techniques ch 1&2.ppt
adult teaching methods and Av techniques ch 1&2.pptadult teaching methods and Av techniques ch 1&2.ppt
adult teaching methods and Av techniques ch 1&2.ppt
 
Unit 2 (10 hrs)
Unit 2 (10 hrs)Unit 2 (10 hrs)
Unit 2 (10 hrs)
 

More from Mae Aguilar

The Immune system
The Immune systemThe Immune system
The Immune systemMae Aguilar
 
Inflammation, Tissue repair and fever
Inflammation, Tissue repair and feverInflammation, Tissue repair and fever
Inflammation, Tissue repair and feverMae Aguilar
 
Nursing theories
Nursing theoriesNursing theories
Nursing theoriesMae Aguilar
 
Organizing patient care
Organizing patient careOrganizing patient care
Organizing patient careMae Aguilar
 
Domains of learning
Domains of learning Domains of learning
Domains of learning Mae Aguilar
 
Goals of clinical nursing education
Goals of clinical nursing educationGoals of clinical nursing education
Goals of clinical nursing educationMae Aguilar
 

More from Mae Aguilar (8)

immune diseases
immune diseasesimmune diseases
immune diseases
 
The Immune system
The Immune systemThe Immune system
The Immune system
 
Inflammation, Tissue repair and fever
Inflammation, Tissue repair and feverInflammation, Tissue repair and fever
Inflammation, Tissue repair and fever
 
Gdfinal
GdfinalGdfinal
Gdfinal
 
Nursing theories
Nursing theoriesNursing theories
Nursing theories
 
Organizing patient care
Organizing patient careOrganizing patient care
Organizing patient care
 
Domains of learning
Domains of learning Domains of learning
Domains of learning
 
Goals of clinical nursing education
Goals of clinical nursing educationGoals of clinical nursing education
Goals of clinical nursing education
 

Recently uploaded

Scientificity and feasibility study of non-invasive central arterial pressure...
Scientificity and feasibility study of non-invasive central arterial pressure...Scientificity and feasibility study of non-invasive central arterial pressure...
Scientificity and feasibility study of non-invasive central arterial pressure...Catherine Liao
 
The POPPY STUDY (Preconception to post-partum cardiovascular function in prim...
The POPPY STUDY (Preconception to post-partum cardiovascular function in prim...The POPPY STUDY (Preconception to post-partum cardiovascular function in prim...
The POPPY STUDY (Preconception to post-partum cardiovascular function in prim...Catherine Liao
 
Cervical screening – taking care of your health flipchart (Vietnamese)
Cervical screening – taking care of your health flipchart (Vietnamese)Cervical screening – taking care of your health flipchart (Vietnamese)
Cervical screening – taking care of your health flipchart (Vietnamese)Cancer Institute NSW
 
Circulation through Special Regions -characteristics and regulation
Circulation through Special Regions -characteristics and regulationCirculation through Special Regions -characteristics and regulation
Circulation through Special Regions -characteristics and regulationMedicoseAcademics
 
180-hour Power Capsules For Men In Ghana
180-hour Power Capsules For Men In Ghana180-hour Power Capsules For Men In Ghana
180-hour Power Capsules For Men In Ghanahealthwatchghana
 
A thorough review of supernormal conduction.pptx
A thorough review of supernormal conduction.pptxA thorough review of supernormal conduction.pptx
A thorough review of supernormal conduction.pptxSergio Pinski
 
The hemodynamic and autonomic determinants of elevated blood pressure in obes...
The hemodynamic and autonomic determinants of elevated blood pressure in obes...The hemodynamic and autonomic determinants of elevated blood pressure in obes...
The hemodynamic and autonomic determinants of elevated blood pressure in obes...Catherine Liao
 
Aptopadesha Pramana / Pariksha: The Verbal Testimony
Aptopadesha Pramana / Pariksha: The Verbal TestimonyAptopadesha Pramana / Pariksha: The Verbal Testimony
Aptopadesha Pramana / Pariksha: The Verbal TestimonyDr KHALID B.M
 
DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY-SABBU KHATOON .pptx
DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY-SABBU KHATOON  .pptxDIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY-SABBU KHATOON  .pptx
DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY-SABBU KHATOON .pptxSabbu Khatoon
 
Retinal consideration in cataract surgery
Retinal consideration in cataract surgeryRetinal consideration in cataract surgery
Retinal consideration in cataract surgeryKafrELShiekh University
 
Effects of vaping e-cigarettes on arterial health
Effects of vaping e-cigarettes on arterial healthEffects of vaping e-cigarettes on arterial health
Effects of vaping e-cigarettes on arterial healthCatherine Liao
 
Prix Galien International 2024 Forum Program
Prix Galien International 2024 Forum ProgramPrix Galien International 2024 Forum Program
Prix Galien International 2024 Forum ProgramLevi Shapiro
 
Anuman- An inference for helpful in diagnosis and treatment
Anuman- An inference for helpful in diagnosis and treatmentAnuman- An inference for helpful in diagnosis and treatment
Anuman- An inference for helpful in diagnosis and treatmentabdeli bhadarva
 
THORACOTOMY . SURGICAL PERSPECTIVES VOL 1
THORACOTOMY . SURGICAL PERSPECTIVES VOL 1THORACOTOMY . SURGICAL PERSPECTIVES VOL 1
THORACOTOMY . SURGICAL PERSPECTIVES VOL 1DR SETH JOTHAM
 
Multiple sclerosis diet.230524.ppt3.pptx
Multiple sclerosis diet.230524.ppt3.pptxMultiple sclerosis diet.230524.ppt3.pptx
Multiple sclerosis diet.230524.ppt3.pptxMeenakshiGursamy
 
MALE REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY STUDIES(Toxicokinetics).pptx
MALE REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY STUDIES(Toxicokinetics).pptxMALE REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY STUDIES(Toxicokinetics).pptx
MALE REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY STUDIES(Toxicokinetics).pptxKhanSabit
 
Cardiac Impulse: Rhythmical Excitation and Conduction in the Heart
Cardiac Impulse: Rhythmical Excitation and Conduction in the HeartCardiac Impulse: Rhythmical Excitation and Conduction in the Heart
Cardiac Impulse: Rhythmical Excitation and Conduction in the HeartMedicoseAcademics
 
"Central Hypertension"‚ in China: Towards the nation-wide use of SphygmoCor t...
"Central Hypertension"‚ in China: Towards the nation-wide use of SphygmoCor t..."Central Hypertension"‚ in China: Towards the nation-wide use of SphygmoCor t...
"Central Hypertension"‚ in China: Towards the nation-wide use of SphygmoCor t...Catherine Liao
 
CURRENT HEALTH PROBLEMS AND ITS SOLUTION BY AYURVEDA.pptx
CURRENT HEALTH PROBLEMS AND ITS SOLUTION BY AYURVEDA.pptxCURRENT HEALTH PROBLEMS AND ITS SOLUTION BY AYURVEDA.pptx
CURRENT HEALTH PROBLEMS AND ITS SOLUTION BY AYURVEDA.pptxDr KHALID B.M
 
Relationship between vascular system disfunction, neurofluid flow and Alzheim...
Relationship between vascular system disfunction, neurofluid flow and Alzheim...Relationship between vascular system disfunction, neurofluid flow and Alzheim...
Relationship between vascular system disfunction, neurofluid flow and Alzheim...Catherine Liao
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Scientificity and feasibility study of non-invasive central arterial pressure...
Scientificity and feasibility study of non-invasive central arterial pressure...Scientificity and feasibility study of non-invasive central arterial pressure...
Scientificity and feasibility study of non-invasive central arterial pressure...
 
The POPPY STUDY (Preconception to post-partum cardiovascular function in prim...
The POPPY STUDY (Preconception to post-partum cardiovascular function in prim...The POPPY STUDY (Preconception to post-partum cardiovascular function in prim...
The POPPY STUDY (Preconception to post-partum cardiovascular function in prim...
 
Cervical screening – taking care of your health flipchart (Vietnamese)
Cervical screening – taking care of your health flipchart (Vietnamese)Cervical screening – taking care of your health flipchart (Vietnamese)
Cervical screening – taking care of your health flipchart (Vietnamese)
 
Circulation through Special Regions -characteristics and regulation
Circulation through Special Regions -characteristics and regulationCirculation through Special Regions -characteristics and regulation
Circulation through Special Regions -characteristics and regulation
 
180-hour Power Capsules For Men In Ghana
180-hour Power Capsules For Men In Ghana180-hour Power Capsules For Men In Ghana
180-hour Power Capsules For Men In Ghana
 
A thorough review of supernormal conduction.pptx
A thorough review of supernormal conduction.pptxA thorough review of supernormal conduction.pptx
A thorough review of supernormal conduction.pptx
 
The hemodynamic and autonomic determinants of elevated blood pressure in obes...
The hemodynamic and autonomic determinants of elevated blood pressure in obes...The hemodynamic and autonomic determinants of elevated blood pressure in obes...
The hemodynamic and autonomic determinants of elevated blood pressure in obes...
 
Aptopadesha Pramana / Pariksha: The Verbal Testimony
Aptopadesha Pramana / Pariksha: The Verbal TestimonyAptopadesha Pramana / Pariksha: The Verbal Testimony
Aptopadesha Pramana / Pariksha: The Verbal Testimony
 
DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY-SABBU KHATOON .pptx
DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY-SABBU KHATOON  .pptxDIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY-SABBU KHATOON  .pptx
DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY-SABBU KHATOON .pptx
 
Retinal consideration in cataract surgery
Retinal consideration in cataract surgeryRetinal consideration in cataract surgery
Retinal consideration in cataract surgery
 
Effects of vaping e-cigarettes on arterial health
Effects of vaping e-cigarettes on arterial healthEffects of vaping e-cigarettes on arterial health
Effects of vaping e-cigarettes on arterial health
 
Prix Galien International 2024 Forum Program
Prix Galien International 2024 Forum ProgramPrix Galien International 2024 Forum Program
Prix Galien International 2024 Forum Program
 
Anuman- An inference for helpful in diagnosis and treatment
Anuman- An inference for helpful in diagnosis and treatmentAnuman- An inference for helpful in diagnosis and treatment
Anuman- An inference for helpful in diagnosis and treatment
 
THORACOTOMY . SURGICAL PERSPECTIVES VOL 1
THORACOTOMY . SURGICAL PERSPECTIVES VOL 1THORACOTOMY . SURGICAL PERSPECTIVES VOL 1
THORACOTOMY . SURGICAL PERSPECTIVES VOL 1
 
Multiple sclerosis diet.230524.ppt3.pptx
Multiple sclerosis diet.230524.ppt3.pptxMultiple sclerosis diet.230524.ppt3.pptx
Multiple sclerosis diet.230524.ppt3.pptx
 
MALE REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY STUDIES(Toxicokinetics).pptx
MALE REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY STUDIES(Toxicokinetics).pptxMALE REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY STUDIES(Toxicokinetics).pptx
MALE REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY STUDIES(Toxicokinetics).pptx
 
Cardiac Impulse: Rhythmical Excitation and Conduction in the Heart
Cardiac Impulse: Rhythmical Excitation and Conduction in the HeartCardiac Impulse: Rhythmical Excitation and Conduction in the Heart
Cardiac Impulse: Rhythmical Excitation and Conduction in the Heart
 
"Central Hypertension"‚ in China: Towards the nation-wide use of SphygmoCor t...
"Central Hypertension"‚ in China: Towards the nation-wide use of SphygmoCor t..."Central Hypertension"‚ in China: Towards the nation-wide use of SphygmoCor t...
"Central Hypertension"‚ in China: Towards the nation-wide use of SphygmoCor t...
 
CURRENT HEALTH PROBLEMS AND ITS SOLUTION BY AYURVEDA.pptx
CURRENT HEALTH PROBLEMS AND ITS SOLUTION BY AYURVEDA.pptxCURRENT HEALTH PROBLEMS AND ITS SOLUTION BY AYURVEDA.pptx
CURRENT HEALTH PROBLEMS AND ITS SOLUTION BY AYURVEDA.pptx
 
Relationship between vascular system disfunction, neurofluid flow and Alzheim...
Relationship between vascular system disfunction, neurofluid flow and Alzheim...Relationship between vascular system disfunction, neurofluid flow and Alzheim...
Relationship between vascular system disfunction, neurofluid flow and Alzheim...
 

Learning theory

  • 1. Theoretical Approaches in Teaching and Learning in the Clinical Setting Prepared By: Mae Michelle Aguilar RN NRSG 215A
  • 2. Objectives • To know the different Learning Theories applied in the nursing education. • Identify different learning styles, types and models. • Determine the application of Learning Theories in approaches to teaching in the clinical setting.
  • 3. LEARNING THEORIES • BEHAVIORIST THEORIES • COGNITIVE THEORIES • SOCIAL THEORIES
  • 4. BEHAVIORIST THEORIES • Focuses of objectively observable behavior. • The acquisition of new behavior is based on environmental conditions where there is a stimulus (S) that produces a response (R).
  • 5. • The learning process occurs in a “black box” and only the outcome of the learning is the focus rather than the intellectual process that resulted in the outcome. Stimulus Response
  • 6. Classical Conditioning Theory Ivan Pavlov • A process of behavior modification by which a subject comes to respond in a desired manner to a previously neutral stimulus that has been repeatedly presented along with an unconditioned stimulus that elicits the desired response.
  • 7. Basic Principles of the Process • Unconditioned Stimuli – Automatically or naturally triggers a response. • Unconditioned Response – Response that occurs naturally to the unconditioned stimuli. • Conditioned Stimulus - previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response. • Conditioned Response – The learned response.
  • 8. Application: Learning CPR • US: Seeing an unconscious person. • UR: Attempting to rouse that person. • CS: “CODE BLUE” • CR: Nurse need not to witness the unconscious individual to know what is happening and how to respond.
  • 9. BEHAVIORISM THEORY John Watson “A man is stripped of his responsibility, freedom and dignity and is reduced to a purely biological being, to be reshaped by those who are able to use the tools of Behaviorism effectively.” -John Watson • Behavior is a result of a series of conditioned reflexes and all emotion and thought is a result of behavior learned through conditioning.
  • 10. CONTIGUITY THEORY Edwin Ray Guthrie “A combination of stimulus which has accompanied a movement will on its recurrence tends to be followed by that movement.” (Guthrie 1952) Guthrie-Horton Experiment
  • 11. • One-Trial Learning – The bond between stimulus and response was established on the first occasion, and that repetitions neither strengthen or weaken the link. • He referred to stimulus-response bonds as “Habits“.
  • 12. PRINCIPLES: • Learning occurs through doing. • Since learning involves the conditioning of specific movements, instruction must present very specific tasks • Exposure to many variations in stimulus patterns is desirable in order to produce a generalized response. • The last response in a learning situation should be correct since it is the one that will be associated.
  • 13. CONNECTIONISM THEORY Edward Thorndike • “Reward and Punishment” 3 Laws: 1. Exercise and Repetition – the more the stimulus induced response is repeated, the longer it will be retained.
  • 14. 2. Law of Effect – Pleasure-Pain Principle. 3. The Law of Readiness - a series of responses can be chained together to satisfy some goal which will result in annoyance if blocked.
  • 15. Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner • The use of behavior’s consequence to influence the occurrence and form of behavior. • Distinguished from classical conditioning in that it deals with “Voluntary behavior” • Key element: REINFORCEMENT
  • 16. FOUR TYPES • Positive Reinforcement - particular behavior is strengthened by the consequence of experiencing a positive condition • Negative Reinforcement - particular behavior is strengthened by the consequence of stopping or avoiding a negative condition.
  • 17. • Punishment - a particular behavior is weakened by the consequence of experiencing a negative condition. • Extinction - particular behavior is weakened by the consequence of not experiencing a positive condition or stopping a negative condition
  • 18. COGNITIVE THEORIES • The focus is in the mental process that are responsible for behaving and its meaning. • INFORMATION PROCESSING – one of the terms used to describe this field. • Learning is an active process from which the learner constructs meaning based on prior knowledge and view of the world (FEDEN 1994)
  • 19. GESTALT LEARNING THEORY Kohler and Koffka, Max Wertheimer • A holistic approach as it prompts to look at the “whole picture” rather than the discrete aspects of the situation. • Focus is on learner’s thought process or cognition.
  • 20. • Key Principle: INSIGHT – reflects the learners ability to recognize patterns and relationships that are present in the stimulus situation. LAW OF RELATIVISIM – components of a whole are seen in relation to one another. It is the basis of these relationships, rather than the components, that meaning is derived.
  • 21. SUBSUMPTION THEORY OF VERBAL LEARNING David Ausbel • New information is subsumed into existing thought and memory structures. • Learning occurs if existing cognitive structures are organized and differentiated.
  • 22. SCHEMA THEORY David Rumelhart • Schema/Schemata(Pleural) – Knowledge structures stored in memory. • Schema help comprehend events or situations and predict unobserved events.
  • 23. 3 Modes of Learning 1. Accretion – Learning of facts. 2. Tuning – Existing schemata evolve or are refined throughout life spans. 3. Restructuring – Development of new schemata.
  • 24. Levels of Processing Theory • Information is process sequentially. Occurs in both memory storage and retrieval. Connectionistic Model Parallel Distributing Processing Model • Information is process by different parts of the memory system simultaneously. • Information is stored in many places throughout the brain forming a network of connections. HUITT 2000
  • 25. STAGE THEORY • Information is processed and stored in 3 stages: 1. Sensory Memory- Fleeting. Usually forgotten when not attend to in that time frame. 2. Short-term Memory - Last about 20 secs. 3. Long-term Memory – Firmly tied name to an existing schema in the brain.
  • 26. COMMON CONCEPTS IN COGNITIVE THEORIES LEARNING - concerned with what the knowledge means to that person. – Learning does not follow the same principle and path in every circumstance.
  • 27. METACOGNITION • “Thinking about one’s thinking.” • Process learners use to gauge their thinking while reading, studying, trying to learn and problem solving. • Teaching strategies: Journal writing, group dialogues
  • 28. MEMORY • Consolidation Function (Gordon 1995) – the more we connect new information to the old, the more we ruminate over new information and the more frequently we think about it the more long lasting it will be. • Meaningful material (makes sense) that has meaning to the learner is tied to the schema.
  • 29. • Forgetting – happens when there is weakening of connections (networks) in the memory due to disuse overtime, not enough cues, disease, interference from new memories (Gordon 1995) • INTENT to learn partly determines whether they will remember or forget something learned (White 1997)
  • 30. TRANSFER • Ability to take information learned in one situation and apply it to another. • “What teaching is all about.”
  • 31. FACTORS: • Extent to which material was originally learned. • Ability to retrieve information from memory. • The way material was taught and learned. • Similarity of the new situation to the original. – POSITIVE TRANSFER – NEGATIVE TRANSFER
  • 32. SOCIAL THEORIES • Knowledge is socially constructed in interaction with others and interpreted through the lens of what is know and what is culturally acceptable.(FRIENE 1970) • Learning emerges from social situations which prompts then to seek knowledge and skills.
  • 33. SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY Albert Banduria • Individuals are capable of self-regulation and self-direction. • People learn when in constant interaction with their environment. • Most learning occurs through observing people’s behavior (MODELING)
  • 34. Conditions Necessary for Effective Modeling • Attention – Individuals focus or concentrate. It determines which model behaviors to be learned. • Retention - ability to retain modeled behaviors in permanent memory. • Reproduction – replication of image including physical capabilities and self-observation. • Motivation – Reason to learn or imitate. Value outcomes and perceived rewards fosters motivation.
  • 35. MODEL OF ADULT LEARNING Malcom Knowles (1984) PEDAGOGY ANDRAGOGY Need to Know Learn what the teacher wants them to learn. Need to know why they need to learn something. Self-Concept Perception of dependence on teacher. Feels responsible for their own learning. Role of experience Teacher’s experience is what counts. Adult’s learn from each others experience Readiness to Learn Must be ready when they must Ready to learn when they feel the need to know Orientation to Learning Subject centered orientation Life-centered, Task- centered orientation. Motivation Externally motivated Primarily internally motivated with some external motivation
  • 36. • Clinical setting provides excellent opportunity to use andragogical approach to teaching and learning. • Clinical Instructor’s Role : Facilitator, Guide, Coach, Role Model, Challenger and Motivator
  • 37. Benner’s Framework for the Development of Clinical Expertise • Has the most relevance for clinical instruction in nursing. • Used Hermeneutical Phenomenology – an approach to the interpretation of human concerns and behaviors.
  • 38. 3 Major Themes 1. Skilled nursing does not rely on theoretical knowledge alone. Practical and clinical knowledge embedded in clinical situations nurses encounter is necessary to explicate, understand, and apply the theory.
  • 39. 2. Ability to grasp a clinical situation is dependent on the ability to single out relevant from irrelevant elements of the situation. “Perceptual awareness” – sees what is most salient. Manifested in the nurse’s intuitive grasp.
  • 40. 3. Requires emotional, caring, morally responsible involvement with patients.
  • 41. Stages: 1. Novice 2. Advanced Beginner 3. Competent 4. Proficient 5. Expert
  • 42. LEARNING PROPOSITIONS 1. Behaviors that is rewarded are more likely to occur. 2. Sheer repetition without indication of improvement or any kind of reinforcement is a poor way to attempt to learn. 3. Threat and punishment have variable and uncertain effects on learning. 4. Reward must follow almost immediately after the desired behavior.
  • 43. 5. Learners progress in any area of learning only as far as they need to, to achieve their purpose. 6. Forgetting proceeds rapidly at first, then more and more slowly. 7.Learning from reading is facilitated more by the time spent recalling what was read than re-reading.
  • 44. 8. To help in forming general concepts, present it in different ways. 9. When there is too much frustration, behavior ceases to be integrated, purposeful and rational. 10. No school subjects are markedly superior to others.
  • 45. 11. What is learned is most likely to be available for use. 12. Children especially adults remember new information which confirms previous attitudes. 13. Adults need to know why the need to learn.
  • 46. Gagne’s Conditions of Learning • Signal Learning • Stimulus-response Learning • Chaining • Verbal Association • Discrimination Learning • Concept Learning • Rule Learning • PROBLEM-SOLVING
  • 47. Learning Styles • Involves more than just cognitive styles. • The habitual manner in which learners rescue and produce information, process it, understand it, value it, and recall it.
  • 48. Concepts: • Holistic (Global) – gets the whole picture quickly. Processes information simultaneously rather than step to step. • Analytic Thinkers – process details of a picture. Objective, does not need to connect to personal values.
  • 49. • Habitual Verbal Approach- words or verbal associations. • Visual Approach- mental pictures and images
  • 50. KOLB’S THEORY OF EXPERIMENTAL LEARNING
  • 51. GREGORC’s COGNITIVE STYLES MODEL • The mind has mediation abilities of perception and ordering and this affects how the person learns.
  • 52. FIELD INDEPENDECE AND DEPENDENCE MODEL Herman Witkin Field Independent Field Dependent 1. Mathematical reasoning may be strong 1. Difficulty with mathematical reasoning 2. Analyzes elements of a situation 2. Analyzes the whole picture, less able to analyze the elements. 3. Recognizes and recalls details 3. Does no perceive details 4. More Task oriented 4. People oriented 5. Forms attitudes independently 5. Attitudes guided by authority figures or peer group 6. Pronounced self-identity 6. See themselves as others see them.
  • 53. References: • Clinical Teaching and Evaluation: A Teaching Resource by Andrea O’Connor • Teaching Strategies for Nurse Educators by Sandra DeYoung