Julia N. Visor Academic Center
Why learn about theory? <ul><li>Theory does not necessarily need to be memorized, but it does provide a useful framework f...
Behavioral Learning Theory <ul><li>John Watson was the first to study how learning affects our behavior, leading to the fo...
Behavioral Learning Theory <ul><li>This theory asserts that learning is shaped by both positive and negative experiences. ...
Why is this important? <ul><li>If students’ behaviors are adaptable, how can this help us in our work?  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Cognitive Developmental Theory <ul><li>Much of cognitive developmental theory is accredited to the work of Jean Piaget.  <...
Cognitive Developmental Theory <ul><li>William Perry also theorized about the intellectual development of college students...
Cognitive Development According to Perry… <ul><li>Dualistic students are those who see the world in terms of right or wron...
Cognitive Development According to Perry… <ul><li>Students who progress to multiplicity understand that the world is not “...
Cognitive Development According to Perry… <ul><li>Relativistic students see knowledge as relative to particular frames of ...
Cognitive Developmental Theory <ul><li>Why might it be important to understand the development of students’ intellectual a...
Social Interdependence Theory <ul><li>In the early 1900s, the concept of social interdependence was explored.  </li></ul><...
Social Interdependence Theory  <ul><li>Social interdependence theorists purports that students learn best when “promotive ...
Social Interdependence Theory <ul><li>How can we help students engage in promotive interactions? </li></ul><ul><li>When mi...
Interpretive/Critical Theory <ul><li>This theory asserts that learning should exist to overcome oppression in society.  </...
Interpretive/Critical Theory <ul><li>How might learning help decrease our likelihood of living in a “culture of silence”? ...
Student Learning and Theory <ul><li>Great job! You’ve learned a lot about learning theory today! </li></ul><ul><li>What th...
Questions?
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Theoretical Perspectives In Student Learning Final

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Theoretical Perspectives In Student Learning Final

  1. 1. Julia N. Visor Academic Center
  2. 2. Why learn about theory? <ul><li>Theory does not necessarily need to be memorized, but it does provide a useful framework for the work we do with students. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory helps guide our actions with students, which can help us make each session or interaction the most effective and meaningful it can be. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Behavioral Learning Theory <ul><li>John Watson was the first to study how learning affects our behavior, leading to the formation of “behaviorism”. </li></ul><ul><li>This theory has also been greatly advanced by the concepts of classical and operant conditioning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical conditioning: Pavlov’s dog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operant conditioning: Positive/negative reinforcement </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Behavioral Learning Theory <ul><li>This theory asserts that learning is shaped by both positive and negative experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior is either punished or reinforced, which determines whether or not the behavior is likely to occur again. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, modeling is crucial to the development of good learning behaviors. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why is this important? <ul><li>If students’ behaviors are adaptable, how can this help us in our work? </li></ul><ul><li>What types of behaviors should we be modeling for our tutees? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cognitive Developmental Theory <ul><li>Much of cognitive developmental theory is accredited to the work of Jean Piaget. </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget believed that there were four stages of cognitive development-- most college students are in the final stage of development: formal operational. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In this stage, students are using deductive logic, thinking abstractly, and will use these skills to solve problems. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Cognitive Developmental Theory <ul><li>William Perry also theorized about the intellectual development of college students. </li></ul><ul><li>Perry believed that students progress through various stages dualism, multiplicity, relativism, and finally, commitment. </li></ul><ul><li>The stages of dualism, multiplicity, and relativism are the most pertinent to your work as students. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cognitive Development According to Perry… <ul><li>Dualistic students are those who see the world in terms of right or wrong, true or false. </li></ul><ul><li>These students tend to view their professors and likely their tutors, as authority figures who have all the correct answers. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cognitive Development According to Perry… <ul><li>Students who progress to multiplicity understand that the world is not “black and white” and that there are many perspectives related to a given problem or situation. </li></ul><ul><li>A typical response might be “Everyone is entitled to his/her opinion.” </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, students recognize there are multiple perspectives but lack the ability to choose one over the other. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cognitive Development According to Perry… <ul><li>Relativistic students see knowledge as relative to particular frames of reference. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently, by seeing alternative perspectives, they have difficulty making a decision. </li></ul><ul><li>Authorities are seen as people who can and should be questioned. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cognitive Developmental Theory <ul><li>Why might it be important to understand the development of students’ intellectual abilities? </li></ul><ul><li>How might it be beneficial to understand what stage a student might be in? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Social Interdependence Theory <ul><li>In the early 1900s, the concept of social interdependence was explored. </li></ul><ul><li>Social interdependence exists in any situation where “individuals share common goals and each individual’s outcomes are affected by the actions of others”. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Social Interdependence Theory <ul><li>Social interdependence theorists purports that students learn best when “promotive interaction” occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>When students encourage one another, constructively challenge each other’s reasoning, or provide each other with feedback, promotive interaction has occurred. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Social Interdependence Theory <ul><li>How can we help students engage in promotive interactions? </li></ul><ul><li>When might these interactions be especially useful? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Interpretive/Critical Theory <ul><li>This theory asserts that learning should exist to overcome oppression in society. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, knowledge is powerful. </li></ul><ul><li>This theory is also related to the notion of a “culture of silence” developed by theorist Paulo Freire. </li></ul><ul><li>As described by Freire, a “culture of silence” is a culture in which dominated individuals lack the ability to critically respond to a culture that is placed upon them by a more powerful party. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Interpretive/Critical Theory <ul><li>How might learning help decrease our likelihood of living in a “culture of silence”? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you see any evidence of a “culture of silence” at ISU or in the United States? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Student Learning and Theory <ul><li>Great job! You’ve learned a lot about learning theory today! </li></ul><ul><li>What theories do you feel will most help you in your work? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you able to envision ways of applying these theories to your work? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Questions?

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