Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Vygotsky Socio Cultural TheoryProffered ByGurkirat KaurAsst. Prof. Chitkara University
  2. 2. What separates humans from animals?What separates advanced societies from primitivesocieties?What separates advanced cognition from basiccognition? That is, what makes us smart?
  3. 3. Vygotsky awakes our eyes tothe powerful role of cultureand community in learning.His theory presents the radicalidea that our very thought andintelligence is really not ourown. It’s the product of historyand culture.
  4. 4. Lev Semonovich Vygotsky Background Vygotsky was called "The Mozart of Psychology“. He was born in 1896- same year as Piaget - in the small Russian town of Orsha. Middle-class Jewish family. He entered into a private all boys secondary school known as a gymnasium—a secondary school that prepared students for the university. In 1913 entered Moscow University through lottery. In December of 1917, he graduated from Moscow University with a degree in law.
  5. 5. Lev Semonovich Vygotsky Background Vygotsky completed 270 scientific articles, numerous lectures, and ten books based on a wide range of Marxist-based psychological and teaching theories. He died on June 10, 1934, at the young age of thirty- seven after long battle with TB. Vygotsky’s work did not become known in the West until 1958, and was not published there until 1962.
  6. 6. Lev Semonovich Vygotsky Background Vygotsky completed 270 scientific articles, numerous lectures, and ten books based on a wide range of Marxist-based psychological and teaching theories. He died on June 10, 1934, at the young age of thirty- seven after long battle with TB. Vygotsky’s work did not become known in the West until 1958, and was not published there until 1962.
  7. 7. The sociocultural theory: Did NOT focus on the individual child but on the child as a product of social interaction, especially with adults (parents, teachers). Focus on DYADIC INTERACTIONS (e.g., child being taught by a parent how to perform some culturally specific action), rather than child by himself. Social world mediates childrens cognitive development. Cognitive development occurs as childs thinking is molded by society in the form of parents, teachers, and peers. This leads to peer tutoring as a strategy in classrooms. Peoples thinking differs dramatically between cultures because different cultures stress different things.
  8. 8. Theory’s Principles and Concepts Children construct their knowledge. Knowledge is not transferred passively, but is personally constructed. The learning is mediated. Cognitive development is not a direct result of activity, but it is indirect; other people must interact with the learner, use mediatory tools to facilitate the learning process, and then cognitive development may occur. Language plays a central role in mental development. The most significant sociocultural tool is language, as it is used to teach tool use and is vital in the process of developing higher psychological functions.
  9. 9. Theory’s Principles and Concepts Learning appears twice. First on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first between people (interpsychology), and then inside the child (intrapsychology). Development cannot be separated from its social context. The context needed for learning is that where the learners can interact with each other and use the new tools. This means that the learning environment must be authentic, that is, it must contain the type of people who would use these types of tools such as concepts, language, symbols in a natural way.
  10. 10. Theory’s Principles and Concepts Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). The difference between what a child can do independently and what the child needs help from a more knowledgeable person to do is the
  11. 11. Theory’s Principles and Concepts  Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Distance Between Actual and Potential Knowledge Two children with the same actual knowledge travel different distances to their potential knowledge; therefore different ZPDs
  12. 12. This is an example of how ZPD can work in thelife of a child  Like all children, John is constantly learning and exploring the world around him.
  13. 13. This is an example of how ZPD can work in thelife of a childFor our example, we will look at John love of games.Over the years, Mo’men has developed skills and knowledgethat enable him to play a variety of games.For each game, he is able to successfully strategize and solveproblems independently.
  14. 14. This is an example of how ZPD can work in the lifeof a childThere is one game, however, that John has never learned. It’sthe card game Yu-Gi-Oh. John knows his brother plays it verywell.John would like to learn, but is unsure where to start.
  15. 15. This is an example of how ZPD can work in the lifeof a childJohn finally asks his brother Harry for help. Harryagrees, and begins working with John in learning thegame of Yu-Gi-Oh.John is learning in the region Vygotsky would call ZPD.
  16. 16. This is an example of how ZPD can work in the lifeof a childIn ZPD, John is doing something requiring the help of someonemore capable. Without Harry’s help, John would be unable toplay the game.Eventually, John will learn the game well enough to play thegame by himself.
  17. 17. This is an example of how ZPD can work in the lifeof a childOnce John learns Yu-Gi-Oh, the skill moves out of the ZPDregion and is added to all the other games John playsindependently.In time, John becomes the more capable player, and begins toteach his sister .
  18. 18. Zone of Proximal Development Stages Stage 1: Assistance from “more knowledgeable other” (capable peer or adult) Stage 2: Assistance from self (prior knowledge and research) Stage 3: Automatization (practice, trial-and-error) Stage 4: De-automatization (provide explanation to others)
  19. 19. Zone of Proximal Development Stages
  20. 20. What do the symbols mean? & # & #
  21. 21. What do the symbols mean? 2 # $ % #
  22. 22. What do the symbols mean? 3 #~ %/ #^ %~
  23. 23. Four Stages Four stages in the development of concepts Based on experiments with wooden blocks – nonsense labels put on blocks and their meaning has to be worked out Language is a central concept
  24. 24. Four Stages (2) 1. Vague Syncretic Stage – children failed to use any strategies and show little understanding of the concepts 2. Complex Stage – some strategies used but not successful 3. Potential Concept Stage – systematic but tendency to focus on only one quality at a time 4. Mature Concept – systematic and successful; concepts formed
  25. 25. Theory’s Principles and Concepts Scaffolding “role of teachers and others in supporting the learner’s development and providing support structures to get to the next stage or level” Vygotsky. a knowledgeable participant can create by means of speech and supportive conditions in which the student (novice) can participate in and extend current skills and knowledge to a high level of competence. In an educational context, however, scaffolding is an instructional structure whereby the teacher models the desired learning strategy or task then gradually shifts responsibility to the students.
  26. 26.  Scaffolding: – Provides support – Extends the range of what a learner can do. – Allows the learner to accomplish tasks otherwise impossible – Used only when needed Example : An example of scaffolding in the classroom setting could include a teacher first instructing her children on how to write a sentence using commas and conjunctions. As the week goes on, she has her students practice writing these sentences with peers, gives students feedback and eventually has the kids to complete this skill without her guidance.
  27. 27. Principles of the Theory  The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO)  Refers to any person that has a more advanced ability level or a better understanding, with respect to a particular task, process, or concept  Can be a teacher, coach, older adult, peers, younger person, computers, etc.
  28. 28. Principles of the Theory The Zone of Proximal Development Considered to be the difference between what a child is able to do with guidance and what they are able to do without guidance Example: Children learn specific models of communication, explanation, and expression by playing or interacting with others while at home or school.
  29. 29. Vygotsky’s theorycombines socialenvironment and cognition.Children will acquire theways of thinking andbehaving that make up aculture by interacting witha more knowledgeableperson. Vygotsky believedthat social interaction willlead to ongoing changes ina childs thought andbehavior. These thoughtsand behaviors would varybetween cultures.
  30. 30. Vygotsky and Piaget Piaget Vygotsky Both agree children are active learners who actively construct knowledge Thinking develops in Development of thinking is recognisable stages which dependent upon language and depend on natural maturation culture Role of teacher important but Use of “more-expert other” use of “more-expert other” not seen as fundamental part of central cognitive development Readiness is a central concept Children should be actively in education – children need to encouraged to move through be ready to progress in their ZPD – do not need to be ready learning but should be given opportunity to engage in problems which are beyond current level of ability but within ZPD
  31. 31. Vygotsky and Piaget Piaget Vygotsky Scaffolding not a key concept Scaffolding is a central concept Language reflects level of Language helps to develop cognitive development cognitive abilities. This theory was very This theory is still very influential in education but has influential in education need revising and underestimation of children’s abilities still a problem
  32. 32. Note:Formal thought is internalized language;language comes from society; hence themind is a product of society. [Back to Vygotsky’s basic concepts.]
  33. 33. Implications for Students
  34. 34. Implications for Students Instead of a teacher dictating her meaning to students for future recitation, the social development theory has the teacher working in partnership with her students in order for students to create their own meaning. The physical classroom, based on Vygotskys theory, would provide clustered desks or tables and work space for peer instruction, collaboration, and small group instruction. In this environment, the material to be learned would be structured to advance and encourage student interaction and collaboration. With this, the classroom becomes a community of learning.
  35. 35. Implications for Teachers
  36. 36. Implications for TeachersTypically, schools have been organized around recitation &memorization teaching. The teacher disseminatesknowledge to be memorized by the students, who in turnrecite the information back to the teacher. Vygotskys socialdevelopment theory challenges this traditional teachingmethod and studies have shown that strategies based onthe social development theory are far more effective thanother instructional strategies.Scaffolding, reciprocal teaching, and guided instruction areeffective strategies that implement Vygotsky’s theory.Scaffolding is a temporary supportive structure that theteacher creates to assist a student to accomplish a task thatthey could not complete alone.Reciprocal teaching is an instructional strategy used toteach reading where students take turns being the teacherfor a pair or small group. The teacher’s role may simply beas a moderator.Guided instruction involves the teacher and studentsexploring problems and then sharing their different problemsolving strategies in an open dialogue.
  37. 37. Conclusion Sociocultural theory considers learning as a semiotic process where participation in socially-mediated activities is essential. The theory regards instruction as crucial to cognitive development in the classroom. Instruction should be geared to the ZPD that is beyond the learner’s actual development level. Social instruction actually produces new, elaborate, advanced psychological processes that are unavailable to the organism working in isolation