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Introduction to philosophy of education


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Introduction to philosophy of education

  1. 1. Introduction: Philosophy of Education Outline Basic orientation Today: empowerment
  2. 2. Course Outline themes <ul><li>Introduction. Empowerment: 4 points to consider </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates. How relevant is he today? </li></ul><ul><li>3 survey lectures on the history of ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Rousseau and childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Dewey as a reader of Herbart </li></ul><ul><li>Arendt and the challenge of progressivism </li></ul><ul><li>The religious philosophy of Buber </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Rhizomatic learners </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
  3. 3. 4 Outcomes for today <ul><li>Consider where philosophy might fit in to a professional course? </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the ( in )distinction between content and method </li></ul><ul><li>Effective is affective. Consider the issue of empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>The scope of education </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
  4. 4. Terms <ul><li>Definitions can sometimes be helpful, sometimes not </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy – philein (to love) sophia – wisdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paideia – pais –paidia-pedagogia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oide , a seer. Oideachas , the art of seeing or the art of becoming a seer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation . To form or shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online Etymological dictionary: to educate mid-15c., &quot;bring up (children), train,&quot; from L. educatus, pp. of educare &quot;bring up, rear, educate,&quot; which is related to educere &quot;bring out, lead forth,&quot; from ex- &quot;out&quot; (see ex- ) + ducere &quot;to lead&quot; (see duke ). Meaning &quot;provide schooling&quot; is first attested 1580s. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erziehungswissenshaft – science of upbringing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The age old tension between content and process </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
  5. 5. Two difficult words <ul><li>Wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
  6. 6. Empowerment <ul><li>Notion of ‘power’ and ‘development’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ to develop the powers of the child’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ power’ ambiguous meaning a ‘potential’ ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not there at all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There in unrecognisable form requiring development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There already </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Points to something more fundamental still </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
  7. 7. Empowerment pointing to affective roots <ul><li>emotional capacity acts as a predictor of reflective capacity (Fonagy and Target, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>3 emotional categories found among students (Kobak and Sceery, 1988) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Securely attached: emotionally secure thought of their parents as loving and available at distressing moments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidant: dismissive of emotional factors, tended to idealise parents but fight with peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistant: preoccupied - worried and unsure of where they stood. </li></ul></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
  8. 8. Affective contexts – effective contexts A group of Chiricahua Apache students on their first day at Carlisle Indian School in Carlisle, Pa. John N. Choate/Hulton Archive/Getty Images Dr F.Long, Education
  9. 9. Dis-empowerment <ul><li>Mr House please take my word send her home to me for a few weeks you know it wont be long school start just to see her before she goes to school again you know she will be gone good four years Mr House please do this for me I will be looking for [her] next week. (as quoted Child pp. 46-7) </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
  10. 10. Empowerment/ disempowerment? <ul><li>Intro </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul><ul><li>-Martin Buber’s objection to the phrase ‘powers of the child’. </li></ul><ul><li>-The problem for Buber is that the ‘I’ is already compromised by its appearance in the world </li></ul><ul><li>-Child’s question: who am I? </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
  11. 11. Lacan’s mirror (1949) a stage in infancy in which the infant sees its reflection in the mirror and “assumes an image” of a whole self as the true self ( Écrits 1). This image prevents the child becoming demoralised by her fragmented experiences Dr F.Long, Education
  12. 12. Implications from Lacan <ul><li>We are not transparent to ourselves- the ego is often misconceived (Lacan, Ecrits 1 (1966), 89) </li></ul><ul><li>The child sees itself by means of a sudden insight ( Gestalt ) – as much projection as reflection </li></ul><ul><li>The child uses this idealised image ( imago ) in order to relate to themselves and the outside world </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural messages are used to support this imago . </li></ul><ul><li>Where do you fit in? </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
  13. 13. Praise? <ul><li>“ Praise is a complex reciprocal process that involves both the teacher who provides praise and the children who are recipients of the praise” (Conroy et al. 18) </li></ul><ul><li>conditions (Conroy et al., 19-20) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderated (more at start of task, less after) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sincere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid competition </li></ul></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
  14. 14. Summary <ul><li>The argument is that good education involves engaging the emotional life (of the learner, of the teacher) </li></ul><ul><li>The example of the Indian boarding schools shows the devastation of not affirming the affective roots of children </li></ul><ul><li>The example of the child’s face shows how important it is for teachers to engage with emotional issues in learners </li></ul><ul><li>Lacan’s mirror shows that we all need our initial illusion about ourselves to be supported. Teachers come into play here </li></ul><ul><li>Praise is what sustains us in our illusion about ourselves and gives us the confidence to negotiate the gap between who I really am and the ideal presented for me, i.e., ‘you can do it’. </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
  15. 15. 4 Outcomes for today <ul><li>Reflecting on this lecture, do you have some idea </li></ul><ul><li>where philosophy might fit in to a professional course? </li></ul><ul><li>What the ( in )distinction between content and method might mean: the medium is the message (McLuhan, 1964) </li></ul><ul><li>How affective is effective. Consider the issue of empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>The scope of education which extends outside the curriculum area or even classroom </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
  16. 16. Readings <ul><li>*CONROY, M. A., SUTHERLAND, K. S., SNYDER, A., AL-HENDAWI, M. & VO, A. 2009. Creating a Positive Classroom Atmosphere: Teachers' Use of Effective Praise and Feedback. Beyond Behavior, 18 , 18-26.pdf </li></ul><ul><li><Fonagy, P., & Target, M. (1997). Attachment and Reflective Function: Their role in self-organization. Development and Psychopathology, 9 , 679-700. </li></ul><ul><li>*obligatory reading </li></ul><ul><li><recommended reading </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education